INDEX- Energy definition.- Types of energy.- Energy sources.- Renewable and non-renewable energy.- Environmental impact.- Energy power stations.
ENERGY DEFINITIONEnergy is the capacity of an object to do a work.Energy is measured in joules (J) or in kilojoules (kJ). 1000 J = 1 kJHeat energy is measured in calories (cal) orkilocalories (kcal). 1 cal = 4.18 J
TYPES OF ENERGY- Mechanical energy: - Kinetic energy. - Potential energy.- Electrical energy.- Electromagnetic energy.- Thermal or calorific energy.- Nuclear energy.- Sound energy.- Chemical energy.
MECHANICAL ENERGYMechanical energy is the energy related withmovement. There are two types:- Kinetic energy: When an object is inmovement, it has this type of energy.- Potential energy: When objects are movedfrom itś stable point of equilibrium, they have thistypa of energy.
ELECTRICAL ENERGYIt is the energy produced by the elecric current.
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGYIts the energy produced by the electromagneticfenomena.
SOUND ENERGYIts the energy produced by the vibrations of thesound.
CHEMICAL ENERGYIts the energy produced by the stores ofsubstances by chemical processes.
THERMAL ENERGYIts the energy produced by thetemperature of the objects.
NUCLEAR ENERGYIts the energy produced by the nuclei ofatoms.
ENERGY SOURCES Energy sources are natural resources thatprovide different forms of energy. This energy is transformed for specific uses.
RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy comes from unlimitednatural resources such as the sun, the wind, the water.
Hydraulic energyHydraulic energy is the mechanical energy produced by the movement of water.
Solar energySolar energis the energy produced by the sun and it is transformed into electrical energy by photovoltaic panels.
Wind energyWhen the wind moves, it makes the wind turbinesmove and the winds kinetic energy is converted into electricity.
Marine energy -Tidal energy: Can be axtracted from theeveryday rise and fall of the level of the searelative to the land. -Wave energy: Is extracted from the movementof sea waves. -Ocean thermal energy: is produced from thedifferences between the temperature of the deepsea and the surface.
Geothermal energyGeothermal energy is energy that comes from theearth such as the magma emited by a volcano or the water emited by a geyser.
BiomassIt is biological material produced by living beingssuch as trees and animals. This material is used to produce charcoal, biogas and biodiesel.
NON-RENEWABLE ENERGYNon-renewable energy comes from limited naturalsources such us petroleum, natural gas and coal.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSNon-renewable energy sometimes causesenvironmental problems that are difficult to solve.Such as:- Increase greenhouse effect.- Acid rain.- Oil spills.- Nuclear waste.- Rising water temperature.- Atmospheric pollution.
Greenhouse effectWhen we burn fossil fuels, they release carbondioxide. This carbon dioxide are stored in theatmosphere and traps the suns rays.
Acid rain Acid rain is a kind of precipitation that is causedby emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. It can have harmful effects on plants, aquaticanimals, and infrastructure.The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion of stone statues.
Nuclear waste The environmental impact of nuclear power stations results from the radioactivity of the nuclear waste that has to be stored in safety systems, some nuclear accidents that haveocured are the Chernobyl disaster (1986) and Fukushima I nuclear accidents (2011).
Oil spills Oil spills happened when people make mistakesor are careless, and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. It has very bad damages in animals and plants and many living beings die.
Energy power stationsThermal power station:is a power plant in which station heat energy is transformed into electricity. Firs the water is heated, this water moves spinsand tubines an finally a steam turbine drives it into an electrical generator
Energy power stations Nuclear power station: is a thermal powerstation in which heat energy sources are nuclear reactors.
Energy power stationsPhotovoltaic power station: is a power plant inwhich solar energy is transformed into electricity through panels called photovoltaic panels
Energy power stations Wind power station: is a power plant in whichwind energy is transformed into electricity when it moves the wind turbines.
Energy power stationsHydraulic power station:is a plant in which the cinetic energy of the water is transformed into electricity.
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