Higher Education Leadership Programs: Teaching Leadership in the 21st Century

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A presentation I delivered in 2005 about how institutions of higher learning are addressing the need for leadership development through academic and co-curricular programs.

A presentation I delivered in 2005 about how institutions of higher learning are addressing the need for leadership development through academic and co-curricular programs.

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  • 1. Higher Education Leadership Programs: Teaching Leadership in the 21 st Century Brian J. Elizardi University of Denver “ One of the most universal cravings of our time is the hunger for compelling and creative leadership,” James MacGregor Burns (1978)
  • 2. Typology of Leadership Studies
    • It is one of the most widely talked about topics, yet it is one of the most understudied
      • Leadership is “highly personal and hardly scientific,” (Cronin, 1984, p. 28).
    • Questions and Common Myths
        • Can leadership be taught?
        • Are leaders born or made?
        • Is management the same as leadership?
        • What is the role of the citizen in the leadership process?
        • Is leadership purely vocational and experiential?
  • 3. Specific Findings 1. History of the Study of Leadership 2. Defining Leadership 3. Emerging Themes and Components 4. Learning and Teaching Leadership
  • 4. History of the Study of Leadership
    • 1908 : Einstein looked at trait selection as an indicator of leadership
    • 1948 : Ralph Stogville said that traits were an ineffective method for measuring leadership. He proposed behavior training (task vs. relationship orientation emerged)
    • 1968 : Ed Fleischamn said that task vs. relationship was ineffective. There was no relationship between satisfaction and performance
    • 1960’s : Curt Lewin B = f(p,s)  behavior is a function of the person and the situation
    • 1967 : Fred Fiedler “Contingency Model of Leadership”  Leader, follow, and situation
    • 1991 : Joseph Rost changed the field of research  “Leadership in the 21st Century.” What we used to call good leadership is really management. Leadership assumes change and management assumes control
  • 5. Defining Leadership
    • Level 0 : Machiavelli’s The Prince : leadership is coercive and devoid of values; there is no such thing as the common good
    • Level 1 : Mainstream Leadership : Leadership is influencing an organization or group to accomplish a group goal
    • Level 2 : Turn of the Millennium : Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purpose (Rost, 1991)
      • Leadership is multidirectional: anyone can be a leader or follower
      • Leadership is non-coercive
    • Level 3 : Transformative Leadership : Engaging followers, not merely activating them, commingling needs and aspiration in a common enterprise, and in the process making better citizens of both leaders and followers (Burns, 1978)
      • “ That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership and the moral and practical them of this work,” (Burns, 1978).
  • 6. Emerging Themes & Components 1. Self Knowledge and Skill Development 2. Collaboration and Teamwork 3. Citizen Leadership 4. Community Service/Civic Engagement 5. Leader, Follower, and Situation (LFS) 6. Ethics
  • 7. Self Knowledge and Skill Development
      • “ The quest for leadership is primarily an inner journey to discover our true selves, which include our strengths, skills, prejudices, and talents, and a recognition of our unique gifts and some of our limitations,” (Matusak, 1997, p. 17)
  • 8. Collaboration and Teamwork
      • Collaboration is “a mutually beneficial relationship between two or more parties who work toward common goals by sharing responsibility, authority, and accountability for achieving results,” (Chrislip & Larson, 1994, p. 5).
  • 9. Citizen Leadership
      • “ Each person is responsible for contributing to the common good in different areas. Participation at any level is an exercise of leadership, joining others to use power for constructive ends. Unlike the prevalent notion of solitary leaders finding answers and announcing solutions through mass media, the challenge for the twenty-first century is to prepare citizens to act together in a more interactive, dynamic process,” (Mabey, 1992, p. 315).
  • 10. Community Service/Civic Engagement
    • “ Student who participate in service while in college demonstrate an enhanced interest in issues relating to multiculturalism and diversity as well as stronger commitment to serving their communities,” (Outcalt, Faris, McMahon, Tahtakarn, and Noll, 2001, p. 183).
    • “ Schools powerfully affect how we learn, what we learn, and whether—through our lives—we are willing to meet the challenges of civic engagement,” (Sorenson, G, Adams, B, Kretman, K. P., Linsky, M., Burns, J., Gmelch, W., Kellerman, B., Rost, J, 1996, p. 1).
    • “ Much can…be learned about leadership by getting away from one’s own culture and examining how leaders in other circumstances go about the task of motivating and mobilizing others,” (Cronin, 1984, p. 31).
  • 11. Leader, Follower, and Situation (LFS)
    • “ Leaders redefine the parameters of tasks and responsibilities, both for individual followers and for the entire group. In that sense, leaders actively change the situations they’re in rather that just optimize their group’s adaptation to it,” (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 1999, p. 39).
    • “ Often it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that determines how he will act,” (Milgram, 1992)
  • 12. Ethics
    • “ Leadership can be exercised in the service of noble, liberating, enriching ends, but it can also serve to manipulate, mislead, and repress,” (Cronin, 1984, p. 27).
    • “ If either the ends of leadership or the means to achieve it be improper, the ultimate goal of leadership—the betterment of society—is compromised,” (Wren, 1995, p. 481)
    • “ We say we want effective leadership, but Hitler was effective. Criteria beyond effectiveness are needed. Ultimately, we judge our leaders in the framework of values,” (Gardner)
    • Ethics are the “rules that tell us how to relate to each other in order to create community,” (Baird, 2004).
  • 13. Determining the Common Good MILL KANT BURNS Greatest good for the greatest number of people Universal Human Values (Kidder) Love, Truthfulness, fairness, freedom, unity, tolerance, responsibility, respect for life End/Terminal Values UHV Respected interactions between the leaders and the led ROST
  • 14. Learning and Teaching Leadership
    • In the past, “to teach leadership [was] an act of arrogance,” (Cronin, 1984, p. 29).
    • In order to teach leadership and empower active citizens, we must deconstruct “the exaltation of the expert in our culture,” (Mabey, 1992, p. 314).
    • “ The first step is not action; the first step is understanding,” (Gardner, 1990, p. 6).
    • “ Most of what leaders have that enables them to lead is learned,” (Gardner, 1990, p. 7).
    • To learn leadership, we must disembed our experiential understanding of leadership in order to learn leadership theories (Kegan)
    • “ The question is not if one will lead but rather how effective a leader one becomes,” (Mabey, 1992, p. 315).
  • 15. Leadership and Identity
    • “ Understanding the process of leadership identity development is central to teaching leadership and facilitating the learning of leadership,” (Komives, S., Casper, J., Longerbeam, S., Mainella, F., & Osteen, L., , 2004, p. 1)
    • “ Many leadership educators think that college students are best informed by learning a relational-values approach to leadership which is inclusive, ethical, grounded in principles and values, and seeks collaborative processes in working with others toward a common vision or common purpose,” (Komives et al., 2004, p. 1).
    • Komives et al. (2004) seek to answer the questions: What processes does a person go through to come to an awareness that he/she can make a difference and work effectively with others to accomplish change? How does relational leadership efficacy/identity develop?
  • 16. New Questions
    • How will leadership be used to bridge expansive polarization in today’s society?
    • How can we further our understanding of ethics in relation to leadership to solve many of today’s issues?
    • How will our understanding of leadership identity development help us better teach students?