Collective ID quotes and key words


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Collective ID quotes and key words

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  2. 2. USEFUL QUOTES and READING:our identity is partly a matter of what we share with other people. Here, identityis about identification with others whom we assume are similar to us (if notexactly the same), at least in some significant ways.David Buckingham(Collective identity) It is a perception of a shared status or relation, which may beimagined rather than experienced directly, and it is distinct from personalidentities, although it may form part of a personal identity.COLLECTIVE IDENTITY AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS. Annual Review of Sociology,January 01, 2001, Polletta, Francesca; Jasper,James M“…media representations of ‘race’ and ethnicity are constructed in accordancewith dominant ideological positionings which serve to shape and control howindividuals understand others’, and their own, identities.”Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 Hall proposes that the media, as a principal form of ideologicaldissemination, produces representations of the social world via images andportrayals.Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 agreement with Hall, a significant body of research suggests that the media, asa key transmitter of representations and as a major source of information withinsociety, has the power to control and shape attitudes and beliefs held in thepopular imaginationFatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 2
  3. 3. Hall (1990) argues that the methods in which black people and their experiencesare represented and subjugated under white ideology is not only a result ofpolitical and economic agendas, but also, in accordance with Edward Said’s (1978)principle of Orientalism, functions to construct blacks as ‘Other’. Furthermore,Hall claims that the insidious and ‘invisible’ nature of this ideology leads blackpeople to understand themselves as ‘Other’Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 demonstrates, representation not only affects the understanding of ethnicminority groups within society as a whole, but also how ethnic minority groupscome to perceive their own identities.Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 must also consider Hall’s (1990) notion that identity is not necessarily ‘fixed’,but a fluid phenomena; ‘Perhaps instead of thinking of identity as an alreadyaccomplished historical fact … we should think, instead, of identity as a“production”, which is never complete, always in process…Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 that the media have the power to dictate which representations ofethnic minorities are chosen and circulated in the public arena, research intominority representation has revealed two fundamental issues underlying thearea: underrepresentation and stereotypical representation. It is suggested thatthrough such representations, ethnic minorities continue to be subordinated inaccordance with white ideological hegemonyFatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD ResearchProject, 2008 media plays a significant role in the transmission and maintenance ofcultural identity, through a repetitive display of cultural norms and values whicheventually become seen as simple ‘truths’. 3
  4. 4. The repetitive framing of particular images in certain ways eventually leads tothose images being seen as the definitive statement on ‘those’ people and thegroups to which ‘they’ belong .…in line with Gilroys thesis that in a hybrid space such as twenty-first centurypostcolonial and post-imperial Britain blackness and Englishness permeate eachother and ethnic absolutism is no longer tenable.CENTRING MARGINALITY THROUGH BLACK BRITISH NARRATIVES:SMALL ISLAND AND YOUNG SOUL REBELS, Francesca Giommi media are highly selective in the way in which they construct and representthe world back to usKruger, Stephen. Rayner, Philip. & Wall, Peter. (2004). Media Studies: TheEssential Resource. London: Routledge, London and New York.The hegemonic model acknowledges that much of the media is controlled by arelatively small group of people (who are generally male, middle class and white)and that the viewpoints associated with these groups inevitably becomeembedded in the products themselves.Baker, James. Clark, Vivienne. & Lewis, Eileen. (2003). Key Concepts & Skills forMedia Studies:. London: Hodder Headline.It can be said that the media choose to represent ethnic minorities in ways whichreinforce stereotypes in order to maintain a hegemonic society relating to how “adominant class or group maintains power by making everyone accept theirideology as normal or neutral, through cultural influence rather than forceWilliams, Kevin. (2003). Understanding Media Theory (Hodder ArnoldPublication). London:A Hodder Arnold Publication.Grime was essentially the UKs own authentic response to hip hop, an angst-ridden, confrontational music conveying the hopes and frustrations of anapolitical generation locked into decaying housing estates.Dont Call Me Urban! The Time of Grime, Simon Wheatly (Northumbria Press,2010) 4
  5. 5. Many black youths reject the urban label that has been imposed on them bycommerce and the media. There is a significant discrepancy between perceptionsof black culture as cool and the often-harsh reality of being born black on aLondon council estate.Dont Call Me Urban! The Time of Grime, Simon Wheatly (Northumbria Press,2010)How mass media shapes personal identity. about how we form our identities and where the information our identitiesare built on comes from. The influence of the mass media shapes our concepts ofwho we are, what is important to us, and how we live our lives.Michael Foucault – Text, Discourse and Ideology‘By creating the way we think about things, our society is able to actually limit thethings we think about’The mass media is able to shape identity through the conditioning of thoughtstowards thinking a certain wayIn looking at the mass media today, one should look critically. What are those incontrol of mass media trying to make us believe about ourselves? When I askmyself ‘Who am I?’, how much of the answer comes from within me and howmuch has come from sources outside of me? Who benefits from the conceptionof self that is being taught, pushed, forced upon each of us through the massmedia? Are we being accidentally shaped into something different from who weare by being an unintended audience? Are we developing new ideas or justregurgitating the ideas that have been fed to us through print, video, and digitalmedia? 5
