AS Film Studies Unit FM1Introduction to Micro Features: Sound
Lesson AimsBy the end of the lesson you will be able to:• Understand and apply sound terminology to a sequence of film• Deconstruct how sound is used to communicate meaning
Definition: Sound• The way in which sound is used to communicate meaning• The manipulation and layering of sound to create meaning
Diegetic vs. Non-Diegetic• Any voice, musical • If it originates outside passage, or sound effect the film (as most presented as originating background music) then from a source within it is non-diegetic. the films world is diegetic.
External Diegetic vs. Internal Diegetic but eeriethe scene sets up score that and mixes with the battle sounds is… we hear Iván speaking into we begin to hear the sounds ofthe microphone as he works the battle: horses whimpering, weapons clashing, etc. Theseon the Spanish dubbing of sounds exist only in AnnasJohnny Guitar (Nicholas Ray, troubled mind, which is highly1954). Since he is speaking out sensitive to works of art. Theseloud and any other character are internal diegetic soundscould hear him, this is an (inside of a characters mind) thatexample of external diegetic no one else in the gallery cansound hear.
NON-SIMULTANEOUS SOUND• Diegetic sound that comes from a source in time either earlier or later than the images it accompanies. While Pepas voice is diagetic and simultaneous, Ivans voice is also diegetic, and yet it is nonsimultaneous, since it comes from a previous moment in the film.
VOICEOVER• When a voice, often that of a character in the film, is heard while we see an image of a space and time in which that character is not actually speaking. The voice over is often used to give a sense of a characters subjectivity or to narrate an event told in flashback.
SOUND BRIDGE• Sound bridges can lead in or out of a scene. They can occur at the beginning of one scene when the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new scene begins. Alternatively, they can occur at the end of a scene, when the sound from the next scene is heard before the image appears on the screen. Sound bridges are one of the most common transitions in the continuity editing style, one that stresses the connection between both scenes since their mood (suggested by the music) is still the same.
PLEONASTIC SOUND• Pleonastic sound is exaggerated sound e.g. light sabers slashing the air in Star Wars - or a tap dripping more loudly than normal in a horror film etc.• A technique used to create this kind of sound is Foley Sound
CONTRAPUNTAL SOUND• Sounds that don’t easily match the images they are accompanying, or even run against them. This can have a quite disorientating effect upon the audience and make them question what they are seeing
DON’T FORGET…• Silence – even when there is no sound this can create an impact• Dialogue – the tone, pitch and volume of actors voices can all contribute to the meaning of a scene or how the audience relate to them
THE LAST KING OF SCOTLAND• Doctor Nicholas Garrigan has become the surgeon to dictator Idi Amin, who is so taken by Garrigan that he wants him to remain in Uganda.• In this scene, Nicholas arrives back in his bungalow to discover that it has been ‘searched’ and that his British passport has been exchanged for a Ugandan one, making it almost impossible to leave.
THE LAST KING OF SCOTLAND1. As the sequence begins, what sounds do we hear before the music begins?2. As the music begins we only see Nicholas’ face, not what he sees. How is the music used to indicate that all is not well?3. How does the music change as he picks up the photograph? What mood or emotion is suggested?4. As he notices the envelope, how does the music indicate that it is unlikely to contain good news?5. How does the music change as he opens the envelope and discovers his new Ugandan passport? What does the music tell us about Nicholas’ feelings?6. The image changes to blurred headlamps. A new style of music is heard. Try to describe this music and how it changes as he gets to the door.
How is sound, cinematography andmise-en-scene used in the opening of Tomb Raider to communicate meaning to the audience?
Task #4• In groups film a continuous sequence (Long Take) using as many shots, angles and movements as you can.• Try to include PLEONASTIC/ Foley Sound• Load to YouTube and embed on your blog