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PROTESTANT REFORMATION: 1517 Martin Luther Wittenberg, Germany Transubstantiation Justification through Faith alone Saints as Intercessors Indulgences Albrecht of Brandenburg 95 Theses Electors of Saxony Protestant Propaganda Albrecht of Brandenburg by Dürer Martin Luther by Cranach
Iconoclasm Second Commandment Calvinists: Switzerland, Holland Huguenots: France Martin Luther: images PROTESTANT REFORMATION: 1517 Dutch (Calvinist) Church Interior by P. Sanraedan (17 th Century)
LUCAS CRANACH (the Elder) Self Portrait (1550) --Born 1472 in Kronach --Father a painter --In 1490s reputedly goes on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the entourage of Electors of Saxony --By the early 1500s working in Vienna --Early member of the “ Danube School”
LUCAS CRANACH (the Elder) Self Portrait (1550) --1505 appointed as a court artist to the Saxon electors, moves to Wittenberg --1510 named registrar of taxes; 1519 treasurer of the town council; 1537 burgomaster --Runs a large and successful artist’s studio, as well as a bookstore, printing press, and paper mill --Protestant supporter; dies in exile, 1553
LUCAS CRANACH and MARTIN LUTHER Self Portrait (1550) Luther by Cranach (1535)
ANTI-CATHOLIC PROPAGANDA: REFORMATION ERA Detail from 1522 Testament by Cranach (Whore of Babylon wearing a Papal tiara)
ANTI-CATHOLIC PROPAGANDA: REFORMATION ERA Title page for Wider des Papstums (1545) by Cranach
ANTI-CATHOLIC PROPAGANDA: REFORMATION ERA From Wider des Papstums (1545) by Cranach
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Luther and Philip Melancthon by Cranach Passional Christi: --13 pages of text and paired images, comparing the example of Christ with the actions of the Pope as a perversion of Christ’s teachings. --Cranach provides the illustrations; text written by Philip Melancthon. Luther said the pictures made the book “good for laymen.” --Printed in 1521; goes through 21 editions, and some of the prints are also releases as single-leaf images.
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Luther: Compared to the example of Christ, the Pope is “a new and strange kind of likeness.” The Pope has so turned upside- down the life and work of Christ as to define himself as “a Counter-Christ, whom the Scriptures call Anti-Christ.” Luther and Philip Melancthon by Cranach
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ driving money changers from temple Pope selling indulgences
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ crowned with thorns Pope crowned with his tiara
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ washing the feet of others Pope having his feet kissed “ It is indeed an un-Christian thing . . . for (the Pope) a sinful man to let his feet be kissed by one who is a hundred times better than himself.” — Luther
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ ascends to Heaven Pope driven down into Hell
CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS --The Law and the Gospels --Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery --Christ Blessing the Children
CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS The difference between the Law and the Gospel is “ the height of knowledge of Christendom.” Anyone who considers himself Christian should be able to state the difference, and those who cannot are equivalent to Heathens or Jews. --Luther The Law and the Gospels c.1535
CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS “ If you have tasted the Law and sin and if you know the ache of sin, then look . . . and see how sweet in comparison the Grace of God is, the Grace which is offered to us in the Gospel . . . this Divine gift and forgiveness of sin require nothing” except faith and acceptance. — Luther The Law and the Gospels c.1535
CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery (both c.1540s): The Jews had the Law, which can only punish and cannot forgive; Christ (the Gospel) provides a free gift of Grace and forgiveness. Demonstrates Christ’s power over the Law, and the ability of Faith to overcome condemnation.
CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery (both c.1540s): Justification through Faith alone —the adulteress could not be saved by merit, only a gift of Grace. “A member of Christ stands here made out of an adulteress who had been infested with sin, but whose sin is now forgiven.”—Luther
MANNERISM: --Emphasis on artistic virtuosity; sprezzatura --Deliberately difficult, to the point illegibility; if it is too easy, it lacks class --Grazia (grace): emphasis on elegance --Taste for bizarre and novel, often including erotic --Abstraction—art placing aesthetic concerns over worldly concerns and religious values
COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-63): Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation. Counter-Reformation Calls for reform of art within the Church, as the Mannerist style was considered inappropriate.
Giulio de’Fabriano (1564; Dialogues of the Errors of History Painting): criticizes contemporary Catholic artists for showing a lack of piety and devotion and paying no attention to subject matter; rather, he claims, they interested only in “the charms of art.” Says true beauty is in clarity, and both in style and subject matter art should strive for beauty through clarity.
Archbishop Paleotti of Bologna (Discourse on Sacred and Profane Images): art should be clear and easy to understand— “ books for the illiterate.” Desires an new art that will “ incite devotion and sting the heart.”
