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  • 1. me
  • 2. Bec
  • 3. Bec English 中文 台語 en台is文g中h語l
  • 4. Communication is the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals,signals, writing, or behavior.Derived from the Latin word “communis”, meaning to share. Commu-nication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be presentor aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communica-tion can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the com-municating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process iscomplete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Nonverbal communica-tion describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Researchshows that the majority of our communication is non verbal, also known as body language. Someof non verbal communication includes chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture;facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture,symbols infographics, and tone of voice as well as through an aggregate of the above.Speech alsocontains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. These include voice lesson quality, emotionand speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise,written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of wordsand the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form. Oral communication,while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches,presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to-facecommunication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greaterimpact upon the listener than informational content. This type of communication also garners im-mediate feedback. Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved throughprogression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology;an emerging field of study. Researchers divide the progression of written communication into threerevolutionary stages called “Information Communication Revolutions”.[citation needed].During thefirst stage, written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictogramswere made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile. During the second stage,writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. Common alphabets were introducedand allowed for the uniformity of language across large distances. A leap in technology occurredwhen the Gutenberg printing-press was invented in the 15th century.The third stage is character-ised by the transfer of information through controlled waves and electronic signals.Communicationis thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared un-derstanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, lis-tening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and evaluating enables collaborationand cooperation.[2] Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, ques-tions and answers, paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communicationcan be clear by planning follow-up talk on critical written communication as part of the normal wayof doing business. Minutes spent talking now will save time later having to clear up misunderstand-ings later on. Then, take what was heard and reiterate in your own words, and ask them if that’swhat they meant.[3] All communications, intentional or unintentional, have some effect. This effectmay not be always in communicator’s favor or as desired by him or her. Communication that pro-duces the desired effect or result is effective communication. It results in what the communicatorwants. Effective communication generates the desired effect, maintains effect & increases effect.Effective communication serves its purpose for which it was planned or designed. The purposecould be to generate action, inform, create understanding or communicate a certain idea/point etc.Effective communication also ensures that message distortion does not take place during the com-munication process. Communication is the key factor in the success of any organization. When itcomes to effective communication, there are certain barriers that every organization faces. Peopleoften feel that communication is as easy and simple as it sounds. No doubt, but what makes itcomplex, difficult and frustrating are the barriers that come in its way. Some of these barriers arementioned below.. Barriers to successful communication include message overload (when a per-son receives too many messages at the same time), and message complexity.[4] There also can bea lack of determining “knowledge appropriate” communication, as when someone uses ambiguouslegal words, or medical jargon, when speaking with another person that lacks understanding inthese areas. Effective communication can be achieved only when the words used are brought toa common level of understanding for both parties. System design faults refer to problems with the
  • 5. israel
  • 6. china
  • 7. sansebastian
  • 8. minombre es dora
  • 9. burma
  • 10. a b c
  • 11. chicago
  • 12. austin,
  • 13. chicago urbanproject
  • 14. cod{COLLEGE OF DREAMS}
  • 15. learning todesign
  • 16. meaningful DESIGN