Urban planning

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Urban planning

  1. 1. URBAN PLANNING Arch. Maribel C. Tubera, MSCM UAPSA-Lecture series February 2013
  2. 2. “THE SKYLINE RISES IN THE EAST” Rem Koolhaas
  3. 3. Singapore, Shanghai & Hong Kong… instead of New York, London and Paris
  4. 4. SINGAPORE SHANGHAI HONG KONG
  5. 5. NEW YORK LONDON PARIS
  6. 6. 2 UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF GLOBALIZATION 1.Global capitalism 2.Post-colonialism
  7. 7. PROBLEMS WITH MODERN LIFE AND NATURAL INTERESTS a. City infrastructure b. Investments c. Sustainable standards d. Political life e. Aesthetic value
  8. 8. URBAN PLANNING INVOLVES: • Architects • Economists • Engineers • Social scientists
  9. 9. Metropolis are viewed not as fixed locality but nexus of situated and transnational ideas.
  10. 10. 3 styles of being global 1. Modeling 2. Inter-referencing 3. Association
  11. 11. MODELING • Actual urban projects that have been dubbed “garden”, “sustainable”, “liveable” or “world- class” that planners hope to reproduce elsewhere. • This cannot be a process of cloning.
  12. 12. Led the way in solving urban problems 1. Public housing 2. Downtown development 3. Clean industries 4. Upscale districts 5. Cultural & tourist attractions Transformed them into world-class cities
  13. 13. ASIAN CITIES “MODELS” • “GARDEN CITY” • SUBSIDIZED HOUSING • INDUSTRIAL ESTATES • UPSCALE RESIDENTIAL ENCLAVES • WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  14. 14. HONG KONG sees itself as “ASIA’S WORLD CITY”
  15. 15. HONG KONG
  16. 16. DUBAI had become a “DREAM CITY” for millions of citizens in Asia , Africa & Middle East and beyond
  17. 17. DUBAI
  18. 18. ARABO-MODERNIST FAÇADE DUBAI projects a vision of metropolitan modernity for Elite South Asian Migrants.
  19. 19. SINGAPORE present itself as the knowledge of a far-flung “effervescent” “BUSINESS ECOSYSTEM”
  20. 20. SINGAPORE
  21. 21. SECRET OF SINGAPORE’S SUCCESS “LUCK” followed by “PERSONAL DRIVE” and “SINCERITY OF PURPOSE”. Lee Kuan Yew
  22. 22. Lee Kuan Yew noted that “it was easier to improve the physical infrastructure than the rough and ready ways of the people”.
  23. 23. “GARDEN CITY” this slogan was credited to Lee Kuan Yew
  24. 24. “GARDEN CITY” to “CITY-IN-A-GARDEN” changed by Urban Redevelopment Authority in 2000
  25. 25. “GARDEN CITY” •Greening inspired cities in Asia and beyond to develop their own “garden city” plans. •Greenness humanizes the city, at ground level the canopies of leaves reduce the height of the city visually. •It softens the harshness of the high-rise city, an avoidable consequence of land scarcity.
  26. 26. Ebenezer Howard’s 1898 Garden City Vision 1. Prioritization of green space 2. The removal of industry 3. Building communities
  27. 27. Prioritization of green space • Permanent agricultural greenbelt around the city • As parks within the city
  28. 28. The removal of industry • No more large & middle-sized factories built in the central area. • Removal of factories from the city center. “the sustainable development strategy”. • Opening up the seashore for recreational uses and increasing the per capita green space.
  29. 29. Building communities, shaping subjectivity • Concerned with people’s behaviour and self-government • Community buildings • Population management
  30. 30. DALIAN CITY, CHINA was advertised as “HONG KONG OF THE NORTH” (Yahuda, 1994)
  31. 31. DALIAN CITY, CHINA
  32. 32. DALIAN CITY greening experience •Fostering of civilized and quality citizens; •Technological sophistication; •Being green is directly associated with being modern and civilized.
  33. 33. COMMUNITY BUILDING FOSTERS “QUALITY” CITIZENS WHO WILL BEHAVE RESPONSIBLY.
  34. 34. HOW TO EDUCATE AND PERSUADE PEOPLE TO ACT SUSTAINABLY FOR THE LONG TERM
  35. 35. MANILA modeled as a “LITTLE SINGAPORE”
  36. 36. MAKATI CBD
  37. 37. MANILA •“PLANNING PRIVATOPOLIS” is the material and social aspects of Manila. • Emphasizes self-contained zones with requisite elements of “urban efficiencies” to attract new investments.
  38. 38. PLANNING PRIVATOPOLIS UIMs (Urban Integrated Megaprojects) -privatization of urban and regional planning. -cities or urban district-scale integrated development project built on for profit- basis by a single developer.
  39. 39. MAKATI CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT • Dominate Metro Manila’s global business functions. • Wholly owned by Ayala Land, a private developer which master planned it as an elite residential enclave and commercial and office center since late 1940’s.
  40. 40. UIMs (Urban Integrated Megaprojects) -a defining feature of Metro Manila’s Urban Landscape - This trend has been facilitated by weakness of both civil and political society
  41. 41. “BOOTY CAPITALISM” The American colonial regime fostered the development of an electoral democracy, but deliberately maintained an elite political control. This result to a system of “booty capitalism” in which powerful business class extracts privilege from largely incoherent bureaucracy (Hutchcroft 1998).
  42. 42. 2 Channels of UIMs 1. Through the acquisition by private corporations of large tracts of formerly hacienda land. (Magno-Ballesteros 2000) 2. Through the government sale of state land.
  43. 43. Through the acquisition... • Beginning the development of Ayala family after WWII of its Hacienda de Makati landholding. • Subsequently acquired agricultural and food processing estates in South Metro Manila, Ayala Alabang UIM. • Plus the adjoining province of Laguna, Laguna Technopark, Ayala West Grove and Ayala South.
  44. 44. Through the govt. sale... • Made possible by BCDA (Bases Conversion Development Authority) • The most significant project is the Bonifacio Global City • From Pan-Asian consortium then subsequently bought out by Ayala Land Inc. and being developed as extension of MCBD.
  45. 45. What has resulted is a much more fragmented urban landscape, characterized by the polarization of urban space between the congested space of the “public city”, and highly regulated, carefully designed spaces of the elite consumerism and global business.
  46. 46. It highlighted the tensions inherent in the persistent socio-economic and political disparities that characterize the Philippine society.
  47. 47. END For my references, I will try to retrieve the books I’ve read about urban planning and design. My apologies to the author of said books, and also to the owner of pictures posted on Google images, please allow me to use these pictures for my presentation. Thank you!

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