Agri & food retailing

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Agri and Food Retailing

Agri and Food Retailing

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  • 1. Agri & Food Retailing Agri & Food Retailing
  • 2. Retailing encompasses the business activities involved in selling goods & services to consumers for their personal, family, or household use. It includes every sale to the final consumer – ranging from cars to apparel to meals at restaurants to movie tickets. What is Retail Management? Key issues that retailer must resolve: How can we best serve our customer while earning a fair profit? How can we stand out in a highly competitive environment where customers have so many choices? How can we grow our business while retailing a core of loyal customers?
  • 3. Retail Functions in Distribution A Typical Channel of Distribution Manufacturer Wholesaler Retailer Final consumer Manufacturer Brand A Manufacturer Brand B Manufacturer Brand C Manufacturer Brand D Wholesaler Wholesaler Retailer Brand A customers Brand B customers Brand C customers Brand D customers Retailers role in sorting process
  • 4. Major type of retail stores There is no universally accepted method of classifying retailer. Various schemes have been proposed to categories retailers based on  Number of outlets  Margin vs. turnover  Location  Size. Because of overlap of classification criteria, some stores may qualify as under two different categories.
  • 5. 1. General merchandise retailer: general merchandise retailer carry a variety of product lines, with considerable depth. Some major types of these stores include supermarkets and hypermarkets , discount stores and department stores. o Super market: A supermarket is a large self service retail store that carries a wide variety of consumer products under one roof , such as complete line of food products , laundry requirement, household maintenance items. In India cooperative have managed some supermarkets for quite sometime like super bazaar in Delhi, apna bazaar shakari bhandar etc.
  • 6. o Discount store: these stores are self service, standard general merchandise retailers regularly offering brand name and private brand items at low price, earn lower margins and push for high sales turnover. The characteristics of true discount stores include  Selling products at discounted price  Carry standard international , national, or store brand toi build image  Self service stores to minimize operational costs  Preferred store location are low rent areas. Like best known discount store is Wal-Mart. In India almost all retail stores offer discounts, Big Bazaar, More,. etc..
  • 7. o Department store: a department store is larger retail store organized into several departments, offering a broad verity and depth of product lines. The product mix may include food products, appliances, clothing, furnishing and other household goods.  Like Pantaloons, shoppers’ stop,  department store only for kids is Kids Kemp.  Fashion related department stores in India are Ebony, Globus, pantaloons, lifestyles.
  • 8. 2. Specialty Stores: specialty stores carry a narrow product mix with depth of assortment within the line.  The emphasis is on a limited number of complimentary products and high level of customer service  Specialty store often sell shopping goods such as Jewelry, apparel, computers, music systems, sporting goods.  Like; Tanishq, Titan watches, Van Heusen, Raymond's. 3. Shopping Malls: shopping malls typically deal with several bases and product categories and provide a large variety of merchandise abs service. There are 96 operational malls in India and expected to grow 158 by this current year.  Ansal plaza (Delhi), Garuda mall (Bangalore) Sahara plaza Gurgaon Spenser Plaza Chennai 8
  • 9. 4. Retail chains: a retail chain operates multiple retail outlets under common ownership in different cities and towns.  To some extent the purchasing function and decision making are coordinated or centralized.  Like Westside, Globus, Food world, McDonald's retail petrol outlets. Etc. 9
  • 10. The Evolution of Retail in India  Retail in India has evolved to support the unique needs of our country, given its size and complexity Haats, Mandis and Melas have always been a part of the Indian landscape. They still continue to be present in most parts of the country and form an essential part of life and trade in Various areas.  The PDS (Public Distribution System) would easily as the single largest retail chain existing in the country. the evolution of the PDS of Grains in India has its origin in the “rationing system” introduced by the British during world war II 10
