Suez University
Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering

Minerals and Rocks
Student
Belal Farouk El-saied Ibrahim
Class ...
Main Topics





Minerals.
Rocks.
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Rock cycle.
What are minerals?






All rocks are composed of
minerals
Minerals are naturally
occurring, inorganic,
crystalline so...
About 20 minerals make up more than 95%
of all of the rocks in the Earth’s crust
Composition of the Earth’s
Crust



Eight Elements that make up over 98%
of Earth’s Crust
-Oxygen (O)
-Silicon (SI)
-Alum...
MINERAL PROPERTIES
Physical properties of minerals are dictated by the nature of
the underlying atomic structure, nature a...
Color


Usually the first and most easily observed
-Some minerals are always the same color
-Some minerals can have many ...
Luster


General
appearance of a
mineral surface in
reflected light

Glassy-Obsidian
Hardness
External Crystal Form:a solid plane in which the
atoms are arranged in orderly, repeating patterns
A. cubic
B. tetragonal
...
CUBIC
HALITE

TETRAGONAL HEXAGONAL
WULFENITE
BERYL

ORTHORHOMBIC MONOCLINIC
TANZANITE
GYPSUM

TRICLINIC
MONTEBRASITE
CLEAVAGE: splitting along preferred directions due to weak
bonds within the atomic structure. Cleavage is described as per...
Planer Cleavage in Mica
Rhombohedral Cleavage in Calcite
Fracture: the way a substance breaks where not controlled
by cleavage. Described as: conchoidal,
irregular, splintery, blo...
Conchoidal Fracture in Glass
Special Properties






Magnetism (Magnetite)
Glowing under ultraviolet light (Fluorite)
Salty taste (Halite)
Smell ...
Magnetism

Fluorescence

Magnetite

Double Refraction
Calcite
Smell
Sulfur
Rocks


Made of two or more different minerals
that have been:
 cemented together
 squeezed and heated together
 melte...
Types of Rocks




Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Igneous Rocks





Magma- molten material underground
Lava- magma that reaches the surface
Igneous rocks are formed fro...
2 Ways to Form Igneous Rock




Intrusive Igneous
Rocks - form when
magma hardens
beneath Earth’s
surface
Magma intrudes...
Classification of Igneous Rocks




Composition -refers to the minerals that
make up the rock
Texture -shape, size, arra...
Composition

Bowen’s Reaction
• N. L. Bowen studied mineral crystallization
and found out that minerals form at specific
t...
Textures
Textures


Glassy



Obsidian


Fine-grained

Basalt

Coarse-grained

Granite


Porphyritic

Granit
Sedimentary Rock




Rocks that are composed of the
weathered remains of preexisting
rock, or plant and animal remains.
...
Sedimentary Rocks


How is a sedimentary rock formed?


Sediments get compacted and
cemented together.
Sedimentary Rocks


Clastic – made from fragments of other
rocks, that have been transported,
deposited, then compacted a...


Cemented Rocks

Clastic sedimentary rock – rocks
composed of weathered sediments:






Pebbles or gravel – usually...
Clastics Rocks



Conglomerate



Sandstone



Mudstone
Conglomerate – cemented
sand, silt, and pebble
sediments. If large
fragments are angular this
rock is called a breccia.

S...
Bedding planes

Shale – clay and silt sized particles
lithified by dehydration and compaction.
Note the cleavage at beddin...
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks


Rocks formed either as precipitates
or as evaporites of dissolved
chemical sediments.


Roc...
Rock salt , the
mineral halite (NaCl),
left as an evaporite
as a shallow sea
evaporated.

Alabaster , the mineral
gypsum (...
Compact (or precipitate) limestone , the mineral
calcite (CaCO 3 ), precipitated from sea water as
evaporation increased c...
Sedimentary Rocks


Organic Rocks – formed from the
remains of plants and animals.




Shells of marine animals pile up...
Coquina – cemented
aggregate of geologically
modern shell fragments.

Fossiliferous limestone
– a cemented
aggregate of or...
Sedimentary Rock Features


Features in sedimentary rock that reflect
the sedimentary environment.



