A Descriptive Model of Visual Scanning.

  • 285 views
Uploaded on

Presenter: Stephane Conversy, Christophe Hurter, Stephane Chatty …

Presenter: Stephane Conversy, Christophe Hurter, Stephane Chatty
BELIV 2010 Workshop
http://www.beliv.org/beliv2010/

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
285
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Licence:
    Copyright 2003-2007 © stéphane conversy ENAC
    Creative Commons Paternité-Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale-Partage des Conditions Initiales à l'Identique 2.0 France License
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/fr/







  • Hence, colored strip holders enable controllers to narrow the set of flights to compare with a new one, and reduce the number of required steps accordingly (step 2.x, with x>=3, seeking and navigating). Holder colors can also ease predicate verification: holder color of the arriving strip can be matched easily to holder color of other strips, without requiring the controller to determine if the strip is a north-south or a south-north flight.
  • This facilitates seeking and navigating in step 2.x, as it reduces the subset of marks to consider when comparing times, and memorizing (1 vs 3 cells).





  • By the way, how easy is it to accomplish another task with the same visualization ?
    Any visualization maximizes a task, but still, there are other tasks that we are supposed to do with a particular visualization
    even if theoretical...





  • Compared to the regular strip boards, this design may aid…:
    Seeking and navigating: thanks to a steering task, beacon search is facilitated.
    Verifying a predicate: the time limit is directly visible.
    … at the expense of a supplemental interaction to reach beacons not yet visible on the time scale.

Transcript

  • 1. A Descriptive Model of Visual Scanning Stéphane Conversy1,2 Christophe Hurter1,2,3 Stéphane Chatty1 1 2 3 CNRS INPT UPS UT1 Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse 1
  • 2. support scenario: Air Traffic Control radar image paper strips 2
  • 3. flexible: hand-written efficient organization, multiple forms of layout on the board however: computer system unaware of clearances only considered as a legacy system «be modern, get rid of it !» « all-radar » mantra 3
  • 4. paper strip board considered as a visualization same route (no space Y), different flights (Y:different) beacons (X inside:Ordered) interacting flights (alignement) orientation landing flights runway 1(X:same Y:Ordered) landing flights runway 2 (X:same Y:O) 4
  • 5. research question my problem: how to explain that strips are better than radar image for certain tasks ? research question: how easy is it to accomplish a given task with a given visualization ? 5
  • 6. «how to integrate a flight?» TBO AGN 270 CRX92 C 28 11 21 11 NARAK AF121ZL 100 FISTO LMG 14 26 LFBO 11 11 AF497PY 120 TAN AUCHE AGN PERIG 12 15 18 28 LFBT 11 11 11 11 SWR686 290 AGN TBO SOVAR 19 28 30 NARAK 11 11 11 6
