ZIGGURAT: Elevated temple base Sumer: White Temple, Uruk (Warka), Iraq
Sumer: Tell Asmar Figures VOTIVE FIGURES: Figures which pray in perpetuity on your behalf TELL ASMAR: in modern-day Iraq
Akkadians: Victory Stele of Naram Sin STELE (pl. “stelae): tombstone- shaped marker which had a variety of uses, including marking boundaries, commemorating important events, and making proclamations (including listing bodies of laws)
CODE OF HUMMURABI (Babylonians) Hammurabi <ul><li>Raised hand: </li></ul><ul><li>gesture of </li></ul><ul><li>respect </li></ul>SHAMASH (Sun god; bestows upon King Hammurabi the authority of rule, right to enforce laws) LAWS
CODE OF HUMMURABI (Babylonians) LAWS Extends rod and ring: signifies authority
CODE OF HAMMURABI --Earliest-known example of a ruler proclaiming publicly to his people an entire body of laws. --Laws arranged in orderly groups, so that all men could easily read and know what was required of them. --Carved upon a black stone monument, (it is a STELE) eight feet high. --Begins and ends with addresses to the gods: a law code was in those days regarded as a subject for prayer; the prayers here include curses towards those who neglect or destroy the law. --Found in 1901, not in Babylon, but in a city in the mountains of Iran, to which a later conqueror must have taken it.
CODE OF HAMMURABI LAWS COVER ALL ASPECTS OF BABYLONIAN LIFE (CIVIL, CRIMINAL, SOCIAL, & DOMESTIC MATTERS) SOME EXAMPLES: --If a man puts out the eye of another man, his eye shall in turn be put out (“an eye for an eye”). --If a person steals property from a temple, both he and the person receiving the stolen goods will be put to death. --If a man kills another’s slave, he must pay a fine of 1/3 of a mina. --If a man rents a boat and it is in turn wrecked, he must replace the boat with another. --If a married woman dies without bearing male heirs (sons), her dowry shall be repaid to her father; if she has male heirs, it will belong to them. --If a woman is caught in adultery both she and her partner will be tied up and thrown in the water.
CODE OF HUMMURABI (Babylonians) CUNEIFORM CUNEIFORM: Written language of the Ancient Near East
CITADEL of SARGON II at KHORSABAD (DUR SHARRUKIN) Other important citadels: CITADEL of ASSURNASIRPAL II at KAHLU (NIMRUD, IRAQ) CITADEL of ASSURBANIPAL at NINEVEH (KUYUNJIK, IRAQ) Assyrians: CITADELS (Original LAMASSU from Khorsabad; discovered by Botta in 1840s)
Heinrich Schliemann: Born Germany, 1822 As a boy, fascinated by Greek history and mythology, especially “ The Odyssey” by Homer. Declares his belief that Troy was a real place and that he will someday find it. Forced to quit school at age 14 when his father runs out of money to pay his tuition.
After leaving school forced to work in a grocery market, but as a young man becomes a mildly successful businessman (exports) In Europe. In 1851 moves to Sacramento, California (during the California Gold Rush) and opens a bank to buy and sell miners’ gold. Makes over a million dollars in the first six months alone.
Moves to Russia in 1852. Marries, but his wife refuses to have sex with him unless he makes more money, so he invests in a highly profitable indigo business. He then makes an even larger fortune as a middleman for ammunition during the Crimean War. Retires young to pursue the discovery of Troy.
TROY Declares his belief that Hissarlik, Turkey, is the site of Troy, and begins excavations there.
Decides the Troy of Homer must be at the lowest levels—it was not, and in the process of excavating the lowest levels he destroys the upper.
Treasure claimed by Schliemann to have been excavated from Troy
The Turkish government revokes Schliemann’s permission to dig and sues him: he is accused of stealing antiquities after his wife Sophia is seen in public wearing what Schliemann claimed were the jewels of Helen of Troy.
It is later revealed that this jewelry, part of what Schliemann called “ Priam’s Treasure,” was a forgery—one of his workers admitted that it was found at a different site, and that Schliemann had also hired a goldsmith to fabricate items in an archaic manner and planted them at the site.
HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN: Goes to Greece, discovers and excavates Mycenae
Discovers “Death Mask of Agamemnon.” Obsessed with Agamemnon—he even named one of his sons after this fabled Greek king.
Heinrich Schliemann: Mycenae--The Death Mask of Agamemnon