SECRET OF SINGAPORE’S
“LUCK” followed by “PERSONAL
DRIVE” and “SINCERITY OF
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew noted that
“it was easier to improve the
physical infrastructure than the
rough and ready ways of the
this slogan was credited to
Lee Kuan Yew
changed by Urban
Redevelopment Authority in
•Greening inspired cities in Asia and beyond
to develop their own “garden city” plans.
•Greenness humanizes the city, at ground
level the canopies of leaves reduce the
height of the city visually.
•It softens the harshness of the high-rise city,
an avoidable consequence of land scarcity.
Ebenezer Howard’s 1898 Garden
1. Prioritization of green space
2. The removal of industry
3. Building communities
Prioritization of green space
• Permanent agricultural
greenbelt around the city
• As parks within the city
The removal of industry
• No more large & middle-sized
factories built in the central area.
• Removal of factories from the city
center. “the sustainable
• Opening up the seashore for
recreational uses and increasing the
per capita green space.
Building communities, shaping
• Concerned with people’s
behaviour and self-government
• Community buildings
• Population management
DALIAN CITY, CHINA
was advertised as
“HONG KONG OF THE NORTH”
•“PLANNING PRIVATOPOLIS” is the
material and social aspects of
• Emphasizes self-contained zones
with requisite elements of “urban
efficiencies” to attract new
UIMs (Urban Integrated Megaprojects)
-privatization of urban and regional
-cities or urban district-scale integrated
development project built on for profit-
basis by a single developer.
MAKATI CENTRAL BUSINESS
• Dominate Metro Manila’s global business
• Wholly owned by Ayala Land, a private
developer which master planned it as an
elite residential enclave and commercial
and office center since late 1940’s.
UIMs (Urban Integrated
-a defining feature of Metro Manila’s Urban
- This trend has been facilitated by
weakness of both civil and political society
The American colonial regime fostered the
development of an electoral democracy,
but deliberately maintained an elite
This result to a system of “booty
capitalism” in which powerful business
class extracts privilege from largely
incoherent bureaucracy (Hutchcroft 1998).
2 Channels of UIMs
1. Through the acquisition by private
corporations of large tracts of formerly
hacienda land. (Magno-Ballesteros
2. Through the government sale of state
Through the acquisition...
• Beginning the development of Ayala family after
WWII of its Hacienda de Makati landholding.
• Subsequently acquired agricultural and food
processing estates in South Metro Manila, Ayala
• Plus the adjoining province of Laguna, Laguna
Technopark, Ayala West Grove and Ayala South.
Through the govt. sale...
• Made possible by BCDA (Bases Conversion
• The most significant project is the Bonifacio
• From Pan-Asian consortium then subsequently
bought out by Ayala Land Inc. and being
developed as extension of MCBD.
What has resulted is a much more
fragmented urban landscape,
characterized by the polarization of
urban space between the
congested space of the “public
city”, and highly regulated, carefully
designed spaces of the elite
consumerism and global business.
It highlighted the tensions inherent
in the persistent socio-economic
and political disparities that
characterize the Philippine society.
For my references, I will try to retrieve the
books I’ve read about urban planning and
design. My apologies to the author of said
books, and also to the owner of pictures posted
on Google images, please allow me to use these
pictures for my presentation. Thank you!
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