  • 7. «how to integrate a flight?» 3.1 1 2.1 M TBO AGN 270 CRX92 C 28 11 21 M NARAK M 11 2.2 2.3 AF121ZL 100 FISTO LMG 142.4 26 2.4.2 LFBO 11 11 AF497PY 120 TAN AUCHE AGN PERIG 2.4.3.2 12 15 18 2.4.3.1 28 2.5 LFBT 11 11 11 11 SWR686 290 AGN TBO SOVAR 19 2.5.1.1 28 30 NARAK 11 11 11 2.5.1.2 7
  • 8. decomposing visual scanning similar to keystroke decomposing: K, P, D, M ... then predicting time set visual tasks: Memorizing information M Entering and exiting (switching) representation Seeking a subset of marks Unpacking a mark and verifying a predicate Seeking and navigating among a subset of marks visualization «improvements» can be explained by these visual tasks 8
  • 9. «how to integrate a flight?» M 1 2.1 TBO AGN 270 CRX92 C 21 28 2.2 11 M 11 NARAK M North->South even altitude AF121ZL 100 FISTO LMG 2.3 14 26 LFBO 11 11 AF497PY 120 TAN AUCHE AGN PERIG South->North 2.3.2 15 2.3.1 12 18 28 LFBT 11 11 11 11 odd altitude SWR686 290 AGN TBO SOVAR 19 28 30 NARAK 11 2.3.2.1 11 11 2.3.2.2 verifying a predicate: color helps matching similar flights seeking and navigating: color selection (a la Bertin) narrows set of flights to compare 9
  • 10. «how to integrate a flight?» TBO M AGN 270 1 C CRX92 21 28 11 11 NARAK 2.1 AF121ZL 100 FISTO LMG 2.2 14 26 LFBO 11 11 AF497PY 120 TAN AUCHE AGN PERIG 2.2.1 12 15 18 28 LFBT 11 11 11 11 2.3 SWR686 290 AGN TBO SOVAR 19 28 30 2.3.1 NARAK 11 11 11 seeking and navigating: color selection (a la Bertin) narrows set of flights to compare memorizing: only one memory cell (vs 3) 10
  • 11. «how long will I wait?» Horaires valables à compter du 1er septembre2008 Horaires valables à compter du 22 décembre 2008 Ligne 51 DIRECTION UNIVERSITÉ PAUL-SABATIER Lundi à vendredi Balma Gramont – – 7.50 8.50 – 11.10 12.20 – 14.15 15.15 – 17.25 17.50 18.30 19.40 Banque Populaire – – 7.52 8.52 – 11.12 12.22 – 14.17 15.17 – 17.27 17.52 18.32 19.42 La Coste 6.45 7.20 – – 10.05 – – 13.05 – – 15.55 – – – – Château d'Eau 6.48 7.23 7.55 8.55 10.08 11.15 12.25 13.08 14.20 15.20 15.58 17.30 17.55 18.35 19.45 Eglise Balma 6.54 7.29 8.01 9.01 10.14 11.21 12.31 13.14 14.26 15.26 16.04 17.36 18.01 18.41 19.50 Achiary 7.04 7.41 8.13 9.11 10.24 11.31 12.41 13.24 14.36 15.36 16.17 17.49 18.14 18.54 20.00 Barrau 7.08 7.48 8.20 9.16 10.29 11.36 12.46 13.29 14.41 15.41 16.23 17.55 18.20 19.00 20.04 Bréguet 7.13 7.55 8.27 9.21 10.34 11.41 12.51 13.34 14.46 15.46 16.29 18.01 18.26 19.04 20.08 Enac 7.20 8.04 8.34 9.26 10.39 11.46 12.56 13.39 14.51 15.51 16.34 18.06 18.31 19.09 20.13 Pont Ducuing 7.27 8.11 8.41 9.33 10.46 11.53 13.03 13.46 14.58 15.58 16.41 18.13 18.38 19.16 20.20 Université Paul-Sabatier 7.29 8.13 8.43 9.35 10.48 11.55 13.05 13.48 15.00 16.00 16.43 18.15 18.40 19.18 20.22 Lundi à vendredi en vacances scolaires Balma 68 Ligne Gramont – 7.45 DIRECTION –UNIVERSITÉ PAUL-SABATIER14.30 8.40 9.30 11.10 12.00 12.40 – – 17.40 Banque Populaire – 7.47 8.42 9.32 – 11.12 12.02 12.42 – 14.32 – 