Not found in other...
Rock Stratification (layering) Bryce Canyon,
UT

Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville
Ripple marks caused
by wave action on the
sandy bottom of a
shallow bay

Almost identical
ripple marks on
the surface of a...
Mud cracks in
drying mud

Mud cracks
preserved on
the bedding
surface of a
shale.
Geode

Thunder Egg

Groundwater dissolves hollow spaces in
sedimentary rock, typically limestone, and
mineral material is ...
Cross-bedding at Checkerboard Mesa
Zion National Park, UT

Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville
Central...
Dinosaur skeleton preserved in
sedimentary rock - China

Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville
THE IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
•

petroleum geology relies on the
capacity of sedimentary rocks to
generate deposits ...
Metamorphic Rocks
Formation of Metamorphic Rock





Changed from one type of rock into
another by heat, pressure, and chemical
processes...
metamorphic rocks: controlling factors
 • temperature and pressure during metamorphism
 • tectonic forces
 • fluids
temperature during metamorphism
• heat from Earth’s deep interior
• all minerals stable over finite temperature range
• hi...
pressure during metamorphism
pressure in the Earth acts the same in all directions
pressure is proportional
to depth in th...
tectonic forces - driven by plate motion!
lead to forces that are not equal in all directions (differential stress)

compr...
flattened pebbles in metamorphic rock
fluids
• hot water (water vapor) most important
• heat causes unstable minerals to release water
• water reacts with surro...
Formation




Minerals may change in size or shape or
separate into parallel bands.
Metamorphic formation happens two
di...
Contact Metamorphism
Regional Metamorphism

Regional metamorphism occurs where rocks are
squeezed between two converging lithospheric
plates du...
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks


Rocks can be classified into two different
types based on their texture:




Foli...
foliated (layered) metamorphic rocks
results from differential stress (not equal in all directions)

foliation
The typical transition in mineralology that results from
progressive metamorphism of shale.
non-foliated (non-layered) metamorphic rocks
results from pressure: equal in all directions

