Aalto, Veijo: Impact of hedonistic and social factors on customer satisfaction and loyalty; a study of Mobile Phones Users in Bangkok, Thailand
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Aalto, Veijo: Impact of hedonistic and social factors on customer satisfaction and loyalty; a study of Mobile Phones Users in Bangkok, Thailand

on

  • 642 views

ABSTRACT ...

ABSTRACT
Impact of Hedonistic and Social Factors on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: a study of Mobile Phones Users in Bangkok, Thailand
This study examines the impact of hedonistic and social factors together with perceived product and service quality on the Mobile phone users’ satisfaction and loyalty. It aims to help vendors, manufacturers, marketing research companies, and customers to evaluate future development of mobile phones.
Customer satisfaction and loyalty are central concepts in modern marketing and their influence has made these rapid market changes possible. Customer satisfaction benefits firm in many ways, from increasing loyalty, profitability and market share. This study adds hedonistic and social factors to customer satisfaction and loyalty measurement and create more accurate model for mobile phone future product and service evaluations.
This descriptive research used mainly quantitative approach to study conceptual mobile phone customer satisfaction model. Target population of this research is Thai and/or English speaking mobile phone owners living in mainly Bangkok area Thailand. Survey was done by online internet survey, 147 responses were received and used in quantitative analysis.
The results showed that hedonistic and social factors, together with perceived product and service quality, had positive correlations to customer satisfaction and finally loyalty. Customer satisfaction did correlate with positive customer voice and loyalty, but negative customer voice was found not to have correlation to these.
Hedonistic and Social Values should be measured together with service and product quality, to get better understanding how great mobile phone customer satisfaction and loyalty can be achieved. I recommend using this model to get better understanding how customer satisfaction and loyalty of mobile phones has also hedonistic and social values.
Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Customer Voice, Hedonistic Values, Social Values, Mobile Phone

Statistics

Views

Total Views
642
Views on SlideShare
642
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Aalto, Veijo: Impact of hedonistic and social factors on customer satisfaction and loyalty; a study of Mobile Phones Users in Bangkok, Thailand Aalto, Veijo: Impact of hedonistic and social factors on customer satisfaction and loyalty; a study of Mobile Phones Users in Bangkok, Thailand Document Transcript

    • 1 Journal Article Impact of Hedonistic and Social Factors on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Study of Mobile Phone Users in Bangkok, Thailand Veijo Olavi Aalto Stamford International University vexi@hotmail.com, veijo.a@stamford.edu ABSTRACT Study examines the impact of hedonistic and social factors together with perceived product and service quality on the Mobile phone users’ satisfaction and loyalty. It aims to help vendors, manufacturers, marketing research companies, and customers to evaluate future development of mobile phones. The findings suggest that hedonistic and social values should be measured together with service and product quality, to get better understanding how great mobile phone customer satisfaction and loyalty can be achieved. Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Customer Voice, Hedonistic Values, Social Values, Mobile Phone1. INTRODUCTION 6. What features are most used by mobile phone users in Bangkok area? Customer satisfaction is a central concept in modem 7. Does new smartphone era change the people’s behavior onmarketing thought and practice; it is an important goal of all using mobile phone?business activities. It measures how products and servicessupplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Objectives of the Study:When measuring customer satisfaction, results usually explain • This study examines the impact of hedonistic and socialcustomer experience long period of time (Yi, 1989) (Anderson, et factors together with perceived product and service qualityal., 1994). Kotler writes in book of Marketing Management, page on the customer satisfaction and loyalty from mobile phones.145, “Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or • Study also examines customer satisfaction correlations todisappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived both positive and negative customer voice and finally toperformance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. If