17.42 La Coste 7.00 – – – 10.20 – – – 13.05 – 16.10 – Lundi à d'Eau Chateau vendredi 7.03 7.50 8.45 9.35 10.23 11.15 12.05 12.45 13.08 14.35 16.13 17.45 Eglise Balma 7.08 7.55 8.50 9.40 10.28 11.20 12.10 12.50 13.13 14.40 16.18 17.50 Les informations de ce document sont suscep- Achiary Lespinet Struxiano 6.357.166.50 8.037.00 8.58 7.10 9.48 7.33 7.21 10.36 7.45 11.287.57 12.18 8.09 12.58 8.20 13.21 8.40 8.30 14.48 16.26 9.0217.58 8.50 9.22 9.42 10.02 10.22 Barrau CREPS 6.397.216.54 8.087.04 9.03 7.14 9.53 7.37 7.25 10.41 7.49 11.338.01 12.23 8.13 13.03 8.24 13.26 8.44 8.34 14.53 16.31 9.0618.03 8.54 9.26 tibles d’être modifiées pour des raisons 9.46 10.06 10.26 Campus Canal Bréguet 6.447.266.59 8.137.09 7.19 9.08 7.30 9.58 7.46 10.46 7.58 11.388.10 12.28 8.22 13.08 8.33 13.31 8.53 8.43 14.58 9.03 16.36 9.1518.08 9.35 d'exploitation ou à10.35 9.55 10.15 la suite d'incidents de la IUT Rangueil Enac 6.467.307.01 8.177.11 7.21 9.12 7.33 10.02 7.49 10.50 8.01 11.428.13 12.32 8.25 13.12 8.36 8.46 13.35 8.56 15.02 9.06 16.40 9.1818.12 9.38 circulation.10.18 10.38 9.58 Université Paul Sabatier 6.507.377.05 7.15 7.25 10.09 7.54 7.38 10.57 8.06 11.498.18 12.39 8.30 13.19 8.41 13.42 9.01 8.51 9.11 16.47 9.2318.18 9.43 10.03 10.23 10.43 MAJ 20.11.2008 Pont Ducuing 8.24 9.19 15.09 Pour connaître les dernières évolutions, vous Université Paul-Sabatier 7.39 8.26 9.21 10.11 10.59 11.51 12.41 13.21 13.44 15.11 16.49 18.20 pouvez consulter notre site www.tisseo.fr Lespinet Struxiano 10.42 11.02 11.22 11.42 12.02 12.22 12.41 13.01 13.21 13.41 14.00 14.20 14.40 15.00 15.20 15.38 15.56 16.13 CREPS 10.46 11.06 11.26 11.46 12.06 12.26 12.45 13.05 13.25 13.45 14.04 14.24 14.44 15.04 15.24 15.42 16.00 16.17 Campus Canal 10.55 11.15 11.35 11.55 12.15 12.35 12.54 13.14 13.34 13.54 14.13 14.33 14.53 15.13 15.33 15.51 16.09 16.26 IUT Rangueil Université Paul Sabatier 10.58 11.03 11.18 11.23 Cette ligne ne fonctionne pas les samedis, dimanches et jours fériés. 11.38 11.43 11.58 12.03 12.18 12.23 12.38 12.43 12.57 13.02 13.17 13.22 13.37 13.42 13.57 14.02 14.16 14.21 14.36 14.41 14.56 15.01 15.16 15.21 15.36 15.41 15.54 15.59 16.12 16.17 16.29 Date d’application : 22.12.2008 16.34 Lespinet Struxiano 16.30 16.42 16.54 17.05 17.16 17.27 17.38 17.49 18.00 18.11 18.30 18.50 19.10 CREPS 16.34 16.46 16.58 17.09 17.20 17.31 17.42 17.53 18.04 18.15 18.34 18.54 19.14 Campus Canal 16.43 16.55 17.07 17.18 17.29 17.40 17.51 18.02 18.13 18.24 18.39 18.59 19.19 IUT Rangueil 16.46 16.58 17.10 17.21 17.32 17.43 17.54 18.05 18.16 18.27 18.41 19.01 19.21 Université Paul Sabatier 16.51 17.03 17.15 17.26 17.37 17.48 17.59 18.10 18.21 18.32 18.45 19.05 19.25 Samedi !"