named on the basis of their c...
Rock Cycle


The Rock Cycle describes the continually changing structure of rocks.
 Igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic...
Minerals and rocks for typing
Minerals and rocks for typing
Minerals and rocks for typing
Minerals and rocks for typing
Minerals and rocks for typing
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    1. 1. Suez University Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering Minerals and Rocks Student Belal Farouk El-saied Ibrahim Class / III Section / Engineering Geology and Geophysics The Reference / Basic Pet. Geology (P.K.Link Presented to Prof. Dr. / Shouhdi E. Shalaby )
    2. 2. Main Topics    Minerals. Rocks. Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Rock cycle.
    3. 3. What are minerals?    All rocks are composed of minerals Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with a definite chemical composition found on Earth. There are about 3500 known minerals
    4. 4. About 20 minerals make up more than 95% of all of the rocks in the Earth’s crust
    5. 5. Composition of the Earth’s Crust  Eight Elements that make up over 98% of Earth’s Crust -Oxygen (O) -Silicon (SI) -Aluminum (Al) -Iron (Fe) -Calcium (Ca) -Sodium (Na) -Potassium (K) -Magnesium (Mg)
    6. 6. MINERAL PROPERTIES Physical properties of minerals are dictated by the nature of the underlying atomic structure, nature and arrangement of chemical bonds, and energy levels of valence electrons.         Color Luster Hardness Streak Density Crystal Shape Cleavage and Fracture Special Properties
    7. 7. Color  Usually the first and most easily observed -Some minerals are always the same color -Some minerals can have many colors ROSE QUARTZ QUARTZ SMOKY QUARTZ
    8. 8. Luster  General appearance of a mineral surface in reflected light Glassy-Obsidian
    9. 9. Hardness
    10. 10. External Crystal Form:a solid plane in which the atoms are arranged in orderly, repeating patterns A. cubic B. tetragonal C. hexagonal D. orthorhombic E. triclinic F. monoclini (some minerals do not show well-developed crystals). Fluorite
    11. 11. CUBIC HALITE TETRAGONAL HEXAGONAL WULFENITE BERYL ORTHORHOMBIC MONOCLINIC TANZANITE GYPSUM TRICLINIC MONTEBRASITE
    12. 12. CLEAVAGE: splitting along preferred directions due to weak bonds within the atomic structure. Cleavage is described as perfect, good, poor. This is a property of crystals – be careful that you are looking at crystals and not crystal aggregates. Cleavages can be confused with crystal faces – can often see cleavage planes perpendicular to crystal faces. Some crystals do not show cleavage due to similar bond strengths throughout the crystal structure. However, a crystal can have 1, 2, 3… directions of cleavage. It is important to note: (i) the number of cleavage directions, and (ii) their angular relationship: 1 direction; 2 directions at 90˚; 2 directions, inclined; 3 directions, cubic; 3 directions, rhombohedral; 4 directions, octahedral; 6 directions dodecahedral.
    13. 13. Planer Cleavage in Mica
    14. 14. Rhombohedral Cleavage in Calcite
    15. 15. Fracture: the way a substance breaks where not controlled by cleavage. Described as: conchoidal, irregular, splintery, blocky, hackly. Specific Gravity: unitless property, defined by mo u n a f ss c s _ t e s _ b a mo q_.o 2 a f e lv f H s _ ao _ s _ u l _ O Ice: 0.9 Quartz: 2.65 Most silicates: 2.5-3.0 Galena 7.5 Gold 19.3
    16. 16. Conchoidal Fracture in Glass
    17. 17. Special Properties      Magnetism (Magnetite) Glowing under ultraviolet light (Fluorite) Salty taste (Halite) Smell (Sulfur) Reaction to HCl (Calcite)
    18. 18. Magnetism Fluorescence Magnetite Double Refraction Calcite Smell Sulfur
    19. 19. Rocks  Made of two or more different minerals that have been:  cemented together  squeezed and heated together  melted and cooled together.
    20. 20. Types of Rocks    Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
    21. 21. Igneous Rocks    Magma- molten material underground Lava- magma that reaches the surface Igneous rocks are formed from magma that has cooled and hardened either beneath the surface or from a volcanic eruption
    22. 22. 2 Ways to Form Igneous Rock   Intrusive Igneous Rocks - form when magma hardens beneath Earth’s surface Magma intrudes into existing rocks   Extrusive Igneous Rocksform when lava hardens on the surface of the Earth Extruded onto the surface rhyolite granite
    23. 23. Classification of Igneous Rocks   Composition -refers to the minerals that make up the rock Texture -shape, size, arrangement and distribution of minerals that make up the rock
    24. 24. Composition Bowen’s Reaction • N. L. Bowen studied mineral crystallization and found out that minerals form at specific times during that solidification process and they generally form in the same order.
    25. 25. Textures
    26. 26. Textures  Glassy  Obsidian  Fine-grained Basalt Coarse-grained Granite  Porphyritic Granit
    27. 27. Sedimentary Rock   Rocks that are composed of the weathered remains of preexisting rock, or plant and animal remains. Sedimentary rocks commonly originate from sediments laid down in horizontal strata by water or wind.
    28. 28. Sedimentary Rocks  How is a sedimentary rock formed?  Sediments get compacted and cemented together.
    29. 29. Sedimentary Rocks  Clastic – made from fragments of other rocks, that have been transported, deposited, then compacted and cemented together.   Shale, sand, conglomerate, siltstone, breccia Classified by the size of the fragments in the rocks
    30. 30.  Cemented Rocks Clastic sedimentary rock – rocks composed of weathered sediments:     Pebbles or gravel – usually quartz Sand – usually quartz Clay and silt – weathered feldspars and mica : held together by a natural cement  or by compaction of clay and silt.
    31. 31. Clastics Rocks  Conglomerate  Sandstone  Mudstone
