The 8 critical approaches


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The 8 critical approaches

  1. 1. The 8 Critical ApproachesThe 8 Critical Approaches • Star / Performer • Genre • Auteur • Social and political contexts • Gender issues • Ethnicity • Institution • Technology
  2. 2. Star / Performer • You can research an individual or group of individuals, which could lead to something such as a ‘star-study’, historical developments in star status, cultural relationships the notion of star / performer, fandom, issues of performance.
  3. 3. Star / Performer • Area of investigation: The characteristics of Rhys Ifans’ performance across different directors and production contexts • Focus film: Enduring Love • Related films: Twin Town and Notting Hill
  4. 4. Star / Performer • Area of investigation: The meaning brought to a film by Juliette Binoche • Focus film: The Unbearable Lightness of Being • Related films: Les Amants du Pont Neuf and The English Patient
  5. 5. Genre • You could focus your research on a single genre or a range of genres. This area is designed for you to develop investigations that consider film as a structured product that is designed to relate to other similar films. You might investigate the evolution of a genre, consider the idea of national cinema or look at genre as a cultural product.
  6. 6. Genre • Area of investigation: The shaping of the gangster genre by the films of Martin Scorcese • Focus film: Mean Streets • Related films: Goodfellas and Casino
  7. 7. Genre • Area of investigation: The perceived communist threat and the rise of the American science fiction film • Focus film: The Day the Earth Stood Still • Related films: Plan 9 from Outer Space and On the Beach
  8. 8. The Auteur • allows a film or body of films to be seen in the context of an authorial voice. It is intended that this context be as broadly interpreted as possible, and so the traditional view of an auteur as a single person (usually the director) is extended to include any individual who leaves a 'signature' of control (over the production and/or over meaning) on a film, be they the screenwriter, the cinematographer, the composer, or even an actor. Indeed, this is taken further still by considering the collaborative auteur (two or more individuals who when they come together on a project leave an unmistakable signature - Scorsese and DeNiro, for example), and the institutional auteur (where an institution, be it a studio, a government agency or a collective, leaves a signature on a film irrespective of who actually worked on it - the comedies produced at Ealing demonstrate this well).
  9. 9. The Auteur • Area of investigation: Luc Besson's move from French film to Americanised movies and the impact on his cinematic style • Focus film: Leon • Related films: Subway and Nikita
  10. 10. The Auteur • Area of investigation: Ealing Studios' 'signature' • Focus film: Kind Hearts and Coronets • Related films: The Man in the White Suit and The Lavender Hill Mob
  11. 11. Social and political contexts • This could focus on the contexts of the production of the film, or on the commentary offered by films on a particular social or political context (E.G Iraq War – Farenheit 9-11)
  12. 12. Social and political contexts • Area of investigation: German film's reflection of Germany before and after reunification • Focus film: Kings of the Road • Related films: Run Lola Run and Downfall
  13. 13. Social and political contexts • Area of investigation: Films dealing with the Vietnam War as a symptom of modern America • Focus film: Platoon • Related films: Forrest Gump and Hamburger Hill
  14. 14. Gender • encourages an approach that allows the study of gendered films or gendered filmmaking, but also one that allows the study of gendered spectatorship. Issues of sexuality, of gender, of representation, and of other related contexts can be explored either singly or through a comparative approach (such as comparing male and female directorial approaches to the crime movie genre).
  15. 15. Gender • Area of investigation: Kathryn Bigelow's approach to the contemporary horror film • Focus film: Near Dark • Related films: From Dusk Till Dawn and The Forsaken
  16. 16. Gender • Area of investigation: American New Queer Cinema and identity • Focus film: Go Fish • Related films: Paris is Burning and All Over Me
  17. 17. Ethnicity • may be explored through diverse approaches including analysing the representations within a film, and issues around those making a film. It should be viewed as a broad approach that can include more traditional topics (such as Sexploitation movies, or the representation of the American Indian in the Western genre),
  18. 18. Ethnicity • Area of investigation: British-Indian cinema coming of age • Focus film: Bend it Like Beckham • Related films: My Son the Fanatic and Bhaji on the Beach
  19. 19. Ethnicity • Area of investigation: the changing representation of young black men in British film • Focus film: Bullet Boy • Related films: Pressure and Babylon
  20. 20. Institution • engages with issues of industry that may have been stimulated from concepts engaged with in FM2 British and American film. Most obvious will be the industrialised production contexts for film production (the studios ,the production companies, and even the established methods of production), but issues around film finance, producing, law, regulation, distribution, exhibition and governmental influence over filmmaking are all valuable areas through which to contextualise a research project.