  6. 6. Media Use in Identity Construction - Katherine Hamley‘Everything concerning our lives is seen to be ‘media-saturated’ identity issomething that is constructed over a period of time and can be constantlyupdated or changed’Do you Choose your Identity or is it Chosen for you? – Dana Mrkich‘Can people choose their identity and if so how much of our identity do wechoose?’‘According to postmodern theories we don’t have as much conscious choice overour identity creation as we think we do. Postmodernism suggests that we mouldourselves, and are moulded by others, in response to whatever is currentlypopular and accepted.’‘The degree to which we choose our identity, versus having it imposed on us viaexternal influence, is arguably a matter of consciousness and awareness. Whenwe are unaware of the power of external influence we are akin to pieces of clay,being unconsciously moulded to fit into the accepted or preferred norms ofsomeone else’s reality. When we are aware we can take responsibility for thecreation of our identity. We can make empowered choices that best serve ourselves, rather than serve people and systems outside of ourselves.’‘In today’s world the choosing of one’s identity is a multi-layered experience,consciously and unconsciously influenced by countless factors.’ 6
  7. 7. Music and identity among European youth – Keith Roe‘The concept of subculture… became the unifying element in a new theory thatsought to explain the complex ways in which certain youth groups were usingmusic for the purpose of constructing a group identity.’In the sociological literature subcultures are seen to emerge where groups ofinteracting individuals, experiencing common shared problems, develop particularmeaning systems, modes of expression or life styles. Normally, these groups arefound in subordinate positions in society where their members are more or lessdirectly confronted by structural contradictions arising from the wider socialcontext.‘According to Brake (1980), subcultures provide particular functions for theyoung. 1. they offer an imaginary solution to certain structural problems which are collectively experienced. 2. they offer a context for the selection of cultural elements such as style, values, ideologies and life-style that can be used to develop an achieved identity outside the ascribed identity offered by home, school or work. 3. they provide an alternative form of social reality, not infrequently a symbolic community transmitted through the mass media.’‘Brake saw subculture style as an expressive means of projecting an identitywhich appears to be "magically" freed from social position.’‘so far, research into the specific media use of minority ethnic youth groups is atbest very patchy. What is clear is that media discourses and mediated popularculture have a central role in shaping the ways in which ethnic groups viewthemselves and each other.’‘music use may help to transgress or even dissolve ethnic boundaries… there is anurgent need for more research into the specific ways in which young people ofdifferent ethnic backgrounds use music for the purposes of identity creation.’ 7
  8. 8. ‘…we are entitled to speculate as to whether, in the future, it will continue to besignificant to the same extent as it has been for the past four decades… As societychanges, it creates the conditions for the generation of new social formationswhose members will choose cultural elements as part of their self-definitions.’Identity Construction – Karen A. Cerulo‘Collective identity – the notion addresses the “we-ness” of a group, stressing thesimilarities or shared attributes around which group members coalesce1.’How postmodernism controls your identity‘The anthropologist James Clifford has pointed out that radio, TV, film, and theinternet change places, so that local cultures are no longer local. Local culturesexposed to television no longer exhibit local qualities but new global qualities.Clifford calls this virtual migration. Culture is now hybridized by mediapenetration…’‘Clifford believes there is no global homogeneous culture. Instead, imaginedplaces hold cultural and ethnic identities. This means the migrant recreates hisidentity in each new place in relation to the homeland.’In a postmodern world - Who am I... and does it matter?‘The creation of a supposedly multicultural society has created a situation whereits increasingly difficult to define what it means to be British.’‘Since postmodern identity is about constructing an image by choice, it followsthat our identity is not fixed since we are at liberty to change our minds.’1 Coalesce means to unite or join together 8
  9. 9. What is Black British Culture? (BBC 1Xtra) British culture really began from the arrival of WindrushBlack British culture is symbolized through  Food  Clothes  Music  Patios – this is seen as a symbol of black identityFood, music and accents once associated with black culture are now apart ofeveryday life for many people around the UKOver time it’s going to continue to evolve – it may lose it’s original African andCaribbean culture along the wayIdentities and ‘new ethnicities’ among British Bangladeshi and mixed--heritageyouth in London (Garbin, David, 2009) focus of the sociological and anthropological research on youth subcultureshas gradually shifted from a study of resistance through rituals (Hall andJefferson, 1975) during the 1970s and 1980s to a more post-modern conceptualframework concerned with the formation of new ethnicities and the dynamics ofinterculturalism (Wulff, 1995). While the study of hybridity and fluid identities isat the heart of the analysis of subcultural practices…subcultures can be seen as an expression of both collective identity and anindividual sense of belonging.Within this subcultural sphere, and particularly in music, the process ofhybridisation is closely linked to the construction of diasporic identities, which are 9