    32. 32. Conglomerate – cemented sand, silt, and pebble sediments. If large fragments are angular this rock is called a breccia. Sandstone – cemented quartz sand grains. Feels gritty. Unfilled spaces between grains make most sandstones porous and permeable to
    33. 33. Bedding planes Shale – clay and silt sized particles lithified by dehydration and compaction. Note the cleavage at bedding planes. Thumps when you tap it with a nail and, moistened, it smells like damp earth.
    34. 34. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks  Rocks formed either as precipitates or as evaporites of dissolved chemical sediments.  Rock salt, rock gypsum, some limestones
    35. 35. Rock salt , the mineral halite (NaCl), left as an evaporite as a shallow sea evaporated. Alabaster , the mineral gypsum (CaSO 4 ), also an evaporite.
    36. 36. Compact (or precipitate) limestone , the mineral calcite (CaCO 3 ), precipitated from sea water as evaporation increased concentration. Many cavern systems are formed in this type of limestone.
    37. 37. Sedimentary Rocks  Organic Rocks – formed from the remains of plants and animals.   Shells of marine animals pile up, compact and cement to create fossiliferous limestone (coquina). Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks that contain fossils
    38. 38. Coquina – cemented aggregate of geologically modern shell fragments. Fossiliferous limestone – a cemented aggregate of original shell fragments, molds, and casts of ancient marine organisms. Note fossil mold of a shell in this specimen.
    39. 39. Sedimentary Rock Features  Features in sedimentary rock that reflect the sedimentary environment.  Not found in other rock types.  Features:      Stratification Fossils Ripple marks & crossbeds Mud cracks Nodules, concretions & geodes
    40. 40. Rock Stratification (layering) Bryce Canyon, UT Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville
    41. 41. Ripple marks caused by wave action on the sandy bottom of a shallow bay Almost identical ripple marks on the surface of a sandstone millions of years old.
    42. 42. Mud cracks in drying mud Mud cracks preserved on the bedding surface of a shale.
    43. 43. Geode Thunder Egg Groundwater dissolves hollow spaces in sedimentary rock, typically limestone, and mineral material is deposited inside the hollow with crystal points growing toward the center.
    44. 44. Cross-bedding at Checkerboard Mesa Zion National Park, UT Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville Central HS, Naperville, IL
    45. 45. Dinosaur skeleton preserved in sedimentary rock - China Photo used with permission from Mike Jarvis, Naperville
    46. 46. THE IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS • petroleum geology relies on the capacity of sedimentary rocks to generate deposits of petroleum oils. Coal and oil shale are found in sedimentary rocks. A large proportion of the world's uranium energy resources are hosted within sedimentary successions.
    47. 47. Metamorphic Rocks
    48. 48. Formation of Metamorphic Rock    Changed from one type of rock into another by heat, pressure, and chemical processes. Form deep beneath the earth’s surface. ALL metamorphic rocks are formed from existing igneous, sediment or metamorphic rocks.
    49. 49. metamorphic rocks: controlling factors  • temperature and pressure during metamorphism  • tectonic forces  • fluids
    50. 50. temperature during metamorphism • heat from Earth’s deep interior • all minerals stable over finite temperature range • higher temperatures than range cause melting (and therefore generates igneous rocks) heat is essential think about mixing flour, yeast, water, salt…. ….nothing happens until they have a heat source and then they make bread
    51. 51. pressure during metamorphism pressure in the Earth acts the same in all directions pressure is proportional to depth in the Earth increases at ~1 kilobar per 3.3 km look at example with deep water pressure increases with depth volume decreases with depth consequence on cube is squeezing into smaller cube --grains pack together-high pressure minerals: more compact and dense
    52. 52. tectonic forces - driven by plate motion! lead to forces that are not equal in all directions (differential stress) compressive stress (hands squeeze together) causes flattening at 90° to stress shearing (hands rubbing together) causes flattening parallel to stress
    53. 53. flattened pebbles in metamorphic rock
    54. 54. fluids • hot water (water vapor) most important • heat causes unstable minerals to release water • water reacts with surrounding rocks and transports dissolved material and ions time • metamorphism may take millions of years • longer times allow new minerals to grow larger --coarser grained rocks
    55. 55. Formation   Minerals may change in size or shape or separate into parallel bands. Metamorphic formation happens two different ways   Contact metamorphism Regional metamorphism
    56. 56. Contact Metamorphism
    57. 57. Regional Metamorphism Regional metamorphism occurs where rocks are squeezed between two converging lithospheric plates during mountain building.
    58. 58. Classification of Metamorphic Rocks  Rocks can be classified into two different types based on their texture:   Foliated: which is when the rock grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands. Nonfoliated: which is when the rock grains are arranged randomly.
    59. 59. foliated (layered) metamorphic rocks results from differential stress (not equal in all directions) foliation
    60. 60. The typical transition in mineralology that results from progressive metamorphism of shale.
    61. 61. non-foliated (non-layered) metamorphic rocks results from pressure: equal in all directions named on the basis of their composition marble (CaCO3)
    62. 62. Rock Cycle  The Rock Cycle describes the continually changing structure of rocks.  Igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock are just temporary stages in the continuing changes that all rocks undergo.

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