Beginning to iPhone development

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Slide I made for beginning to iPhone development. Most of them borrowed from ppt of the iPhone development course in Stanford University.

Slide I made for beginning to iPhone development. Most of them borrowed from ppt of the iPhone development course in Stanford University.

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Transcript

  • 1. iPhone Objective-C, UIKit bofeng@corp.netease.com @vonbo
  • 2. Agenda• overview• objective-c• iPhone UIKit
  • 3. overview
  • 4. First iPhone App• Hello world!
  • 5. Things we have• Hello world!
  • 6. • xcode SDK• & test with Simulator• test with iPhone/iPod touch ($99)• appstore•
  • 7. iPhone VS Android
  • 8. objective-c
  • 9. Objective C••• runtime• foudation framework: values and collection classes•• category• protocol
  • 10. Sample Code hello world
  • 11. objective c• @ • @interface, @implementation, @class • @property, @synthesize • @protocol • NSString* str = @”hello world”• [receiver message]• C C++
  • 12. Sample Code class and message
  • 13. runtime• id• class & className• respondsToSelector• performSelector• isKindOfClass (super class included)• isMemberOfClass• @selector
  • 14. @selector• SEL• C++
  • 15. actionCGRect rect = CGRectMake(20, 20, 100, 30);UIButton* myButton = [UIButtonbuttonWithType:UIButtonTypeRoundedRect];myButton.frame = rect;[myButton setTitle:@"my button"forState:UIControlStateNormal];[myButton addTarget:self action:@selector(btnClick:)forControlEvents : UIControlEventTouchUpInside];[self.view addSubview:myButton];
  • 16. Sampleruntime & selector
  • 17. Foundation Framework• Value and Collection Classes• User defaults• Archiving• Task, timers, thread• File system, I/0• etc ...
  • 18. Value and Collection Classes• NSString & NSMutableString• NSArray & NSMutableArray• NSDictionary & NSMutableDictionary• NSSet & NSMutableSet• NSNumber [a obj-c object wrapper for basic C type] • (NSNumber* num = [NSNumber numberWithInt:3])
  • 19. Sample Code collection classes
  • 20. • alloc new• alloc&dealloc C++ new&delete• but with ...
  • 21. • alloc new copy 1. retain release• 0 Obj-C dealloc dealloc dealloc
  • 22. Sample Code “ ” ... memory management
  • 23. Getter & Setter @property & @synthesize
  • 24. • new alloc copy 1. release• retain release
  • 25. but how to solve this ?- (Person*) getChild { Person* child = [[Person alloc] init]; [child setName:@”xxxx”]; .... // will return ... [child release] or not ? return child;}
  • 26. Autorelease• NSAutoreleasePool* pool ...• [object autorelease]• autorelease NSAutoreleasePool release
  • 27. That’s why create pool first ...int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool* pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; // put your own code here ... [pool release];}
  • 28. how to solve this ?- (Person*) getChild { Person* child = [[Person alloc] init]; [child setName:@”xxxx”]; .... // will return ... [child release] or not ? return [child autorelease];}
  • 29. Autorelease Pool• • NSMutableArray pool • autorelease Array • pool Array release• autorelease pool autorelease pool pool
  • 30. Autorelease Pool StackNSAutoreleasePool* poolFirst ..for (int i=0; i < 10000; i++) { NSAutoreleasePool* poolSecond ... // have some autorelease object // [object autorelease] [poolSecond release];}// other code[poolFirst release];
  • 31. Autorelease Pool• • NSAutoreleasePool • alloc release • Autorelease pool retain autorelease [pool retain] or [pool autorelease] • AutoreleasePool “ ” • pool pool iphone release autorelease
  • 32. • new alloc copy 1. release autorelease• 1 [NSString stringWithString:@”objc”]• retain release
  • 33. Category
  • 34. Sample Code category
  • 35. NSString ClassCluster ...
  • 36. Sample Codesomething about class cluster ...
  • 37. Category•••
  • 38. Protocol• familiar with C++ virtual class• familiar with Java’s interface•• @optional @required warning required
  • 39. protocol@protocol TwoMethod - (void) oneMethod; - (void) anotherMethod;@end
  • 40. Class & Protocol@interface MyClass : NSObject <TwoMethod> {}@end@implementation MyClass-(void) oneMethod { // oneMethod’s implementation}- (void) anotherMethod { // anotherMethod’s implementation}@end
  • 41. Sample Code protocol
  • 42. Objective C••• runtime id, @selector, respondsToSelector ...• foudation framework: values and collection classes•• category class cluster “ ”• protocol
  • 43. Using Objective-C Now !• without mac• ubuntu: • sudo apt-get install gnustep gnustep-devel • bash /usr/share/GNUstep/Makefiles/ GNUstep.sh • GNUmakefile• http://forum.ubuntu.org.cn/viewtopic.php? t=190168
  • 44. iPhone UIKit
  • 45. iPhone Application• &• MVC• Views (design & life cycle)• Navigation based & Tab Bar based application• very important TableView•• Web service