#$% CREPS &'( Lespinet Struxiano Campus Canal 7.00 7.03 7.09 7.20 7.23 7.29 7.40 7.43 7.49 8.00 8.03 8.09 8.20 8.23 8.29 8.40 8.43 8.49 9.00 9.03 9.09 9.20 9.23 9.29 9.40 9.43 9.49 10.00 10.03 10.09 10.20 10.23 10.29 10.40 10.43 10.49 11.00 11.03 11.09 11.20 11.23 11.29 11.40 11.43 11.49 12.00 12.03 12.09 12.20 12.23 12.29 12.40 12.43 12.49 IUT Rangueil 7.11 7.31 7.51 8.11 8.31 8.51 9.11 9.31 9.51 10.11 10.31 10.51 11.11 11.31 11.51 12.11 12.31 12.51 Université Paul Sabatier 7.14 7.34 7.54 8.14 8.34 8.54 9.14 9.34 9.54 10.14 10.34 10.54 11.14 11.34 11.54 12.14 12.34 12.54 Lespinet Struxiano 13.20 14.00 14.40 15.20 15.40 16.00 16.20 16.40 17.00 17.20 17.40 18.00 18.20 18.40 19.00 CREPS 13.23 14.03 14.43 15.23 15.43 16.03 16.23 16.43 17.03 17.23 17.43 18.03 18.23 18.43 19.02 Campus Canal 13.29 14.09 14.49 15.29 15.49 16.09 16.29 16.49 17.09 17.29 17.49 18.09 18.29 18.49 19.07 IUT Rangueil 13.31 14.11 14.51 15.31 15.51 16.11 16.31 16.51 17.11 17.31 17.51 18.11 18.31 18.51 19.09 Université Paul Sabatier 13.34 14.14 14.54 15.34 15.54 16.14 16.34 16.54 17.14 17.34 17.54 18.14 18.34 18.54 19.10 Lundi à vendredi en vacances scolaires Lespinet Struxiano 6.35 6.55 7.09 7.22 7.38 7.53 8.09 8.25 8.40 8.56 9.12 9.27 9.42 10.05 10.28 10.51 11.14 CREPS 6.38 6.58 7.12 7.25 7.41 7.56 8.12 8.28 8.43 8.59 9.15 9.30 9.45 10.08 10.31 10.54 11.17 Campus Canal 6.42 7.02 7.16 7.29 7.45 8.00 8.16 8.32 8.47 9.03 9.19 9.34 9.49 10.12 10.35 10.58 11.21 IUT Rangueil 6.43 7.03 7.17 7.30 7.46 8.01 8.17 8.33 8.48 9.04 9.20 9.35 9.50 10.13 10.36 10.59 11.22 Université Paul Sabatier 6.51 7.11 7.25 7.40 7.56 8.11 8.27 8.43 8.58 9.14 9.30 9.45 10.00 10.23 10.46 11.09 11.32 Lespinet Struxiano 11.37 12.00 12.23 12.46 13.09 13.32 13.55 14.18 14.41 15.04 15.27 15.50 16.13 16.36 16.59 17.22 17.45 CREPS 11.40 12.03 12.26 12.49 13.12 13.35 13.58 14.21 14.44 15.07 15.30 15.53 16.16 16.39 17.02 17.25 17.48 Campus Canal 11.44 12.07 12.30 12.53 13.16 13.39 14.02 14.25 14.48 15.11 15.34 15.57 16.20 16.43 17.06 17.29 17.52 IUT Rangueil 11.45 12.08 12.31 12.54 13.17 13.40 14.03 14.26 14.49 15.12 15.35 15.58 16.21 16.44 17.07 17.30 17.53 Université Paul Sabatier 11.55 12.18 12.41 13.04 13.27 13.50 14.13 14.36 14.59 15.22 15.45 16.08 16.31 16.54 17.17 17.40 18.03 Lespinet Struxiano 18.08 18.31 18.54 19.15 CREPS 18.11 18.34 18.57 19.18 Campus Canal 18.15 18.38 19.01 19.21 La desserte CNES et FIAS est assurée à tous les passages. IUT Rangueil 18.16 18.39 19.02 19.22 Les informations de ce document sont susceptibles d’être modifiées pour des raisons d'exploitation ou à la suite Université Paul Sabatier 18.26 18.49 19.10 19.30 d'incidents de la circulation. Pour connaître les dernières évolutions, vous pouvez consulter notre site www.tisseo.fr 11 08
  • 12. TISSEO_hiv68 30/01/08 16:08 Page 2 «how long will I wait?» Horaires valables à compter du 1er septembre2008 Horaires valables à compter du 22 décembre 2008 M M bus line Ligne 51 1.1 DIRECTION UNIVERSITÉ PAUL-SABATIER M current time Lundi à vendredi Balma Gramont – – 7.50 8.50 – 11.10 12.20 – 14.15 15.15 – 17.25 17.50 18.30 19.40 Banque Populaire – – 7.52 8.52 – 11.12 12.22 – 14.17 15.17 – 17.27 17.52 18.32 19.42 La Coste 1.2 Château d'Eau Eglise Balma 6.45 6.48 6.54 7.20 7.23 7.29 – 7.55 8.01 – 8.55 9.01 10.05 10.08 10.14 – 11.15 11.21 – 12.25 12.31 13.05 13.08 13.14 – 14.20 14.26 – 15.20 15.26 15.55 15.58 16.04 – 17.30 17.36 – 17.55 18.01 – 18.35 18.41 – 19.45 19.50 Achiary 7.04 7.41 8.13 9.11 10.24 11.31 12.41 13.24 14.36 15.36 16.17 17.49 18.14 18.54 20.00 Barrau 7.08 7.48 8.20 9.16 10.29 11.36 12.46 13.29 14.41 15.41 16.23 17.55 18.20 19.00 20.04 Bréguet 7.13 7.55 8.27 9.21 10.34 11.41 12.51 13.34 14.46 15.46 16.29 18.01 18.26 19.04 20.08 Enac 7.20 8.04 8.34 9.26 10.39 11.46 12.56 13.39 14.51 15.51 16.34 18.06 18.31 19.09 20.13 Pont Ducuing 7.27 8.11 8.41 9.33 10.46 11.53 13.03 13.46 14.58 15.58 16.41 18.13 18.38 19.16 20.20 Université Paul-Sabatier 7.29 8.13 8.43 9.35 10.48 11.55 13.05 13.48 15.00 16.00 16.43 18.15 18.40 19.18 20.22 Lundi à vendredi en vacances scolaires Balma 68 Ligne Gramont – 7.45 DIRECTION –UNIVERSITÉ PAUL-SABATIER14.30 8.40 9.30 11.10 12.00 12.40 – – 17.40 Banque Populaire – 7.47 8.42 9.32 – 11.12 12.02 12.42 – 14.32 – 17.42 La Coste 7.00 – – – 10.20 – – – 13.05 – 16.10 – Lundi à d'Eau Chateau vendredi 1.2.1 Eglise Balma 7.03 7.08 7.50 7.55 8.45 8.50 9.35 9.40 10.23 10.28 11.15 11.20 12.05 12.10 12.45 12.50 13.08 13.13 14.35 14.40 16.13 16.18 17.45 17.50 Les informations de ce document sont suscep- Achiary Lespinet Struxiano 6.357.166.50 8.037.00 8.58 7.10 9.48 7.33 7.21 10.36 7.45 11.287.57 12.18 8.09 12.58 8.20 13.21 8.40 8.30 14.48 16.26 9.0217.58 8.50 9.22 9.42 10.02 10.22 Barrau CREPS 6.397.216.54 8.087.04 9.03 7.14 9.53 7.37 7.25 10.41 7.49 11.338.01 12.23 8.13 13.03 8.24 13.26 8.44 8.34 14.53 16.31 9.0618.03 8.54 9.26 tibles d’être modifiées pour des raisons 9.46 10.06 10.26 Campus Canal Bréguet IUT Rangueil Enac 6.447.266.59 6.467.307.01 8.13 8.17 7.09 7.11 7.19 9.08 7.21 9.12 7.30 9.58 7.46 7.33 10.02 10.46 7.58 7.49 10.50 11.388.10 12.28 8.01 11.42 8.22 13.08 8.13 12.32 8.33 8.25 13.12 8.36 8.46 13.35 1.2.1.x 13.31 8.53 8.43 14.58 8.56 15.02 9.03 16.36 9.1518.08 9.06 16.40 9.35 9.1818.12 9.38 d'exploitation ou à10.35 9.55 10.15 la suite d'incidents de la circulation.10.18 10.38 9.58 Université Paul Sabatier 6.507.377.05 7.15 7.25 7.38 7.54 8.06 8.18 12.39 8.30 13.19 8.41 8.51 9.01 9.11 9.2318.18 9.43 10.03 10.23 10.43 MAJ 20.11.2008 Pont Ducuing 8.24 9.19 10.09 10.57 11.49 13.42 15.09 16.47 Pour connaître les dernières évolutions, vous Université Paul-Sabatier Lespinet Struxiano 7.39 10.42 11.02 8.26 11.22 9.21 11.42 10.11 12.02 1.2.2 10.59 12.22 11.51 12.41 12.41 13.01 13.21 13.44 13.21 15.11 13.41 14.00 14.20 16.49 14.40 18.20 15.00 15.20 pouvez consulter notre site www.tisseo.fr 15.38 15.56 16.13 CREPS 10.46 11.06 11.26 11.46 12.06 12.26 12.45 13.05 13.25 13.45 14.04 14.24 14.44 15.04 15.24 15.42 16.00 16.17 Campus Canal IUT Rangueil Université Paul Sabatier 10.55 10.58 11.03 11.15 11.18 11.23 11.35 11.43 11.55 12.03 1.2.2.x 12.15 12.23 12.35 12.43 12.54 13.02 13.14 13.22 13.34 Cette ligne ne fonctionne pas les samedis, dimanches etM 11.38 11.58 12.18 12.38 12.57 13.17 13.37 13.42 13.54 jours fériés. 