Exam 3 review presentation Asia
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  • Easarliest civ in area on indus river in pakistan, nw india, indus valley civilization, or harappan civ after first disc. Site.—from c.2700-1500bc, first evidence of it = small seals. Similar to meso but diff., and script not deciphered, and continued excavations show several cities on indus, best preserved = mohenjo daro, incl. citadel area and 50 foot high wall, and watertight pool that may have been hamman bathing thing or for ritual, and below this area wide grid-like city. Fired brick, not sun-baked like meso, 6-7 sq. miles maybe up to 50K people
  • Easarliest civ in area on indus river in pakistan, nw india, indus valley civilization, or harappan civ after first disc. Site.—from c.2700-1500bc, first evidence of it = small seals. Similar to meso but diff., and script not deciphered, and continued excavations show several cities on indus, best preserved = mohenjo daro, incl. citadel area and 50 foot high wall, and watertight pool that may have been hamman bathing thing or for ritual, and below this area wide grid-like city. Fired brick, not sun-baked like meso, 6-7 sq. miles maybe up to 50K people
  • Buddhism develops from beliefs and teachings of shakyamuni buddha, 563-483 bc, in india and nepal. Born siddhartha gautama, prince of shakya clan. At birth, it was prophesied that he would become a budda = fully enlightened, or a chakravartin = world ruler. His father wantd him to be the latter, but he was deeply troubled by all that was wrong with the human condition andleft palace, family, and inheritence, live as ascetic in wildernes at age 29. six years of meditation and attains complete enlightenment., starts giving teachings on the four noble truths, foundation of buddhims—1-life is suffering, 2—the cuase of this suffering is ignorance, 3-ignorance can be overcome, 4- way to overome it is byfollowijg eightfold path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, riht concentration. Continues to teach until death at 80. a buddha not a god, but one who sees ultimate nautre of the world and is thus no longer subject oto samsara—cycle of birth, death, rebirth. Early form of buddhim was theravada (hinayana), purpose is to extinct samsara for onesself—extinction of it is NIRVANA. Later, another kind develops, mahayana, goal is buddhahood for every living being. Mahayana recognizes many buddhas, also bodhisattvas = those whose essence is wisdom. In art boddhisatvas wear princely attire, buddhas a robe.
  • Buddhism develops from beliefs and teachings of shakyamuni buddha, 563-483 bc, in india and nepal. Born siddhartha gautama, prince of shakya clan. At birth, it was prophesied that he would become a budda = fully enlightened, or a chakravartin = world ruler. His father wantd him to be the latter, but he was deeply troubled by all that was wrong with the human condition andleft palace, family, and inheritence, live as ascetic in wildernes at age 29. six years of meditation and attains complete enlightenment., starts giving teachings on the four noble truths, foundation of buddhims—1-life is suffering, 2—the cuase of this suffering is ignorance, 3-ignorance can be overcome, 4- way to overome it is byfollowijg eightfold path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, riht concentration. Continues to teach until death at 80. a buddha not a god, but one who sees ultimate nautre of the world and is thus no longer subject oto samsara—cycle of birth, death, rebirth. Early form of buddhim was theravada (hinayana), purpose is to extinct samsara for onesself—extinction of it is NIRVANA. Later, another kind develops, mahayana, goal is buddhahood for every living being. Mahayana recognizes many buddhas, also bodhisattvas = those whose essence is wisdom. In art boddhisatvas wear princely attire, buddhas a robe.
  • DHARMA-DIVINE MORAL LAW WHICH PREVENTS UNIVERSE FROM FALLING INTO CHAOS
  • Buddhist arch, places of worship—most famous exs., esp. early, are called stupas, most famous is this one, great stupa at sanchi in india.
  • Buddhist arch, places of worship—most famous exs., esp. early, are called stupas, most famous is this one, great stupa at sanchi in india.
  • DERIVED FROM BURIAL MOUNDS, CONTAIN, BUILT OVER RELICS. B’S RELICS = REMAINS AFTER CREMATION.
  • DERIVED FROM BURIAL MOUNDS, CONTAIN, BUILT OVER RELICS. B’S RELICS = REMAINS AFTER CREMATION.
