Exam 1 review presentation 2 -egypt
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Exam 1 review presentation 2 -egypt Exam 1 review presentation 2 -egypt Presentation Transcript

  • DYNASTIES OLD, MIDDLE, and NEW KINGDOMS PRE-DYNASTIC: before the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt KING NARMER: unifies Egypt c.3100 BC MEMPHIS: Early capital (Thebes: New Kingdom) The Palette of King Narmer, c.3100-3000 BC ANCIENT EGYPT
  • CANON OF PROPORTIONS
  • The Palette of King Narmer: HIERARCHIC SCALE “ TWISTED PERSPECTIVE” REGISTERS: separate pictorial spaces King  Servant   Profile  Frontal  Profile   
  • EGYPTIAN ICONOGRAPHY Crown of Upper Egypt  Bull: Strength  Sandal-bearer  Barefoot: Divine act  Smiting pose: Conquest, victory 
  • EGYPTIAN ICONOGRAPHY Lower Egypt: Papyrus  Horus: Falcon or Falcon-headed god; represents divine aspect of the king 
  • “ Ka” Statue of King Khafre “ KA ” STATUE
  • REN (NAME) SHWT (SHADOW) AKH (GOOD SPIRIT)
  • REN (NAME) SHWT (SHADOW) AKH (GOOD SPIRIT) KA (SPIRIT) Ka Statue of King Khafre
  • REN (NAME) SHWT (SHADOW) AKH (GOOD SPIRIT) KA (SPIRIT) BA (SOUL)  Ba: Bird—“fly” back to the body Hieroglyph for Ba: Solar disk (rising sun; new life) 
  • REN (NAME) SHWT (SHADOW) AKH (GOOD SPIRIT) KA (SPIRIT) BA (SOUL) AB or IB (HEART) 
  • REN (NAME) SHWT (SHADOW) AKH (GOOD SPIRIT) KA (SPIRIT) BA (SOUL) AB or IB (HEART) KHET (BODY)
  • Mummification
  • “ . . . He who is called the ripper (cutter) takes an Ethiopian stone and cuts the flesh as the law prescribes, and forthwith escapes running, those who are present pursuing and throwing stones and cursing defilement on to his head. For whosoever inflicts violence upon or wounds a body of his kind, they hold worthy of hatred.” Incision  Mummification
  • --sterilization of body cavities and viscera (palm wine, 14% ethyl alcohol) --viscera steeped in natron 40 days --body steeped in natron 40 days with temporary stuff (natron in linen packets, to absorb moisture) --body packed with permanent stuffing (natron, myrhh, cinnamon, resin) --body anointed with precious oils --skin smeared with resin --bandaging Mummification
  • “ OPENING OF THE MOUTH” ceremony (while touching the mouth, the priest says) . . . “You live again, you revive always, you have become young again, you are young again always.”
  • OPENING OF THE MOUTH: Also intended to bring the tomb and the objects within it to life.
  • KING DJOSER (also spelled ZOSER) Third Dynasty, Old Kingdom The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara)
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) First attempt at a pyramid
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) First building made of all QUARRIED STONE
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) NECROPOLIS : City of the dead; Necros (dead) + polis (city)
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) First time CENOTAPH included at same site as actual burial Lower  Upper  CENOTAPH: False burial site
  • Ka Statue of Djoser: found at Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara; oldest surviving life- sized figure in Egyptian Art The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara)
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) First known use of INTENTIONAL ARCHAISM INTENTIONAL ARCHAISM: Make something appear older than it is; decorate something so that it looks like it came from a previous age, or was constructed using more primitive methods. WATTLE AND DAUB CONSTRUCTION “ FIRST TIME”: Time of Creation.  Plant motifs: bundled palms
  • The STEP PYRAMID of KING DJOSER (Saqqara) IMHOTEP (architect) First references in art or architecture to the SED FESTIVAL
  • SED (or HEB SED; Jubilee): Held after 30 year periods of a king’s reign to rejuvenate his powers.  Djoser running SED race  Horus holding ankh in his talons: bringing new life
  • Giza (Gizeh)  The GREAT PYRAMIDS (Giza/Gizeh) 4 th Dynasty, Old Kingdom
  • The GREAT PYRAMIDS (Giza/Gizeh) 4 th Dynasty, Old Kingdom Pyramid of Khafre King Khafre  Limestone casing blocks intact at top
  • VALLEY OF THE KINGS 18 th Dynasty +, New Kingdom Rock cut tombs
  • TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN (“King Tut”) VALLEY OF THE KINGS 18 th Dynasty, New Kingdom Discovered by Howard Carter, 1920s
  • EGYPTIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE: HYPOSTYLE HALL PYLON, PYLON TEMPLE Pylon 
  • RAMESSES (RAMSES) II (THE GREAT) --Third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty (New Kingdom) --Ruled as Pharaoh for 66 years (c.1290 - 1224 BC; only one king in the history of Egypt ruled for longer) --Led several military campaigns into Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria; after his campaign against the Hittites stalled following the Battle of Kadesh, he signed history’s first known peace treaty in 1271 --Conquered southward into Nubia --Commonly believed to be the Pharaoh from whom Moses freed the Jews --Estimated perhaps 400 or more children --Considered the greatest builder among all Egyptian kings
  • Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 19 th Dynasty, New Kingdom
  • Ramesses’s African prisoners: Nubians Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 19 th Dynasty, New Kingdom
  •  Cut entirely out of the cliff wall Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 19 th Dynasty, New Kingdom
  • Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 19 th Dynasty, New Kingdom Astrological alignment: Every year, on both Ramesses’s birthday and the anniversary of his coronation, the rising sun shines in a perfect, unbroken beam directly through the temple, illuminating the statues in the sanctuary
  • Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 19 th Dynasty, New Kingdom Astrological alignment: the sun falls directly on Amun, Ra, and Ramesses—Ptah, because he was associated with darkness, is not illuminated and always remain darkened by shadow Ptah
  • 1960s: ASWAN DAM LAKE NASSER  Rising water level threatens the temple with submersion
  • Preservation and Conservation: Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel
  • Preservation and Conservation: Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel
  • Temple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel Artificial hill built over a dome 