loyalty.the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is • Study aims to help future mobile phone evaluation ofdissatisfied. If performance matches the expectations, the vendors, manufacturers, marketing research companies andcustomer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the also customers.customer is highly satisfied or delighted.” (Kotler & Keller, 2006). • One objective is also to compare customer satisfaction of Hedonistic and social consumption models have emerged mobile phones leading vendors in Bangkok area Thailand.recent years. Now customers want something more from their Comparison helps to understand vendor’s rapid changes ofphones. Mobile phone use must be enjoyment, meet social mobile phones market shares and profit also globally.requirements and social signaling. Good materials and aestheticappeal is also needed (Arruda-Filho, et al., 2010). This study applies hedonistic and social values to customersatisfaction measurement and suggests more accurate model forfuture customer satisfaction and loyalty evaluations. Mobile phones are usually categorized as so called traditionalmobile phones and more featured smartphones. There is no cleardefinition for those in literature; some so called traditionalphones can use for example social media and internet. This studyscoped both categories.Main Research Questions:1. How to measure customer satisfaction and loyalty from mobile phone?2. What are factors for greater customer satisfaction and loyalty from mobile phones?3. How do hedonistic and social factors effect on customer Figure 1: Conceptual Framework satisfaction and loyalty?4. How does the satisfaction level from mobile phones users in The theoretical frameworks reviewed led to the following Bangkok area different from the other areas? hypotheses:5. What operating system gives best satisfaction level from Hypothesis 1: There is a positive relationship between Price Index mobile phone users in Bangkok area? and Perceived Product Quality.
    • 2Hypothesis 2: There is a positive relationship between Price Index 2.2. Mobile Phone and Perceived Service Quality.Hypothesis 3: There is a positive relationship between Customer A mobile phone (also known as cell phone) is a handheld Expectations and Perceived Product Quality. device that can make and receive at least telephone calls over aHypothesis 4: There is a positive relationship between Customer radio link whilst user is moving a wide area. Mobile phone is Expectations and Service Product Quality. connected to a cellular network provided by a service provider,Hypothesis 5 There is a positive relationship between Brand allowing access to the public telephone network (Wikipedia, Image and Perceived Hedonistic Values. 2012).Hypothesis 6: There is a positive relationship between Brand Mobile phones can be categorized as two groups, feature Image and Perceived Social Values. phones and smartphones. Feature phones were used primarily forHypothesis 7: There is a positive relationship between Perceived basic talk and text, and smartphones had more functions, like Product Quality and Customer Satisfaction. Internet browser, social media and different small programs,Hypothesis 8: There is a positive relationship between Perceived called applications. However, now also feature phones have these Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction. functions and smartphones have now typically even moreHypothesis 9: There is a positive relationship between Perceived features and functions (Wikipedia, 2012). Hedonistic Values and Customer Satisfaction. There is no clear definition for smartphones and featureHypothesis 10: There is a positive relationship between Perceived phones, it can be said that today’s smartphones features are in Social Values and Customer Satisfaction. future feature phones features. Kano model explains the shiftHypothesis 11: There is a positive relationship between Customer from attractive features to must-be features (Kano, et al., 1984). Satisfaction and Loyalty.Hypothesis 12: There is a positive relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Positive Customer Voice.Hypothesis 13: There is a positive relationship between Positive Customer Voice and Loyalty.Hypothesis 14: There is a negative relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Negative Customer Voice.Hypothesis 15: There is a negative relationship between Negative Customer Voice and Loyalty.2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. Statistics and Demographic Backgrounds of Thailand Thailand is South East Asian country of population 67 million. Figure 3: Today’s smartphones; Samsung Galaxy S3 and iPhone34% of population is living in urban areas of the country. Official 4spopulation in capital, Bangkok, is 6.9 million. GPD per capita is$9,700 (2011). 