  • 11.  The system was started in 1939 in Bombay and subsequently extended to other cities and towns. the system was abolished post war but however attaining independence India was forced to reintroduce it in 1950.  There was rapid increase in the ration shops ( being increasingly called the Fair Price Shop or FPSs)  The Canteen Stores Department and the Post Offices in India are also among the largest network of outlets in the country reaching population across the country. 11
  • 12.  The Khadi & Village industries (KVIC) was also set up post independence. The cooperative movement was again championed by the government. India's Largest retail Chains: 1. PDS: 463,000 2. Post offices: 160,000 3. KVIC: 7,000 4. CSD Stores:3,400 (source business world marketing White book 2005)
  • 13.  In the past decade, the Indian marketplace has transformed dramatically. However from the 1950,s to the 80,s, investment in various industries was limited due to low purchasing power in the hands of the consumer and the government’s policies favoring the small scale sector.  The first attempts at organized retailing were noticed in the textiles sector. One of the pioneers in this field was Raymond’s which set up stores to retail fabric. 13
  • 14.  Raymond’s distribution network today comprises 20,000 retailers and over 256 exclusive showrooms in over 120 cities of the country  Other textile manufacturing who set up their own retail chains wee Reliance- which set up Vimal showrooms and Garden Silk Mills, which set up Garden Vareli showrooms. 14
  • 15. The Evolution of retail in India 15 Traditional Formats Itinerant Salesman Haats Melas Mandis etc. Established formats Kirana shops Convenience/ department stores PDS/ fair price shops Pan/ Beedi shops Emerging Formats Exclusive retail outlets Hypermarket Internal retail Malls / Specialty Malls Multiplexes Fast food outlets Service galleries
  • 16. Drivers of Retail change in India major drivers : 1. Changing Income Profiles: Steady economic growth fuelled the increase in disposable income in India. The average middle class family's disposable income rose by more than 20% between 1999-2003. 2. Diminishing difference between Rural and urban India: Rural India accounts for over 75% of India population and this in itself offers a tremendous opportunity for generating volume driven growth. Tax benefit. In year 2002-03 LIC sold 50% of its policies in rural India. Same BSNL also sold its 50% connection in small towns . 16
  • 17. 3. Changes in Consumption patterns: Occupational changes and expansion of media have caused a significant change in the way the consumer lives and spends his money. o The changes in income brought about changes in the aspirations and the spending patterns of the consumers. the buying basket of the consumer changed 4. The emergence of a young Earning India : Nearly 70% of the Indian population is below the age of 34. taking advantages of employment opportunity in the booming service sector these young Indians are redefining service and consumption patterns 17
  • 18. Prominent sector in Indian retail 1. Clothing, textiles and fashion Accessories: 2. Food & food Services: 3. Consumer Durables: 4. Books & Music: Other emerging sectors 5. Jewellery retail 6. Footwear retail 7. Time Wear Retail 8. Fuel Retail/ petro retail 18
  • 19. SWOT Analysis of Indian Retail Industry Strengths…………. • Demographic favor • Rising disposable income • Increase in number of people in earner category. • Urbanization • Shopping convenience • Low labor cost of skilled ones. • Changing consumer habits and lifestyles. • Plastic card revolution. • Greater availability of quality retail space.
  • 20. SWOT Analysis Weakness…….. • Policy related issues • - lack of industry status for retail. • - numerous licence,permits and registration requirement. • -farmer and retailer unfriendly APMC act. • Limited consumer insight • -lack of detailed region specific customer data. • -less data on spending pattern. • inadequate human resources • -lack of trained personnel at all level. • -stringent employment and industry laws. • -fragment approach to human resources.
  • 21. SWOT Analysis Weakness cont………..  Taxation hurdle -inconsistent octori and entry tax structure. -vat and multiple taxation issues. -large grey market presence.  Underdeveloped supply chain -underdeveloped logistics infrastructure. -absence of national cold chain networks. -lack of national distribution networks and hubs  Lack of adequate utilities - lack of basic infrastructure like power, transport and communication creates difficulty in sustaining retail operations across the large geographical spread of country.