  • HERE IS TORANA, OR GATE AT SANCHI—ONLY PART WITH SCULPTURE, 35 FEET HIGH
  • HERE IS TORANA, OR GATE AT SANCHI—ONLY PART WITH SCULPTURE, 35 FEET HIGH
  • LITTLE LATER ONE, SHOWS TRANSITION WHERE IT STARTS BECOMING ACCEPTABLE TO SHOW BUDDHA IN BODILY FORM IN NARRATIVE IMAGES—STRUCTURE DOES NOT EXIST, BUT PANELS STILL DO IN VARIOUS MUSEUMS
  • Let’s look at a buddhist statue now and see a buddhist iconography. This is c. 100 bc
  • Let’s look at a buddhist statue now and see a buddhist iconography. This is c. 100 bc
  • OTHER LAKSHANA, GOLDEN BODY, LONG ARMS TO KNEES TUFT OF WHITE HAIR BETW EYEBROWS, PROTUBERANCE ON TAOP OF HEAD CALLED USHNISHA = HIS ENLIGHTENMENT
  • BUT HAVE FUNCTION MORE THAN JUST POSSESSING GREAT WISDOM
  • BUT HAVE FUNCTION MORE THAN JUST POSSESSING GREAT WISDOM
  • BUT HAVE FUNCTION MORE THAN JUST POSSESSING GREAT WISDOM
  • STARTS DURING 200S BC, THOUSDAND YEAR TRADITION BECAUSE THEN HINDUS ALSO START DOING THEM ==========STUPAS NOT THE ONLY THING BUDHHISTS WOULD CREATE—AND BUDDHIST ARCH IN OTHER COUNTRIES CAN BE VERY DIFFERENT, THEY EACH HAVE THEIR OWN NATIONAL VARIANT, DIFF STYLE OR SHAPE OR TYPE OF STUPA OR TEMPLE. ONE THING THEY ALSO DO IN INDIA THAT IS VERY EXTRAORDINARY IS ROCK CUT HALLS AND SCULPTED CAVES, ETC., AJANTA. AROUND 2 ND CENT BC BUD MONKS START TO HEW OUT CAVES FOR THEIR OWN USE, ENTIRE CAVES CARVED FROM THE INSIDE AS IF THEY WERE GIANT SCULPTURES THEMSELVES. ABSOLUTELY REMARKABLE
  • STUPAS NOT THE ONLY THING BUDHHISTS WOULD CREATE—AND BUDDHIST ARCH IN OTHER COUNTRIES CAN BE VERY DIFFERENT, THEY EACH HAVE THEIR OWN NATIONAL VARIANT, DIFF STYLE OR SHAPE OR TYPE OF STUPA OR TEMPLE. ONE THING THEY ALSO DO IN INDIA THAT IS VERY EXTRAORDINARY IS ROCK CUT HALLS AND SCULPTED CAVES, ETC., AJANTA. AROUND 2 ND CENT BC BUD MONKS START TO HEW OUT CAVES FOR THEIR OWN USE, ENTIRE CAVES CARVED FROM THE INSIDE AS IF THEY WERE GIANT SCULPTURES THEMSELVES. ABSOLUTELY REMARKABLE

Exam 3 review presentation Asia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION HARAPPAN CIVILZATION HARAPPA 
  • 2. MOHENJO-DARO: --35,000-40,000 RESIDENTS --OVER 700 WELLS --“GREAT BATH”
  • 3. HINDUISM Vishnu The Dancing Shiva Prambanan Temple, Java, Indonesia Angokor Wat, Siem Riep, Cambodia
  • 4. BUDDHISM SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA (BORN SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA ) -- PRINCE OF SHAKYA CLAN -- PROPHESIED THAT HE WOULD BECOME EITHER A “CHAKRAVARTION” (WORLD RULER) OR A “ BUDDHA ” (FULLY ENLIGHTENED PERSON) -- LEAVES PALACE AT AGE 29; AFTER SIX YEARS OF STRUGGLE, HE ATTAINS ENLIGHTENMENT WHILE MEDITATION UNDER A PIPAL TREE (KNOWN AS THE BODHI TREE). HE THEN BEGINS TEACHING.
  • 5. BUDDHISM FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS : -- LIFE IS SUFFERING -- THE CAUSE OF SUFFERING IS IGNORANCE -- IGNORANCE CAN BE OVERCOME -- WAY TO OVERCOME IGNORANCE IS TO FOLLOW THE 8-FOLD PATH
  • 6. BUDDHISM 8-FOLD PATH : -- RIGHT VIEW -- RIGHT RESOLVE -- RIGHT SPEECH -- RIGHT ACTION -- RIGHT LIVELIHOOD -- RIGHT EFFORT -- RIGHT MINDFULNESS -- RIGHT CONCENTRATION
  • 7. CROWNED A CAPITAL AT SARNATH, WHERE BUDDHA WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE PREACHED HIS FIRST SERMON, WHERE HE IS SAID TO HAVE FIRST “TURNED THE WHEEL OF LAW.”
  • 8. BUDDHIST PRAYER WHEELS
  • 9. GREAT STUPA OF SANCHI, INDIA COMMISSIONED BY ASHOKA (ENLARGED c.100 BC)
  • 10. STUPA : DOME-SHAPED BUDDHIST PLACE OF WORSHIP
  • 11. WHEN THE BUDDHA DIED, HE INSTRUCTED HIS DISCIPLES TO CREMATE HIS BODY AND BUILD A MEMORIAL MOUND, OR STUPA, AT A CROSSROAD WHERE PEOPLE WOULD CONGREGATE. IN FACT, SEVERAL KINGS DEMANDED RELICS, SO HIS ASHES WERE DIVIDED INTO 8 PORTIONS, EACH ENSHRINED IN ITS OWN STUPA.