42.4% labor force work in agriculture, 37.9% in On a full-year basis, the worldwide mobile phone marketservices and 19.7% in industry (CIA_The_World_Factbook, 2012). (included both smartphones and feature phones) maintained International Telecommunication Union ITU, United Nations growing 11.1% in 2011, which was 18.7% less in year-over-yearspecialized agency for information and communication growth experienced in 2010. While part of the slowing growthtechnologies, statistics from Thailand show that mobile cellular can be attributed to decreasing demand for feature phones,subscriptions penetration has reach 100% in Thailand continued two-digit growth in the years ahead as smartphones(International_Telecommunication_Union, 2011). continue to capture a greater share of the overall global market. 2011 2010 2011 Market 2010 Market Company Units share Units Share Nokia 422478 23.81 % 461318 28.89 % Samsung 313904 17.69 % 281066 17.60 % Apple 89263 5.03 % 46598 2.92 % LG 86371 4.87 % 114155 7.15 % ZTE 56882 3.21 % 29686 1.86 % RIM 51542 2.90 % 49652 3.11 % HTC 43266 2.44 % 24688 1.55 % Huawei 40663 2.29 % 23815 1.49 % Motorola 40269 2.27 % 38554 2.41 % Sony Ericsson 32598 1.84 % 41819 2.62 % Others 597327 33.66 % 485452 30.40 % Total 1774563 100.00 % 1596803 100.00 %Figure 2: Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2001- Table 1: Worldwide Mobile Device Sales to End Users by Vendor2011 in 2011 (Thousands of Units) (Gartner/Feb, 2012) Worldwide Mobile Device Shipments by Operating system 2Q12 show Android huge success, it had 68.1% market share.
    • 3 1999 and covered 11 countries and 100,000 interviews (European 2Q12 4Q11 Commission, 2005). Operating 2Q12 Market 2Q11 Market Hong Kong Customer Satisfaction Index (HKCSI) is based on System Units share Units Share the concept of cumulative customer satisfaction. It was Android 104800 68.1 % 50800 46.9 % introduced 2005 to be more customer oriented performance iOS 26000 16.9 % 20400 18.8 % indicator that will present the product quality. It was constructed Blackberry mainly from consumption point of view, while previous models OS 7400 4.8 % 12500 11.5 % concentrate more on production. Model is based on findings of Symbian 6800 4.4 % 18300 16.9 % 10000 customer interviews on 60 products conducted in 1998 Windows 5400 3.5 % 2500 2.3 % and 2000 using computer assisted telephone system. Chan Linux/Bada 3500 2.3 % 3300 3.0 % introduced Hong Kong Customer satisfaction Index that instead Others 100 0.1 % 600 0.5 % of product attributes, concentrates more on cumulative customer Total 154000 100.00 % 108300 100.00 % satisfaction. (Chan, et al., 2003)Table 2: Worldwide Smartphone Shipments by Operating System The first Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer (NCSB)in 2Q12 (Thousands of Units) (IDC, 2012) model was identical to the original ACSI model with the exception that it included corporate image and its relationships to customer2.3. Customer satisfaction satisfaction and also customer loyalty (Johnson, et al., 2001). These indexes are expected to give an important complement Customer satisfaction is a central concept in modem to traditional measures of economic performance and providingmarketing thought and practice; it is an important goal of all useful information not only to the firms, but also to shareholders.business activities. It measures how products and services There are several national customer satisfaction index models.supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. The concept behind these models requires a methodology withWhen measuring customer satisfaction, results usually explain certain properties (Hu, et al., 2011) (Fornell, et al., 1996).customer experience long period of time (Yi, 1989) (Anderson, et The methodology must recognize that the customeral., 1994). Kotler writes in book of Marketing Management, page satisfaction index and the other constructs in the model represent145, “Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or different types of evaluations that cannot be measured directly.disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived To this end, these constructs should be seen as latent variablesperformance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. If and their scores or indexes should be general enough to bethe performance falls short of expectations, the customer is comparable across firms, industries, sectors, and nations.dissatisfied. If performance matches the expectations, the Second, the customer satisfaction index must be measuredcustomer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the in a way that not only accounts for consumption experience,customer is highly satisfied or delighted.” (Kotler & Keller, 2006). but also is forward-looking. Accordingly, the Customer High customer satisfaction has many