Some points of Church decrees on the reform of art: --No “seductive charms;” no eroticism, lasciviousness --The main function of art must be to incite devotion and inspire the heart of the worshipper --Art should instruct the worshipper in tenets of the Faith
Philip II by Titian (1551) El Escorial: Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera --Charles V retires in 1556, leaving control of Spain, its territories and defense of the Catholic faith in the hands of his son, Philip II. --Among Philip’s early projects is a royal monastery, El Escorial, construction on which begins in 1563. COUNTER-REFORMATION: SPAIN (Hapsburgs/Habsburgs)
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) Juan Fernandez de Navarrete (El Mudo): --Born in Logorno c.1538 --Called “El Mudo” because he was a deaf mute; struck deaf by a childhood illness --Lived and worked in Italy, returning to Spain around 1565 --Starts work at the Escorial as a restorer and copyist --Is eventually made the principal painter at the Escorial and signs a contract for 32 paintings for chapels in the basilica
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) The Martyrdom of St. James by El Mudo (c.1570) “ The attitude and movement of the knife passing through the neck is done with such propriety and naturalism that those who see it will swear that he is already starting to expire.” — Father Jose de Siguenza
EL ESCORIAL: J. FERENANDEZ DE NAVARRETE (EL MUDO) El Mudo dies in 1579 Only 8 of his 32 commissioned paintings had been completed
DOMENIKOS THEOTOKOPULOS: EL GRECO El Greco: --Born 1541 in Candia (Heraklion), Crete --Trained as an icon painter --By 1563 listed as a master icon painter
EL GRECO: CRETE, ICONS Dormition of the Virgin and St. Luke Mid-1560s gives up his trade on Crete, moves to Venice, Italy (Crete was part of the Venetian Republic) to retrain himself as an Italian-style artist.
EL GRECO: ROME Staying at the Farnese Palace, El Greco was introduced by the palace librarian, a scholar named Fulvio Orsini, into a learned circle that included several prominent Spaniards. Among them was Luis de Castilla, whose father Diego was a dean at Toledo Cathedral. Luis de Castilla encouraged El Greco to move to Spain, and helped arrange a commission for him in the sacristy of the cathedral.
EL GRECO: SPAIN—Toledo The Disrobing of Christ (1577-79)
EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81)
EL GRECO: SPAIN—El Escorial The Martyrdom of St. Maurice and the Theban League (1580-81) “ There is a painting here by one Domenico Greco . . . of St. Maurice and his soldiers . . . it did not please his majesty which is no wonder . . . although they say that it has great art . . . (Improper art can) deceive the ignorant mind by means of certain tricks and illusions, and thus succeed in pleasing the ignorant and thoughtless . . . (but) as our own Mudo said . . . ‘the saints must be painted in such a way that the desire to pray to them . . . is unfailing . . . because this must be the main effect and purpose of painting.’”--Siguenza
EL ESCORIAL: ITALIAN PAINTERS Pellegrino Tibaldi: Came to the Escorial in 1586, assigned to complete the unfinished work of the other painters, as well as the library and other areas.
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1323: Death of Gonzalo Ruiz de Toledo, Count of township of Orgaz; a sponsor of the Church of Santo Tome in Toledo (where he wished to be interred), he left an endowment to be paid annually by the residents of Orgaz to the church
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1327: Gonazlo Ruiz’s body is transferred from its original burial site in an Augustinian monastery to Santo Tome; when he was being interred at Santo Tome, a miracle occurred.
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ “ Two glorious saints, St. Stephen . . . and St. Augustine . . . descending from on high . . . reaching the body, they carried it to the tomb where . . . they placed it, saying: ‘ Such is the reward of those who serve God and His saints,’ and then they disappeared, leaving the church full of fragrance and heavenly aromas.”
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1564: The town had, after two centuries, tired of paying the endowment. They had refused payment for several years. Andres Nunez, the parish priest of Santo Tome, brings a lawsuit against the town of Orgaz seeking back payment of the endowment
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1569: Lawsuit settled in favor of Santo Tome, and the church, receiving back payments, is greatly enriched
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1583: Andres Nunez and Santo Tome receive official recognition of a miracle and authorization to depict it in a painting
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1587: El Greco signs contract for the commission; Santo Tome was his parish church
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ 1588: El Greco completes the painting
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Two modes Heavenly realm: more abstract Worldly realm: more material— realism
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ John the Baptist, Virgin Mary as intercessors Angel holding up Gonzalo Ruiz’s soul for judgment
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ St. Stephen, Gonzalo Ruiz, and St. Augustine
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Pointing: draw viewer’s attention to a point of importance; a lesson is being taught.
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Justification through good works
EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ Good works bring you into a saving relation with God