--Born near Milan in 1571 as Michelangelo Merisi --Known as Caravaggio because that city, a small farming community east of Milan, was the family home --His father died in 1577, leaving him to be raised by his mother --Apprenticed to the painter Simone Peterzano in Milan in 1584; Peterzano claimed to have studied under Titian in Venice --Unknown if Caravaggio completed his apprenticeship, and no art work from this period is attributed to him CARAVAGGIO Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni by Simone Peterzano
--In late 1580s left Milan; he may have fled the city because he killed someone, and there are notations indicating that he had spent a year in a Milanese prison --In the early 1590s, his mother died and her property was sold; Caravaggio took his part of the inheritance and went to Rome CARAVAGGIO Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni by Simone Peterzano
--Worked for minor painters who sold small devotional images and portraits on the streets --Went to work for Giuseppe Cesari (the Cavalier d’Arpino), a well-known artist who had worked for Pope Clement VIII --It was noted that Cesari employed Caravaggio to paint fruits and flowers; unknown whether he participated in Cesari’s papal commissions CARAVAGGIO: EARLY DAYS IN ROME Still life (1590s)
CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte Cardsharps (c.1594-95) --Sold through a dealer to Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte --Del Monte was from a powerful, wealthy, and influential family. He was a known connoisseur of the arts and practitioner of alchemy. His public reputation was good, but in fact he was known to cavort with women of ill-repute, and was also a homosexual pedophile. --Del Monte becomes Caravaggio’s first important patron
Concert of Youths (c.1595) “ Love is always in the company of music.” Cupid (wings) Grapes: wine CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte Unused violin and sheet music: invitation to the viewer to join them
CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte Boy Bitten by a Lizard (c.1596) Rose behind ear: solici- tation Cherries: sexual connotations <ul><li>Lizard (biting </li></ul><ul><li>the boy’s finger) </li></ul>
CARAVAGGIO: BAROQUE REALISM Supper at Emmaus (c.1600) Baroque Realism: --High degree of realism in textures, forms, effects, characterizations --Lack of idealization of figures; appear as lower- class or common types --Penchant for drama --Dark and shallow spaces penetrated by a hard, exterior spotlight --Frequently austere, somber --Even mystical events given a visceral, physical reality --Interest in the psychology of an event --Lack of traditional symbolism
CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL --Cardinal Matteu Cointrel (Contarelli) died in 1585; left money to decorate a chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi (St. Louis of France), the French national church in Rome. --The will stipulated that the work was to be finished under the supervision of a member of the Crescenzi family, and a contract had been signed for paintings involving St. Matthew (the cardinal’s patron saint) with the artist Girolamo Muziano. --Muziano never completed the work; a contract was signed with a Flemish sculptor, but his works were not considered satisfactory.
CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL --In 1591, a contract was signed with Giuseppe Cesari (Cavalier d’Arpino). He completed the vault with prophets and scenes involving St. Matthew. Drawings were made for the side walls but the artist was increasingly involved in papal and other commissions, and by 1599 had completed nothing more in the chapel. --The priests of San Luigi became annoyed at the delays and asked the pope to intercede. He put the work under Vatican jurisdiction and, with the influence of Del Monte, Caravaggio in 1599 signed a contract to complete the paintings. By Giuseppe Cesari
CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL The Martyrdom of St. Matthew
CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL --In 1600 (a papal jubilee year), Caravaggio received another important commission for a private chapel, from Tiberio Ceraso (the papal treasurer), in Santa Maria del Popolo --Commission obtained through the influence of Vincenzo Giustiniani. who had been superseding Del Monte as Caravaggio’s most important patron and protector --The commission also involved Annibale Carraci, who painted the vault and altar
CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL The Conversion of Saul (Paul)
CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL The Crucifixion of Peter
CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --May have left Milan and the north for Rome because he killed someone; apparently spent a year in prison in Milan. --In Rome, initially stayed with a priest named Monsigner Pucci, but he had to leave after he beat the priest up because he didn’t like the salad he was fed. --Part of a street gang in Rome, but was protected from legal charges by his patrons. The gang’s motto was “without hope or fear” and they were led by a notorious felon. The gang was famous for street fights, duels in brothels, and singing bawdy songs at old ladies.
CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --Known for expert swordsmanship (and tennis playing). --Arrested frequently for charges of violence and concealed weapons. --Used even prostitutes as models for religious figures. --Described by one by biographer as spending half his time painting and the other half out on the street with a sword looking for someone to fight—said he was impossible to get along with. --Arrested and tried for libel (he wrote scandalous verses about another painter), but released.
CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --Arrested for beating up a waiter in a restaurant with a plate of hot artichokes, but released. --Arrested for throwing rocks at the police. --Assaulted a rival painter, slashed his paintings, and stuck his head through the hole in one of the canvases and started screaming obscenities at him. --Fled to Genoa in contempt of court after beating up another man after an argument about a prostitute; a pardon was arranged but upon his return was evicted from his apartment for throwing rocks at his landlady.
CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --In 1606, kills a man named Rancuccio during an argument over a tennis match. --In contempt of court, he flees Rome for Naples as a wanted man.
1607: Goes to Malta; wants to join the Knights of St. John CARAVAGGIO: ON THE RUN Alof de Wignacourt (Grand Master) with a Page (1607)
CARAVAGGIO: MALTA AND THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN Alof de Wignacourt (1607) --Realizing the prestige that Caravaggio’s paintings could potentially bring his order, Alof de Wignacourt start campaigning for his admittance. He even asks for and receives papal permission to overlook the murder. --After a 12-month novitiate, Caravaggio is accepted into the order. Most knights, who were from noble families, were expected to pay a hefty initiation fee. Caravaggio cannot do this, but instead paints for them an altarpiece of the order’s patron, John the Baptist.
CARAVAGGIO: MALTA AND THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN --Caravaggio runs afoul of, perhaps assaults, one of the leading knights. --He is stripped of his knighthood and thrown in a dungeon. --He escapes the dungeon and, in disguise, escapes the island of Malta. --Goes to Sicily.
CARAVAGGIO: SICILY --While painting the Lazarus, forces workmen to dig up a corpse so he can use it as a model, and forces them to hold it in pose while he paints. When he unveils the painting it is criticized, and he reportedly takes out a dagger and slashes it to pieces, claiming it was not properly appreciated. He then paints a second version. --A teacher sees him watching young boys on a playground; the artist claims he is taking notes for a painting, but the teacher asks him to leave. Caravaggio bashes him over the head with a rock. --Decides to return to Naples.
CARAVAGGIO: LAST DAYS --In Naples, attacked by 4 men; badly wounded, and his face reportedly so maimed as to be unrecognizable. --Wants to return to Rome and the protection of his friends and patrons. --Cardinal Fernandino Gonzago, a friend of Giustiniani and del Monte, arranges a pardon on the murder charge. --Goes by boat to Port’Ercole, intending to go on from there to Rome; detained by the captain of the guard there, who wanted to confirm his pardon and safe conduct pass. --Since his ship had departed, and his paintings were on board, he tried to catch up with it by crossing a swamp.
CARAVAGGIO: LAST DAYS --Crosses 100 kilometers of swamp land but misses his ship. --In crossing the swamp, he had contracted an unknown disease and severe fever. --July 18, 1610: in a small town south of Rome died from the disease he had contracted in the swamp.