benefits for the firms, Satisfaction Index is embedded in a system of cause and effectsuch as increased; customer loyalty, profit, market value of equity relationships (Hu, et al., 2011).and repeated purchase intentions. It has negative impact oncustomer complaints and it offers a positive word-of-mouth. Also Latent variables SCSB ACSI EPSI HKCSI NCSBcustomer satisfaction has impacts on revenue generation andcost of doing business (Fornell, et al., 2006) (Anderson, et al., 1994) Perceived performance Yes Yes(Sharma, et al., 1999). Customer expectations Yes Yes Yes Yes (Prepurchase) Customer satisfaction Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes2.4. National Customer Satisfaction Index Models Customer complaints Yes Yes Customer loyalty Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes There are some simple product attributes models, like Perceived quality Yesintroduced by for example Bettman (Bettman, 1974). He used list (Postpurchase)of product attributes, and if those were met, customer would be Perceived value Yes Yes Yessatisfied. For example if toothpaste would prevent cavities, fresh (Postpurchase)mouth and be economical to use, it would have satisfied Corporate image Yes Yescustomers. Perceived service Yes It was soon discovered that more fundamental level of qualitysatisfaction measurement was needed. All national models have Perceived product Yessimilar causal construct for customer satisfaction. Models have qualitymany distinctions, so the results cannot be compared with each Customer Yesother. characteristics The Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (SCSB) model Customer voice Yesestablished in 1989 was the first National Customer Satisfaction Quality Drivers YesIndex Model. Model was successful and modified by other Price index Yesnations (Fornell, 1992). Complaints behaviour Yes American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) is widely used. It (handling)was developed by the National Quality Research Centre (NQRC) Affective commitment Yesat the University of Michigan and was introduced in 1994 (ACSI, Calculative Yes2012). commitment European Performance Satisfaction Index (EPSI) is anothermodification of SCSB and ACSI. It was previously known as ECSI, Table 3: Comparison of National Customer Satisfaction ModelsEuropean Customer Satisfaction Index, but was renamed byEuropean Commission. The first pilot phase study were finished in
    • 4 Some academic research has shown that the national ACSI acquaintances. Online discussion boards are used to sharescore is a good predictor of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) customer’s opinions about their purchase (Arruda-Filho, et al.,growth, and an even stronger predictor of customer consumption 2010).growth. ACSI is most widely used, is updated quarterly, factoring Discussion boards are not the only interactive social mediain ACSI scores from more than 225 companies in 47 industries in that can reach lot of customers. All leading vendors use alsoabout 10 countries (ACSI, 2012). Facebook or Twitter to share opinions with their customers. Some EPSI used in more than 20 European countries. In most magazines and enthusiastic customers have also opened theircountries, EPSI Rating covers the financial sector (banking and own Facebook pages or blogs to express their voice in socialinsurance), the ICT sector (tele- and data communication), energy, media.distribution and trade, personal transportation together withdominant socio-ethical sectors like education and health (EPSI- 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRating, 2012). SCSB, HKCSI and NCSB are used mainly in countries where 3.1. Research Designthese models were developed This descriptive research used quantitative research methods2.5. Hedonistic and Social Consumption patterns to study conceptual mobile phone customer satisfaction model. Qualitative techniques were also used in open ended questions of Innovative customers seem to adopt new technology not just the survey. It tested a new model how customer satisfactionutilitarian, but also for experimental purposes. A study of early forms. Model is a complex causal model of direct and indirectiPhone adapters showed that even utilitarian customers have causal links to customer satisfaction and loyalty. These links werehedonic and social factors present in their consumption pattern. formed to 15 hypotheses, and tested by using a questionnaire.Customers choose products that give more than just functions, The research tested three hypothesis consequences ofbut give enjoyment, social status, social acceptance and customer satisfaction, positive and negative customer voice andplayfulness (Arruda-Filho, et al., 2010). Hedonistic purchase often loyalty, to ensure this new model has important benefits ofcreates sense of quilt because of the high price paid for customer satisfaction.something that is not utilitarian. However, customers areconstantly looking for ways to justify fun (Okada, 2005). 