  • 12. IN ORDER TO BRING THE BUDDHA’S PRESENCE INTO THE MIDST OF HIS CITZENRY, ASHOKA OPENED THE ORIGINAL 8 STUPAS AND REDISTRIBUTED THE ASHES AMONG A GREAT NUMBER OF SIMPLE, BRICK-FACED STUPAS (LEGENDS CLAIM 84,000). ONE OF THESE ORIGINAL SIMPLE BRICK STUPAS WAS AT SANCHI.
  • 13. GREAT STUPA OF SANCHI: TORANAS (GATES) THE BUDDHA: NOT SHOWN IN HIS PHYSICAL FORM. RATHER, HIS PRESENCE IMPLIED BY AN EMPTY SPACE ON THE HORSE’S BACK, AND A SERVANT HOLDING A PARASOL WITH WHICH TO SHELTER THE RIDER FROM THE SUN.  The Buddha’s presence implied but not shown Parasol to shield the Buddha 
  • 14. GREAT STUPA OF SANCHI: TORANAS (GATES) THE BUDDHA: NOT SHOWN IN HIS PHYSICAL FORM. CONSIDERED AT THAT TIME IMPROPER TO SHOW HIM IN HIS PHYSICAL FORM SINCE, IN THE PROCESS OF ATTAINING ENLIGHTENMENT, HE WOULD ACHIEVE TRANSCENDENCE AND SHED HIS PHYSICAL BODY.
  • 15. SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA (c. 2 nd CENTURY AD; from GANDHARA) THE MIRACLE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT DEATH OF THE BUDDHA
  • 16.
    • SANGHATI: MONK’S
    • ROBE; DRAPED OVER
    • ONE SHOULDER
  • 17.
    • HALO: SYMBOL OF
    • DIVINITY
  • 18.  LAKSHANA: 32 MAJOR DISTINGUISHING MARKS ON HIS BODY, INCLUDING IMPRESSION OF A WHEEL (CHAKRA) ON PALMS OF HANDS, SOLES OF FEET
  • 19.
    • USHNISHA (KNOB ON
    • HEAD): A SYMBOL OF
    • HIS ENLIGHTENMENT
    LAKSHANA
  • 20. LAKSHANA LONG EARS: SYMBOL OF COMPASSION; HE HEARS THE CRIES OF ALL BEINGS AND ANSWERS THEIR CALL 
  • 21. URNA: TUFT OF HAIR OR DOT BETWEEN THE EYES   SYMBOLIC OF GREAT WISDOM; RADIATES BEAMS OF LIGHT THAT ENLIGHTEN THE WORLD (SOMETIMES CALLED A THIRD EYE). LAKSHANA
  • 22. “ MUDRAS” MUDRAS: ABHAYA, MEANING “DO NOT FEAR.” SYMBOLIC OF PROTECTION, BLESSING, AND REASSURANCE. 
  • 23. MUDRAS ABHAYA DHARMACHAKRA DHYANA BHUMISPARSHA VARADA: CHARITY VTARKA: INTELLECTUAL DEBATE
  • 24. BODHISATTVAS : THOSE WHOSE ESSENCE IS WISDOM. GREAT, SAINTLY BEINGS WHO ARE ON THE VERGE OF ACHIEVING BUDDHAHOOD BUT HAVE VOWED TO HELP OTHERS ACHIEVE BUDDHAHOOD BEFORE CROSSING OVER THEMSELVES
  • 25. BODHISATTVAS : AS OPPOSED TO BUDDHAS, SHOWN WEARING PRINCELY GARMENTS RATHER THAN A SIMPLE MONK’S ROBE CROWN  NECKLACE  BELT 
  • 26. MONK’S ROBE  BODHISATTVA BUDDHA CROWN  NECKLACE  BELT 
  • 27. BUDDHIST CAVE MONASTERIES AND TEMPLES (INDIA) BHAJA (c. 100 BC) --ROCK CUT SHRINES CUT INTO MOUTAINSIDES, EVEN INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL AREAS FOR MONKS. --INSPIRATIONS MAY HAVE INCLUDED: THE BUDDHA HIMSELF WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE MEDITATED IN A CAVE CLIMATIC: COOL DURING INDIA’S HOT SUMMER, DRY DURING RAINY SEASON DURABILITY --SACRED HALLS ARE CALLED “CHAITYA;” RESIDENCE HALLS ARE CALLED “VIHARA.” . . .
  • 28. BUDDHIST CAVE MONASTERIES AND TEMPLES (INDIA) AJANTA (5 TH CENTURY AD)