13.57 14.02 14.13 14.16 14.21 14.33 14.36 14.41 14.53 14.56 15.01 15.13 15.16 15.21 15.33 15.36 15.41 15.51 15.54 15.59 16.09 16.12 16.17 16.26 16.29 Date d’application : 22.12.2008 16.34 Lespinet Struxiano 16.30 16.42 16.54 17.05 17.16 17.27 17.38 17.49 18.00 18.11 18.30 18.50 19.10 CREPS Campus Canal IUT Rangueil 16.34 16.43 16.46 16.46 16.55 16.58 16.58 17.07 17.10 17.09 17.18 17.21 1.3 17.20 17.29 17.32 17.31 17.40 17.43 17.42 17.51 17.54 17.53 18.02 18.05 18.04 18.13 18.16 18.15 18.24 18.27 18.34 18.39 18.41 18.54 18.59 19.01 19.14 19.19 19.21 Université Paul Sabatier 16.51 17.03 17.15 17.26 17.37 17.48 17.59 18.10 18.21 18.32 18.45 19.05 19.25 Samedi !"#$% CREPS &'( Lespinet Struxiano Campus Canal 7.00 7.03 7.09 7.20 7.23 7.29 7.40 7.43 7.49 8.00 8.03 8.09 8.20 8.23 8.29 8.40 8.43 8.49 9.00 9.03 9.09 9.20 9.23 9.29 9.40 9.43 9.49 10.00 10.03 10.09 10.20 10.23 10.29 10.40 10.43 10.49 11.00 11.03 11.09 11.20 11.23 11.29 11.40 11.43 11.49 12.00 12.03 12.09 12.20 12.23 12.29 12.40 12.43 12.49 IUT Rangueil 7.11 7.31 7.51 8.11 8.31 8.51 9.11 9.31 9.51 10.11 10.31 10.51 11.11 11.31 11.51 12.11 12.31 12.51 1.3.1 1.3.1.1 Université Paul Sabatier 7.14 7.34 7.54 8.14 8.34 8.54 9.14 9.34 9.54 10.14 10.34 10.54 11.14 11.34 11.54 12.14 12.34 12.54 Lespinet Struxiano 13.20 14.00 14.40 15.20 15.40 16.00 16.20 16.40 17.00 17.20 17.40 18.00 18.20 18.40 19.00 CREPS 13.23 14.03 14.43 15.23 15.43 16.03 16.23 16.43 17.03 17.23 17.43 18.03 18.23 18.43 19.02 Campus Canal 13.29 14.09 14.49 15.29 15.49 16.09 16.29 16.49 17.09 17.29 17.49 18.09 18.29 18.49 19.07 IUT Rangueil 13.31 14.11 14.51 15.31 15.51 16.11 16.31 16.51 17.11 17.31 17.51 18.11 18.31 18.51 19.09 Université Paul Sabatier 13.34 14.14 14.54 15.34 15.54 16.14 16.34 16.54 17.14 17.34 17.54 18.14 18.34 18.54 19.10 1.3.2 1.3.2.x Lundi à vendredi en vacances scolaires M Lespinet Struxiano 6.35 6.55 7.09 7.22 7.38 7.53 8.09 8.25 8.40 8.56 9.12 9.27 9.42 10.05 10.28 10.51 11.14 CREPS 6.38 6.58 7.12 7.25 7.41 7.56 8.12 8.28 8.43 8.59 9.15 9.30 9.45 10.08 10.31 10.54 11.17 Campus Canal 6.42 7.02 7.16 7.29 M 7.45 8.00 8.16 8.32 8.47 9.03 9.19 9.34 9.49 10.12 10.35 10.58 11.21 IUT Rangueil 6.43 7.03 7.17 7.30 7.46 8.01 8.17 8.33 8.48 9.04 9.20 9.35 9.50 10.13 10.36 10.59 11.22 Université Paul Sabatier 6.51 7.11 7.25 7.40 7.56 8.11 8.27 8.43 8.58 9.14 9.30 9.45 10.00 10.23 10.46 11.09 11.32 1.3.3 1.3.3.1 CREPS Campus Canal 1.3.3.2 Lespinet Struxiano 11.37 11.40 11.44 12.00 12.03 12.07 12.23 12.26 12.30 12.46 12.49 12.53 13.09 13.12 13.16 13.32 13.35 13.39 13.55 13.58 14.02 14.18 14.21 14.25 14.41 14.44 14.48 15.04 15.07 15.11 15.27 15.30 15.34 15.50 15.53 15.57 16.13 16.16 16.20 16.36 16.39 16.43 16.59 17.02 17.06 17.22 17.25 17.29 17.45 17.48 17.52 IUT Rangueil 11.45 12.08 12.31 12.54 13.17 13.40 14.03 14.26 14.49 15.12 15.35 15.58 16.21 16.44 17.07 17.30 17.53 Université Paul Sabatier 11.55 12.18 12.41 13.04 13.27 13.50 14.13 14.36 14.59 15.22 15.45 16.08 16.31 16.54 17.17 17.40 18.03 Lespinet Struxiano 