3.2. Target Population and Sampling Even Apple marketed 2007 iPhone as new mobile phone,customers seem to see it different way. Customers were more The informants were Thai and/or English speaking mobileconcern joy of use than communication features. Hedonistic phone owners living in mainly Bangkok area Thailand.features gave technically oriented customers motivation to buy. Samples demographics data consists of;Apple Acolytes, the customers who are highly devoted to the  NationalityApple brand, justify their iPhone usage by highlighting only the  Living region in Thailandfeatures that worked well in their Phone (Arruda-Filho, et al.,  Gender2010).  Age Some examples on hedonistic and social consumption  Educationpatterns:  Household sizeHaptic Experience  Household income Customers want to gain information and evaluate phone by The above data was compared to statistics of Thailand, totouching. Customers want to try the touch screen and also feel make sure sample is reliable and represents population.the size, weight and materials.Enhanced Aesthetics 3.3. Research Instrument and Measurement Scale Contemporary design and aesthetic appeal comes importantaspect to satisfy social needs. For example iPhone user wants to The researcher delivered the online survey via Survey Monkeyleave phone on table when having lunch, because it is “sexy and a service during one month. Moreover field interviews weregreat conversation starter”. conducted, which were targeted to demographics groupsHedonic social contagion underrepresented in online survey. Smooth, enjoyable use experience, allows user to signal the The questionnaire was translated from English to Thaihedonic pleasure to others; i.e. Sharing their fun. language by native speaker. To ensure the accuracy, theExperiential values questionnaire was translated back from Thai to English by other Innovative customers are constantly looking for newest person, and those questions were be compared to originaltechnology. They get hedonic satisfaction for been one of first to questions.own new phone and use its features. Technological people Likert 10-scale was used in survey to indicate respondentprimary concern is to own the best equipment ever launched. attitudes how strongly they agree/disagree with carefullyHedonic aspects allow customers to justify the usefulness of the constructed statements. Each value was formed by mean valuespurchase. multiplied by a scaling constant 10. If all customers interviewed Technologically innovative, multifunctional, and symbolically give the highest possible score of 10 to all indicators, thepowerful products with aesthetic design combined with good product’s score can reach its maximum score of 100. Similarusability seem to have high degree of customer satisfaction and scoring is used in national models.loyalty (Gemser, et al., 2006). Example of perceived hedonistic and social values indexes:2.6. Customer Voice in Social media Social media has also given customers a new channel to Perceived Hedonistic Valuesexpress positive or negative customer voice. Customers share Overall enjoyment of use. (Q18): My phone is overall great joyopinions with friends and sometimes even thousands of to use.
    • 5 Enjoyment of touch. (Q19): My phone feels excellent in hand.(Material, size, weight...) Meet own requirements of exploring. (Q20): I like very muchto explore new features for my phone. (Download applications etc.)Formula for 100 scale index:Perceived Social Values Meet social requirements. (Q21): I like to show new features ofmy phone to my friends. Social value compared to friends. (Q22): My phone is more"cooler" than my friend’s phones. Social value compared to competitors. (Q23): My phone is"coolest" in market at the moment. Social signaling. (Q24): I usually keep my phone visible in Figure 4: Pearson Correlations of the modelpublic places. 4.2. Non-Hypothesized FindingsFormula for 100 scale index: It was discovered that Windows Phone gave highest customer satisfaction when measured operating systems.4. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS However, iOS was almost equal. Third was Android operating system. Survey was done by online internet survey and field test. Most common features used in Bangkok area daily wereInternet survey was sent to all working or studying in Stamford calling (81.6%), clock and alarm (71.4%), internet browsingUniversity. Invitation was also sent to 18 other universities around (49.7%), email (44.9%), social networking (41.5%) and calendarThailand. Also social media was used to invite to survey. (39.5%) applications. Least used were Tweeting, as 78.9% hadResponse rate was lower than expected, 147 answered never tried it.satisfactory to online survey from tens of thousands potentials. As people are using a lot of features that are so called Field survey responses were 32, but they were all rejected smartphone applications daily, we can say that smartphone erabecause all answers seem to be done by only one person. has changed the way customers are using their mobile phones. Even a relatively low number of responses, results were still Socio-economic characteristics of respondents show thatusable. Even with low response rate, data can be valid if non- typical respondent is male, 30-39 years old Thai, living in Bangkokresponse effects are tested (Templeton, et al., 1997). Mid-testing area. His highest education level is bachelor degree. Householdwas done with 106 respondents, and hypothesizes correlations size is 4 and household income more than 100,001 Baht. Hiswere approximately same level as with 147 respondents. phone brand is Nokia and he daily calls and sends text messages. To test data internal consistency, Cronbach’s Alpha test was He also uses a lot clock, alarm, phone calendar, email and internetused. Test is widely used as a measure of the internal consistency browser. Reading books, Tweeting, watching videos and map isor reliability of a psychometric test scores. Test score for not used and often never even testedCronbach’s Alpha was 0.911, so the data is excellently consistent. The test result for the Levene’s t-values shows that there is noHowever, if Negative Customer Voice would be removed from significant difference between the genders in perceiveddata, consistence would be even better, 0.926. hedonistic and social values, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Also the 2-tailed significance values are above the required 0.054.1. Hypothesized Findings for statistical significance. Highest Mean Customer Satisfaction has ZTE, and then comes Results show that there is strong, r > 0.7, correlation in Apple and HTC. Apple has clearly highest loyalty.hypothesis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8. Correlation is moderate; r isbetween 0.3 and 0.7, in hypothesis 6, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. Weakand non-significant correlation appeared in hypothesis 14 and 15. Conclusion for hypothesized findings paths coefficients weresignificant and correct sign, except those (14 and 15) related tonegative customer voice. Model presented in conceptual framework was usable formeasuring customer satisfaction and loyalty of mobile phonecustomers. However, the negative customer voice should beremoved from model, as it had no relevant correlations. Thatwould also increase data consistency, as score from Cronbach’sAlpha would be higher. All other factors were useful. Hedonistic and social factors had significant correlations tocustomer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction had significantcorrelation to loyalty. Hedonistic and social factors effectpositively to customer satisfaction. Figure 5: Customer satisfaction of brands
    • 6 In future research I think this model usefulness with other type of product should be tested. I would think that for example automobiles may have same kind hedonistic and social values as mobile phones. Bibliography ACSI. (2012). American Customer Satisfaction Index. Retrieved Jan 26, 2012, from http://www.theacsi.org Anderson, E., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Customer Satisfaction, Market share and profitability - findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, 53-66. Arruda-Filho, E. J., Cabusas, J. A., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators. International Journal of Information Management, 30, 475-480. Bettman, J. R. (1974). A threshold model of attribute satisfactionFigure 6: Loyalty of brands decisions. Journal of Consumer Research Policy Board, 30-35.5. CONCLUSIONS Chan, L. K., Hui, Y. V., Lo, H. P., Tse, S. K., Tso, G. K., & Wu, M. L. (2003). Consumer satisfaction index: new practice and Conclusion for hypothesized findings paths coefficients were findings. European Journalof Marketing, 37(5/6), 872-significant and correct sign, except those related to negative 909.customer voice. Those customers, who complain phone to their CIA_The_World_Factbook. (2012). The World Factbook. Retrievedfriends or in social media, may still be satisfied and loyal. This Mar 7, 2012, fromresult is in line with previous Arruda’s study, where he discovered https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-that customers complaining iPhone dropped calls and failed factbook/geos/th.htmlcoverage in social media, were still not dissatisfied. Techno-social EPSI-Rating. (2012). EPSI Rating. Retrieved Jan 30, 2012, fromusers and Apple acolytes are very devoted to Apple (Arruda-Filho, http://www.epsi-rating.comet al., 2010). European Commission. (2005). Project for the European Model presented in conceptual framework was usable for Commission Directorate General on Health andmeasuring customer satisfaction and loyalty of mobile phone Consumer Protection: Development of indicators oncustomers. However, the negative customer voice should be consumer satisfaction and Pilot survey, Final Report.removed from model, as it had no relevant correlations. That European Community, NRA and Deloitte.would also increase data consistency, as score from Cronbach’s Fornell, C. (1992). A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer:Alpha would be higher. All other factors were useful. The Swedish Experience . Journal of Marketing, 56, 6-21. Hedonistic and social factors had significant correlations to Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E.customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction had significant (1996). The American Customer Satisfaction Index:correlation to loyalty. Hedonistic and social factors effect Nature, Purpose and Findings. Journal of Marketing, 60,positively to customer satisfaction. 7-18. Fornell, C., Mithas, S., Morgeson III, F. V., & Krishnan, M. (2006).5.1. Limitations Customer Satisfaction and Stock prices: High Returns, Low Risk. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70 (January 2006). This research has some limitations. Survey was done by online Gartner/Feb. (2012). Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Salesinternet survey service. Because of limited resources and time Soared in Fourth Quarter of 2011 With 47 Percentlimit, I could not make it as covering as I would have wanted. I Growth. Retrieved Feb 15, 2012, fromwould have wanted to have better coverage of people from http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1924314different income levels and better response rate. That would have Gemser, G., Jacobs, D., & Ten Cate, R. (2006). Design andmeant need to do for example street survey, as everybody still competitive advantage in technology-driven sectors:doesn’t have access to internet. Unfortunately this was not The role of usability and aesthetics in Dutch IT.possible because lack of resources and time. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 18(5), Research was done only in Thailand. There may be somewhat 561-580.different results from other cultures when values and Hu, H.-Y., Cheng, C.-C., Chiu, S.-I., & Hong, F.-Y. (2011). A Study ofcommunication styles aren’t same as Thais. Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty and Quality Some limitations were also caused by my limited Thai Attributes in Taiwan Medical Service Industry. Africanlanguage skill; for example street interviews were not able Journal of Business Management, 5, 187-195.perform directly. IDC. (2012). Android and iOS Surge to New Smartphone OS Record in Second Quarter, According to IDC . Retrieved Aug 13,5.2. Recommendations and Future Research 2012, fromRecommendations http://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS23638 712 Model was usable for measuring customer satisfaction and International_Telecommunication_Union. (2011). ICT Data andloyalty of mobile phone customers. I recommend using this Statistics. Retrieved Mar 8, 2012, frommodel to get better understanding how customer satisfaction and http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/loyalty of mobile phones has also hedonistic and social values.
    • 7Johnson, M. D., Gustaffson, A., Andreassen, T. W., Lervik, L., & Cha, J. (2001). The evolution and future of national customer satisfaction index models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 217-245.Kano, N., Seraku, N., & Takahashi F, T. S. (1984). Attractive Quality and Must-Be-Quality. The Japanese Society for Quality Control, 14, 39-48.Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing Management (12 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Okada, E. M. (2005). Justification effects on consumer choice of hedonic and utilitarian goods. Journal of Marketing Research, XLII(Feb), 43-53.Sharma, S., Niedrich, R. W., & Dobbins, G. (1999). A Framework for Monitoring Customer Satisfaction. Industrial Marketing Management 28, 231-243.Templeton, L., Deehan, A., Taylor, C., Drummond, C., & Strang, J. (1997). Surveying general practitioners: does a low response rate matter? British Journal of General Practice(47), 91-94.Wikipedia. (2012). Mobile phone. Retrieved Feb 3, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phoneWikipedia. (2012). Smartphone. Retrieved Feb 3, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SmartphoneYi, Y. (1989). A critical review of consumer satisfaction. Review of marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago, 68-123.