DIEGO DE VELAZQUEZ Y SILVA (VELAZQUEZ) John the Evangelist (1618) Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620)
VELAZQUEZ: SEVILLE Seville --An important commercial center in southern Spain; by 1600, it was one of Europe’s largest cities, with a population of over 100,000 --The only official Spanish port for shipping with the New World; a cosmopolitan city which attracted residents from all over Europe --As its commercial prestige grew, it also became a leading art center
Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620) VELAZQUEZ --Born 1599 in Seville, died 1660 in Madrid. --Little known about his early life; evidence suggests both sets of his grandparents may have belonged to a lower order of nobility. --Apprenticed to Pacheco in 1610, and admitted into the painter’s guild in 1617. --Married Pacheco’s daughter Juana in 1618
VELAZQUEZ: EARLY GENRE PAINTINGS Velazquez Early Caravaggio
VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620) --From “bodega,” which at the time referred to a cheap inn or eating place --genre subjects involving food with still-life elements and lower class figures; typically kitchen, cooking, or eating scenes --Popular form of genre painting in 17 th -century Spain --The word became expanded and is sometimes used to refer to Spanish still-life painting in general
VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content The Kitchen Maid with the Supper at Emmaus (c.1618)
VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content The Kitchen Maid with the Supper at Emmaus (c.1618) Recognition of Christ (faith) Lack of recognition, absorbed in worldly cares (lack of faith)
VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (c.1620)
VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (c.1620) Reminding her, per the example of Christ in the house of Mary and Martha, not to be so preoccupied with worldly duties that she forgets spiritual ones
SPANISH STILL LIFE PAINTING—Religious interpretations Symbolic of Christ’s Passion? Darkness: creates a contemplative context to explore covert meanings? Carrots: nails from the cross; discolored like rusted metal? Cardoon: scourge; tinged red as if tainted by blood? Sanchez Cotan: orders as Carthusian in 1603
Still Life with Lemons by Zurbaran (1633): Marian meanings Roses: symbol of the Immaculate Conception Lemons: fidelity and love Orange blossoms: purity SPANISH STILL LIFE PAINTING—Religious interpretations
VELAZQUEZ: MADRID --Had gone to Madrid in 1622, trying to catch the attention of the new king, Philip IV; he was not successful --Returned to Madrid with the same objective in 1623, but with the backing of Seville natives who had assumed prominent positions in the king’s court --In October 1623 he is put on the payroll as a royal painter and moves permanently to Madrid Madrid
THE COUNT-DUKE OLIVARES (GASPAR DE GUZMAN) Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke Olivares by Velazquez (1634)
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS Reproduction of the original Hall of Realms --Originally the room had been intended as part of a royal theater. --When the buildings constituting the Buen Retiro had been converted into a palace, it was remodeled into the throne room; as such, it was considered the most important room in the palace. --Its decoration was a matter of considerable importance, since it would reflect the power and prestige of the monarchy. --Worked on from 1633-35.
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS --Increasing problems and setbacks—economic, political, and military—had started to fragment the Spanish empire; some parts of the realm had even deliberately disobeyed the central government. --Olivares became a popular scapegoat. Anonymously- published manifestos accused him of mistaken policies which were weakening the country and costing it prestige; in the military realm especially his critics felt his administration was totally inadequate. Portraits of Philip IV (1630s) and the Count-Duke Olivares (1620s) by Velazquez
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS Reproduction of the original Hall of Realms Four part decorative scheme: 1. Top level: escutcheons of the 24 realms that made up the kingdom Olivares: “Union of Arms”
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS Reproduction of the original Hall of Realms Four part decorative scheme: 2. Second level: 10 paintings by Francisco de Zurbaran of “ Hercules Hispanicus”
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS The Labors of Hercules (Hispanicus) by Zubaran Hercules: --Traditional symbol of strength and virtue --Had been a common symbol for kings and emperors since antiquity, and Charles V had used references to him in his emblem --Also an understood symbol for the conquest of discord (in this case, rebellion and heresy)
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS—Battle Paintings Reproduction of the original Hall of Realms Four part decorative scheme: 3. 3rd level: 12 Battle paintings; victories from all over the Empire
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS—Battle Paintings All recent victories, to convey idea that the monarchy is still strong and the Olivares administration has been successful: 1622—Fleurus, Julich 1625—Breda, Bahia, Genoa, Cadiz, Puerto Rico 1629—St. Christopher (St. Kitts) 1633—Constance, Breisach, Rheinfelden, and St. Martin (painting now lost) Battle of Breda Recapture of St. Christopher
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS—Battle of Breda Battle of Breda by Velazquez Justin of Nassau offering the key to the city and preparing to kneel down before the victorious Spanish Ambrosio Spinola, dismounted, places his hand to Justin’s shoulder to stop him from kneeling
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS—Equestrian portraits Reproduction of the original Hall of Realms Four part decorative scheme: 4. Far ends of the Hall—five equestrian portraits (2 at one end, 1 at the other) showing the succession of the Spanish royal family. All by Velazquez.
THE BUEN RETIRO: HALL OF REALMS—Equestrian portraits Baltasar Carlos: Future Philip IV: Present Philip III: Past
Las Meninas (1658-60) Velazequez: dies in 1660 VELAZQUEZ: IN QUEST OF NOBILITY—Las Meninas
VELAZQUEZ: IN QUEST OF NOBILITY—Las Meninas Las Meninas (1658-60) The red cross: symbol of the Order of Santiago