18.08 18.31 18.54 19.15 CREPS 18.11 18.34 18.57 19.18 La desserte CNES et FIAS est assurée à tous les passages. Campus Canal IUT Rangueil 18.15 18.16 18.38 18.39 19.01 19.02 19.21 19.22 Les informations de ce document sont susceptibles d’être modifiées pour des raisons d'exploitation ou à la suite 12 Université Paul Sabatier 18.26 18.49 19.10 19.30 d'incidents de la circulation. Pour connaître les dernières évolutions, vous pouvez consulter notre site www.tisseo.fr
  • 13. «how long will I wait?» M M bus line 1 M current time 2 3 4 seeking and navigating among a subset of marks: times of departure are displayed in a ordered manner seeking a subset of marks: easy selection of elements to the right of the element found in step 2 (selection based on location). memorizing: less information to memorize (3 vs 6). …and there are no apparent drawback. 13
  • 14. Dragicevic, P. and Huot, S. 2002. SpiraClock: a continuous and non-intrusive display for upcoming events. In Extended Abstracts of «how long will I wait?» CHI '02. ACM, 604-605. bus line 8h M M 9h 10h 11h 12h 13h 14h 15h 16h 17h 1 18h 2 3 entering: current time directly visible (hands). navigating: since the time is visible, navigating to the next correct bus is shorter exiting: rough idea of the waiting time directly visible (no computation needed, culturally-known scale). … and there are no apparent drawback. 14
  • 15. «how long will I wait?» M M bus line 1 M current time 2 navigating: linear layout + space between rows, visual steering task easier … at the expense of the entering operation (no current time visible, since the representation is not dynamic). 15
  • 16. summary Munzner, T. A Nested Process Model for Visualization Design and Validation. In IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 921-928, 2009. threat: wrong problem deciphering a visualization is an negatives and some false positives: many well-designed tools fail to validate: observe and interview target users be adopted, and some poorly-designed tools win in the marketplace. threat: bad data/operation abstraction threat: ineffective encoding/interaction technique overlooked problem Nevertheless, the important aspect of this signal is that it reports what the target users do of their own accord, as opposed to the approaches validate: justify encoding/interaction design below where target users are implicitly or explicitly asked to use a tool. threat: slow algorithm validate: analyze computational complexity identified a set of visual tasks that 3.4 Abstraction Threats implement system validate: measure system time/memory elicit efforts to be made At the abstraction design level, the threat is that the chosen operations and data types do not solve the characterized problems of the target validate: qualitative/quantitative result image analysis audience. The key aspect of validation against this threat is that the [test on any users, informal usability study] system must be tested by target users