PRESSURE (1975) <ul><li>Racial tensions during the 1970s & 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Pressure made? </li></ul><ul><l...
Racial tensions during the 1970s & 1980s <ul><li>1974: Man dies in race rally clashes </li></ul><ul><li>1976: Notting Hill...
Why was Pressure made? <ul><li>A response to social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between first and second generation ...
What examples of racism are represented in Pressure? <ul><li>Police harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Landlady </li></ul><ul><l...
Defining collective identity <ul><li>“ Although there is no consensual definition of collective identity, discussions of t...
Defining collective identity <ul><li>“… collective identity [is] an individual's cognitive, moral, and emotional connectio...
How does the theme of collective identity come across in Pressure? <ul><li>Four themes illuminate how the film conveys its...
Food – cultural signifier <ul><li>Watch  Pressure , particularly paying attention to the way food is used in the film, for...
Physical Environment <ul><li>What impression do you get of London as a British urban setting ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do th...
Hair and Fashion <ul><li>Taking the first and last scenes from  Pressure,  how would you explain the change in appearance ...
Language <ul><li>What do you notice about how language is used in the film?  </li></ul>
How do you think Pressure differs from mainstream representations of black Britons?
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Collective Identity: Lesson 3

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Collective Identity: Lesson 3

  1. 1. PRESSURE (1975) <ul><li>Racial tensions during the 1970s & 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Pressure made? </li></ul><ul><li>What examples of racism are represented in Pressure? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the theme of collective identity come across in Pressure? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think Pressure differs from mainstream representations of black Britons? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Racial tensions during the 1970s & 1980s <ul><li>1974: Man dies in race rally clashes </li></ul><ul><li>1976: Notting Hill Carnival ends in riot </li></ul><ul><li>1981: Police attacked in Liverpool riots </li></ul><ul><li>1981: Brixton riots report blames racial tension </li></ul><ul><li>1985: Riots erupt in Toxteth and Peckham </li></ul><ul><li>minority struggle in British cities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why was Pressure made? <ul><li>A response to social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between first and second generation immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>The black experience in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Militant viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Black exploitation cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from Civil Rights Movement to Black Power </li></ul><ul><li>Social realist structure </li></ul>
  4. 4. What examples of racism are represented in Pressure? <ul><li>Police harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Landlady </li></ul><ul><li>Job interview/ friends at youth club </li></ul><ul><li>Labour exchange/ metal factory </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defining collective identity <ul><li>“ Although there is no consensual definition of collective identity, discussions of the concept invariably suggest that its essence resides in a shared sense of 'one-ness' or 'we-ness' anchored in real or imagined shared attributes and experiences among those who comprise the collectivity and in relation or contrast to one or more actual or imagined sets of 'others'.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Identity and Expressive Forms - David Snow </li></ul>
  6. 6. Defining collective identity <ul><li>“… collective identity [is] an individual's cognitive, moral, and emotional connection with a community, category, practice, or institution. It is a perception of a shared status or relation, which may be imagined rather than experienced directly, and it is distinct from personal identities, although it may form part of a personal identity. A collective identity may have been first constructed by outsiders (for example, as in the case of &quot;Hispanics&quot; in this country), who may still enforce it, but it depends on some acceptance by those to whom it is applied. Collective identities are expressed in cultural materials -names, narratives, symbols, verbal styles, rituals, clothing , and so on - but not all cultural materials express collective identities. Collective identity does not imply the rational calculus for evaluating choices that &quot;interest&quot; does. And unlike ideology collective identity carries with it positive feelings for other members of the group“ </li></ul><ul><li>Collective identity and Social Movements - Francesca Poletta and James M Jasper </li></ul>
  7. 7. How does the theme of collective identity come across in Pressure? <ul><li>Four themes illuminate how the film conveys its meaning. These themes relate specially to the mise en scene of the film, exploring how they reflect the changing values, and the way the Tony reacts to his experience of racism in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Food – cultural signifier </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Hair and Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>
  8. 8. Food – cultural signifier <ul><li>Watch Pressure , particularly paying attention to the way food is used in the film, for example, in the breakfast scene and/or the scene in Portobello Road Market. Think about what kind of tensions the use of food reflects, and why the director uses it in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>food is used to indicate values. What is signified by Tony's preference for chips? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Physical Environment <ul><li>What impression do you get of London as a British urban setting ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the physical settings contribute to Tony’s sense of himself? To what extent does he feel 'at home' or alienated? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hair and Fashion <ul><li>Taking the first and last scenes from Pressure, how would you explain the change in appearance of Tony? </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note of how Tony's style of clothing changes over the course of the film. How does this reflect his changing sense of identity and attitude to his social context? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Language <ul><li>What do you notice about how language is used in the film? </li></ul>
  12. 12. How do you think Pressure differs from mainstream representations of black Britons?

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