5. Heinrich Schliemann: Born Germany, 1822 As a boy, fascinated by Greek history and mythology, especially “ The Odyssey” by Homer. Declares his belief that Troy was a real place and that he will someday find it. Forced to quit school at age 14 when his father runs out of money to pay his tuition.
6. After leaving school forced to work in a grocery market, but as a young man becomes a mildly successful businessman (exports) In Europe. In 1851 moves to Sacramento, California (during the California Gold Rush) and opens a bank to buy and sell miners’ gold. Makes over a million dollars in the first six months alone.
7. Moves to Russia in 1852. Marries, but his wife refuses to have sex with him unless he makes more money, so he invests in a highly profitable indigo business. He then makes an even larger fortune as a middleman for ammunition during the Crimean War. Retires young to pursue the discovery of Troy.
8. TROY Declares his belief that Hissarlik, Turkey, is the site of Troy, and begins excavations there.
9. Decides the Troy of Homer must be at the lowest levels—it was not, and in the process of excavating the lowest levels he destroys the upper.
10. The Turkish government revokes Schliemann’s permission to dig and sues him: he is accused of stealing antiquities after his wife Sophia is seen in public wearing what Schliemann claimed were the jewels of Helen of Troy.
11. It is later revealed that this jewelry, part of what Schliemann called “ Priam’s Treasure,” was a forgery—one of his workers admitted that it was found at a different site, and that Schliemann had also hired a goldsmith to fabricate items in an archaic manner and planted them at the site.
12. Excavate Mycenae. Discovers “Death Mask of Agamemnon.” Obsessed with Agamemnon—he even named one of his sons after this fabled Greek king.
13. CYCLOPEAN Mycenean Architecture
14. Mycenean Architecture RELIEVING TRIANGLE Area left open to prevent weight of stones from collapsing the lintel CORBELLING, CORBELLED ARCHES
15. MEGARON Mycenean Architecture
16. Greek Sculpture KOUROS: Male KORE: Female
17. ARCHAIC PERIOD: ARCHAIC SMILE Greek Sculpture: KORE Figures
19. Pediment Sculptures: Temple of Zeus at Olympia Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs ETHOS: Self-discipline; rational, intelligent, and controlled behavior; civilized. PATHOS: Spontaneous emotional reaction; irrational; anarchic.
20. SYMMETRIA: harmony; commensurability of the parts “ The Canon” Module The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
21. Greek idealism: generic (the perfectibility of human nature) The Doryphoros by Polykleitos “ Man is the measure of all things.”—Protagoras (Greece; 400s BC)
22. RHYTHMOS: pattern of events Discus Thrower (Discobolus) by Myron
23. LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING The simple lost-wax casting technique was inadequate for complex, life-sized figures, and a more sophisticated version was adopted, involving several steps. 1. A full-size clay model of statue fashioned out of clay.
24. LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING 1. A full-size clay model of statue fashioned out of clay. 2. A clay mold was then created around the clay original; it was removed in sections, resulting in a several piece mold.
25. 3. The pieces of the mold for each body were reassembled, and wax was applied to the insides of these molds; when removed the result was a hollow wax model in the shape of the original clay sculpture. Since this clay model would be used in casting, final refinements and adjustments were made to it.
26. 4. Clay molded around exterior of the wax models for each part, and liquid clay was poured inside them to make hardened cores. Metal pins inserted to connect the clay outer layer to the clay core. OUTER LAYER OF CLAY (INVESTMENT) HOLLOW WAX MODEL OF HEAD CLAY CORE METAL PINS (CHAPLETS)
27. 5. Assembly heated so that wax melts out. LAYER OF WAX MELTED OUT, LEAVING AN EMPTY SPACE METAL PINS HOLD THE CLAY CORE IN PLACE WITHIN THE OUTER LAYER OF CLAY, PRESERVING THE HOLLOW CHANNEL
28. 6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel. MOLTEN BRONZE
29. 6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel. 7. When the bronze hardens, the outer layer of clay and as much of the inner core as possible are removed, leaving final bronze versions of the individual body parts, which were fitted together and soldered. MOLTEN BRONZE