doing their own work, rather can be improvement of designs validate: lab study, measure human time/errors for operation than an abstract operation specified by the designers of the study. validate: test on target users, collect anecdotal evidence of utility validate: field study, document human usage of deployed system validate: observe adoption rates explained with this set A common downstream form of validation is to have a member of the target user community try the tool, in hopes of collecting anecdotal evidence that the tool is in fact useful. These anecdotes may have the g. 2. Threats and validation in the nested model. Downstream levels shared vocabulary, design rationale form of insights found or hypotheses confirmed. Of course, this obser- vation cannot be made until after all three of the other levels have been re distinguished from upstream ones with containment and color, as in fully addressed, after the algorithm designed at the innermost level is gure 1. Many threats at the outer levels require downstream valida- implemented. Although this form of validation is usually qualitative, on, which cannot be carried out until the inner levels within them are some influential work towards quantifying insight has been done [37]. ddressed, as shown by the red lines. Usually a single paper would only A more rigorous validation approach for this level is to observe and ddress a subset of these levels, not all of them at once. document how the target audience uses the deployed system as part of their real-world workflow, typically in the form of a longer-term field study. We distinguish these field studies of deployed systems, which ure. We use the word validation rather than evaluation to underscore are appropriate for this level, from the exploratory pre-design field he idea that validation is required for every level, and extends beyond studies that investigate how users carry out their tasks before system ser studies and ethnographic observation to include complexity anal- deployment that are appropriate for the characterization level above. sis and benchmark timings. In software engineering, validation is We do echo the call of Shneiderman and Plaisant [39] for more field 16
  • 17. open questions is the set correct and complete ? what facilitates/hinders visual task accomplishment ? how to use it for design ? how to analyze correctly and completly ? predictive model: difficult... Lohse, G. L. 1993. A cognitive model for understanding graphical perception. Hum.- Comput. Interact. 8, 4 (Dec. 1993), 353-388. 17
  • 18. the end 18
  • 19. «how to integrate a flight?» M CRX92C 270 2.1 AGN 1 M 10 15 20 AF121ZL 100 FISTO 2.2 10 15 20 2.2.1 AF497PY 120 TAN AUCHE AGN 10 2.3 15 20 SWR686 290 AGN 10 2.3.1 15 20 +: visual steering task, beacon search is facilitated (seeking and navigating) Verifying a predicate: the time limit is directly visible. -: additionnal interaction to reach beacons not yet visible on the time scale. 19