  10. 10. said to challenge the hegemony of national, ethnic or cultural categories (Gilroy,1993; Hall, 1992).A growing body of literature has emerged concerning this new musical creativityand its relationship to the formation of diasporic and intercultural identities inurban settings.Nick described the dominance of a black heritage in the contemporarysubcultural sphere and its influence in the broader society and he also stressedthe positive dimension of the combination, the merging, to borrow the term heused, of white and black cultures. In other words, he not only suggested anegotiation of black and white cultural categories but also acknowledged therole of dialogic and intercultural dynamics, which were constructed in oppositionto the separation of black people and white people, prevalent back in the daysWhite culture doesnt do much, not as much stuff as the black culture...Whiteculture doesnt have as food or, say, comedy of all sorts...Most of thestuff has come from black heritage...! reckon its bonded together right now...Coswhite people are following a black trend, so then it doesnt become a black trend,it becomes a both trend, just a straight trend. 10
  11. 11. There Aint No Black in the Union Jack- Paul Gilrov 11987. ed 20021 Good Quotes...a history that show the necessarily complex relationships which have existedbetween blacks and the cultural and political institutions of the white, urbanworking-class communities that are transformed and reoriented by theirpresenceAs black styles, music, dress, dance, fashion and languages became a determiningforce shaping the style, music, dress, fashion and language of urban Britain as awhole...Black expressive cultures affirm while they protest. The assimilation of blacks isnot a process of acculturation2 but of cultural syncretism3 (Bastide, 1978).The effects of these ties and the penetration of black forms into dominantculture mean that it is impossible to theorize black culture in Britain withoutdeveloping a new perspective on British culture as a whole.They set about creating it [a cohesive culture] from the diverse influence whichwere available and which corresponded to their predicament.It would appear that long before the advent of rock ‘n roll, the rise of soul, discoand reggae, the cultural institutions of the white working class were hosting anhistoric encounter between young black and white people. This meetingprecipitated4" not only fear of the degeneration of the white race in general...but also the creation of youth sub-culture in which black style and expertise wereabsolutely central.The involvement of whites, particularly young people, in the consumption ofblack cultures was noted by commentators in the early 1960s.Culture is not a fixed and impermeable feature of social relations. Its formschange, develop, combine and are dispersed in historical processes. The syncretic2 Acculturation - modification of the culture of a group as a result of contact with a different culture3 Syncretism - fusion of differing belief systems the result is heterogeneous4 Precipitated - caused 11
  12. 12. cultures of black Britain exemplify this. They have been able to detach culturalpractices from their origins and use them to found and extend the new patternsof metacommunication which give their community substance and collectiveidentity.The defensive walls around each sub-culture gradually crumble and new formswith even more complex genealogies are created in the synthesis 5 andtranscendence of previous styles. The effects of this can be seen not only wherethe cultural resources of the Afro-Caribbean communities provide a space inwhich whites are able to discover meaning in black histories, style and language,but also where a shared culture, over determined by its context of the urbancrisis, mediates the relationship between the different ethnic groups thattogether comprise black Britain.5 Synthesis - fusion 12
  13. 13. KEY WORDS and TERMINOLOGYBlack-BritishOriginal meaning a British resident with specifically Sub-Saharan Africanancestral origins, who self-identifies, or is identified, as "Black", African orAfro- Caribbean.HegemonyAntonio Gramsci and the concept of hegemony, put simply ‘hegemony’refers to the supremacy of one social grouping over the other. Gramsciargued that the ruling elite always makes great efforts to persuade the restof the population that maintaining the status quo is ‘common sense’. Thisinvolves convincing them that supporting the interests of the elite is in theirown best interests. “…media representations of ‘race’ and ethnicity are constructed in accordance with dominant ideological positionings which serve to shape and control how individuals understand others’, and their own, identities.” Fatimah Awan, Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD Research Project, 2008Imperial ‘Other’Referring to Black migrants from former British colonies, who are seen asnot belonging in the country they have migrated toMediationThe process by which the media select, alter, interpret, edit or inventaspects of the world before presenting it to the audience in the form ofrepresentations. There is an important difference between mediatedexperience and one’s direct personal experience “…our knowledge of the world is constructed by media representations” (Andrews, Maggie. Burton, Julia. & Stevenson, Elspeth.(2009). AQA A2 Media Studies: Students Book (Aqa Media Studies for A2).Surrey: Nelson Thornes Ltd. 13
  14. 14. Post-ColonialismRefers to a complex and competing set of discourses that consider thelegacy and intellectual ramifications of colonialism. By colonialism we aretalking about the process of colonisation intrinsic to Empire building: onecountry’s claim to sovereignty over another. When referring to colonialismthere is therefore a tendency to make implicit reference to the BritishEmpire.Representation  The constructed and mediated presentation of people, things, ideas, places  Representation is the process by which the media present the ‘real world’  Most importantly to represent is to ‘re-present’ “ In agreement with Hall, a significant body of research suggests that the media, as a key transmitter of representations and as a major source of information within society, has the power to control and shape attitudes and beliefs held in the popular imagination” Fatimah Awan,Young People, Identity and the Media, PhD Research Project, 2008SyncretismReconciliation or fusion of differing systems of belief, as in philosophy orreligion, especially when success is partial or the result is heterogeneous.Youth sub-cultureA minority youth culture whose distinctiveness depended largely on thesocial class and ethnic background of its members; often characterized byits adoption of a particular music genre 14