  21. 21. Institution • Area of investigation: the impact of the Hays Code • Focus film: Ecstasy • Related films: Tarzan and His Mate and The Outlaw
  22. 22. Institution • Area of investigation: American Zoetrope - independence and success • Focus film: Apocalypse Now • Related films: The Good Shepherd and Sleepy Hollow
  23. 23. Technology • this context is one that encompasses all the constructional devices in cinema, from production through to distribution and exhibition methods. A wide range of investigations can be contextualised by technology from an historic approach dealing with a production development such as the introduction of surround sound, through to the impact of video on the industry, or the implication of digital exhibition (most importantly with the broader areas of investigation is the need to anchor them to a particular focus film).
  24. 24. Technology • Area of investigation: development of CGI in animation and its impact on audiences • Focus film: Toy Story • Related films: Toy Story 2 and Shrek
  25. 25. Technology • Area of investigation: the development of colour film techniques • Focus film: Gone with the Wind • Related films: The Black Pirate and The Sheltering Sky
  26. 26. Past years questions
  27. 27. Tara Costello • Area of investigation: a close study into John Waters influences and how this is translated in his construction of female characters
  28. 28. Chelsea FullbrookChelsea Fullbrook • Area of investigation: a close study into Tim Burton exploring the extent to which his childhood experiences are significant in defining his auteur signature
  29. 29. Rebecca HammondRebecca Hammond • Area of investigation: a study into what makes Pixar films so distinctive from other animation studio films
  30. 30. Callum JacksonCallum Jackson • Area of investigation: to what extent does Korea’s censorship effect the social, cultural and political representations in Korean cinema
  31. 31. Ross LustedRoss Lusted • Area of investigation: a close analytical study of Chicano cinema between 2000-2009; it’s self reflexive representations and the impact of these perception on national identity
  32. 32. Hannah MooreHannah Moore • Area of investigation: how musicals present utopian ideologies to provide escape from social zeitgeist
  33. 33. Ruby PurcellRuby Purcell • Area of investigation: how cinema has represented an interpreted fashion as a cultural form
  34. 34. Jake SaundersJake Saunders • Area of investigation: a comparative analytical study of the representations of homosexuality in British and Hollywood cinema, exploring the different ways in which these are constructed and presented, as well as their social, cultural and political significance
  35. 35. Ross Wood • Area of investigation: a study into the extent to which Tom Hanks solo performances have established him as an auteur
  36. 36. Nancy CampopianoNancy Campopiano • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: Representations of corruption in Africa and its social and political effects on Western perceptions of Africa
  37. 37. Alex FlynnAlex Flynn • Critical Approach: Institution/ Technology • Area of investigation: The impact of Pixar on the development and reception of contemporary animation feature films
  38. 38. Harry Mills • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: A comparison of American mainstream and independent films and the social and political commentary these films make pertaining to adolescence
  39. 39. Hayley Morris • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: How 1970’s musicals rebelled against the societal norms on gender and sexuality
  40. 40. Caroline GittinsCaroline Gittins • Critical Approach: Auteur Study • Area of investigation: The collaboration of Tim Burton and Johnny Depp and their construction of protagonists as a defining feature of their auteur signature
  41. 41. Deborah ObeskiDeborah Obeski • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: The social and political implications of the civil rights movement as represented across a body of film
  42. 42. Lawrence SalisburyLawrence Salisbury • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: How films represent American ideologies and societal views of homosexuality within the period that they were set
  43. 43. Lauren ScotcherLauren Scotcher • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: The social and political commentary offered on 9/11 across a body of films and the effect they have hand on perceptions of America
  44. 44. Nick StoreyNick Storey • Critical Approach: Social & Political • Area of investigation: Ideologies of the Iraq war as depicted across a body films
  45. 45. Summer HomeworkSummer Homework 1. Create a Small Scale blog – email the link to 2. Complete the task one sheet 3. Complete the tack two sheet. Write down a list of your favourite films or films that you have found interesting and enjoyable to watch 4. 4 look back at your list, write out questions that could be investigated from the films 5. Put all initial thoughts an feelings (that’s points 2 – 4) into a presentation that will be given during the first lesson back