  • 46. UIApplication• Every application must have exactly one instance of UIApplication (or a subclass of UIApplication). When an application is launched, the UIApplicationMain function is called; among its other tasks, this function create a singleton UIApplication object.• The application object is typically assigned a delegate, an object that the application informs of significant runtime events—for example, application launch, low-memory warnings, and application termination—giving it an opportunity to respond appropriately.
  • 47. UIApplicationMain• delegateClassName • Specify nil if you load the delegate object from your application’s main nib file.• from Info.plist get main nib file• from main nib file get the application’s delegate
  • 48. UIControl• UILabel• UIButton• UITableView• UINavigatorBar• ...
  • 49. - design time
  • 50. Demobutton click
  • 51. Without IB ?create a button and bind event by code
  • 52. Views• View view superview subviews• iphone app window Views window window view (top level)• view • - (void)addSubview:(UIView *)view; • - (void)removeFromSuperview;• Superviews retain their subviews• UIView CGRect CGPoint CGSize
  • 53. View’s life cycle & hook function• initWithNibName:bundle• viewDidLoad• viewWillAppear• viewWillDisappear• ...maybe viewDidUnload• hook function • shouldAutorotateToInterfaceOrientation • didReceiveMemoryWarning
  • 54. Navigation Controller
  • 55. UINavigationController• manages the currently displayed screens using the navigation stack• at the bottom of this stack is the root view controller• at the top of the stack is the view controller currently being displayed• method: • pushViewController:animated: • popViewControllerAnimated:
  • 56. DemoUINavigationController
  • 57. TabBar Controller
  • 58. UITabBarController• implements a specialized view controller that manages a radio-style selection interface• When the user selects a specific tab, the tab bar controller displays the root view of the corresponding view controller, replacing any previous views• init with an array (has many view controllers)
  • 59. DemoUITabBarController
  • 60. Combine• UI • TabBarController Based + NavigationController
  • 61. DemoCombine UITabBarController & UINavigationController
  • 62. TableView• display a list of data • Single column, multiple rows • Vertical scrolling• Powerful and ubiquitous in iPhone applications
  • 63. Display data in Table View• • Table views display a list of data, so use an array • [myTableView setList:myListOfStuff]; • • All data is loaded upfront • All data stays in memory• • Another object provides data to the table view • Not all at once • Just as it’s needed for display • Like a delegate, but purely data-oriented
  • 64. DemoUITableView <UITableViewDataSource>
  • 65. Selection
  • 66. DemoUITableView <UITableViewDelegate>
  • 67. UITabBar + UINavigation + UITableView !NavigationController TableViewController TabBarController
  • 68. DemoUITabBar + UINavigation + UITableView
  • 69. • Propery Lists, NSUserDefaults• SQLite• Core Data
  • 70. SandBox• Why keep applications separate? • Security • Privacy • Cleanup after deleting an app
  • 71. Sample: /Users/xxx/library/Application Support/iPhone Simulator/4.0/Applications
  • 72. Property Lists• Convenient way to store a small amount of data • Arrays, dictionaries, strings, numbers, dates, raw data • Human-readable XML or binary format• NSUserDefaults class uses property lists under the hood• When Not to Use Property Lists • More than a few hundred KB of data • Custom object types • Multiple writers (e.g. not ACID)
  • 73. DemoSave data with NSUserDefaults
  • 74. SQLite• Complete SQL database in an ordinary file• Simple, compact, fast, reliable• No server• Great for embedded devices • Included on the iPhone platform• When Not to Use SQLite • Multi-gigabyte databases • High concurrency (multiple writers) • Client-server applications
  • 75. SQLite Obj-C Wrapper• http://code.google.com/p/flycode/source/browse/ trunk/fmdb• A query maybe like this: • [dbconn executeQuery:@"select * from call"]
  • 76. Using Web Service• Two Common ways:• XML • libxml2 • Tree-based: easy to parse, entire tree in memory • Event-driven: less memory, more complex to manage state • NSXMLParser • Event-driven API: simpler but less powerful than libxml2• JSON • Open source json-framework wrapper for Objective-C • http://code.google.com/p/json-framework/
  • 77. NSURLConnection• NSMutableURLRequest• - connectionWithRequest: delegate• delegate method: • – connection:didReceiveResponse: • – connection:didReceiveData: • – connection:didFailWithError: • – connectionDidFinishLoading:
  • 78. Demouse json-framework and NSURLConnection with hi-api
  • 79. iPhone Application• &• MVC• Views (design & life cycle)• Navigation based & Tab Bar based application & TableView• (sandbox, property list, sqlite)• Web service
  • 80. • Objective-C• The iPhone Developer’s Cookbook• Programming in Objective-C 2.0•• Stanford iPhone dev course • iTunes iTune Store cs193p mac windows
  • 81. Q &AThe End