  • 22. SWOT Analysis Opportunities…….. • Potential for investment. • Locational advantage. • Sectors with high growth potential. • Fastest growing formats. • Rural retail. • Wholesale trading. • Falling real estate cost • E-retailing • Retail franchising 22
  • 23. SWOT Analysis Threats………….. • Political issues. • Social issues. • Lack of differentiation among the malls that are coming. • Poor inventory turns and stock availability measures. 23
  • 24. Size of the organized retail market (Rs Cr) 2001-02 2007 CAGR (%) (compound Annual growth rate) TOTAL 16,000 37,216 18 Food 1,800 7,473 33 Clothing 4,950 10,423 16 Cons.Durables 1,650 3,787 18 Books & Music 450 1,426 26 24
  • 25. Share of organized & unorganized retail with comparison source: Ernst &Young, The Great Indian Retail Story, 2006 85 15 81 19 55 45 40 60 36 64 30 70 20 80 3 97 1 99 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% USA TAIWAN MALASIA THAILAND BRAZIL INDONESIA CHINA INDIA PAKISTAN ORGANISED UNORGANISED 25
  • 26. Retail Trade- India, US and China Trade ($ bn) Employment (%) Shops (million) Organized Sector share (%) India 180-394 7 12 2-3 China 360 12 2.7 20 US 3800 12.6-16 15.3 80 26
  • 27. Retailers often act as the contact between manufacturers, wholesalers, & customers. Retailers collect an assortment (variety) from various sources, buy in large quantity, & sell in small amount. This is sorting process. Retailers communicate with customers, wholesalers & manufacturers. Shoppers learn about the availability & characteristics of goods & services, store hours, sales etc., from retailers advt., sales people & displays. Manufacturers & wholesalers are informed by their retailers with regard to sales forecast, delivery delays, customer complaints, defective items, inventory turnover and so on.. Many goods & services have been modified due to retailer feedback. For small suppliers, retailers provide assistance by transporting, sorting, marketing, advertising, & pre-paying for the products. Retailers also complete transactions with customers i.e., having convenient locations, filling order promptly & accurately, & processing credit purchase. Some retailers also provide customer services such as gifts wrapping, delivery, & installation. To be more appealing, many firms engage in multi-channel retailing i.e., multiple point of contact like physical stores, websites, mail-order catalogs etc. Retail Functions in Distribution
  • 28. Benefits Reach more customers Reduce costs Improve cash flow Increase sales more rapidly Focus on area of expertise Retail Functions in Distribution Manufacturers also do operate retail facilities (besides selling at conventional retailers). In running their stores, these firms compete the full range of retailing functions & compete with conventional retailers.
  • 29. Retailers are part of distribution channel, so manufacturers (wholesalers) are concerned about: Caliber of displays Customer service Store hours Retailer‘s reliability as business partners Retailers are also major customers of goods & services for resale, store fixtures, computers, management consulting ,& insurance. Retailer-Supplier Relationship Retailers and supplier have different priorities on: Control over distribution channel Profit allocation No. of competing retailers handling supplier‘s products Product display Promotion support Payment terms Operating flexibility
  • 30. Channel Relations Exclusive Distribution Suppliers make agreements with one or a few retailers that designates them the only one to carry certain brands/products in a specific geographic region. Both parties work together to maintain an image, assign self space, allot profits & costs, & advertise. This is the smoothest channel relationship. Retailer-Supplier Relationship Intensive Distribution Suppliers sell through as many retailers as possible. This maximizes suppliers‘ sales & lets retailers offer many brands & product versions. Retailers may assign little self space to specific brands, set high price on them, & not advertise them. This is most volatile channel relationship. Selective Distribution Suppliers sell through a moderate no. of retailers carrying some competing brands. This combines aspects of Exclusive & Intensive Distribution
  • 31. The average amount of a sales transaction for retailers is much less than manufacturers. This low amount creates the need to tightly control the cost associated with each transaction like sales personnel, credit verification, & bagging. To maximize the no. of customer the retailer has to emphasize more on ads & special promotions. Increase impulse sales by more aggressive selling. The Special Characteristics of Retailing Final consumers make many unplanned or impulse purchases. Large %age of consumers do not look at ads before shopping. They do not prepare shopping list. Make fully unplanned purchases. This indicates the value of in-store displays, attractive store layouts, & well organized stores, catalogs, & website. Retailer‘s ability to forecast, budget, order merchandise, & sufficient personnel on the selling floor becomes difficult.
  • 32. Retail customers usually visit a store, even though mail, phone, & web sales has increased. Most retail transactions happen in stores & will continue in future. Many people like to shop in person, want to touch, smell, and/or try on products. Many people to browse for unplanned purchases. They feel more comfortable talking a purchase home with them than waiting for a delivery. Desire privacy while at home. Retailers must work to attract shoppers to stores & consider such factors such as store location, transportation, store hours, proximity (nearness) of competitors, product selection, parking & ads. The Special Characteristics of Retailing
  • 33. Retail strategy is the overall plan guiding a retail firm. It influences the firm’s business activities & its response to market forces, such as competition & economy. Six steps in strategic planning Define the type of business in terms of the goods or services & company‘s specific orientation. Set long-run & short-run objectives for sales & profit, market share, image etc. Determine the customer market to target on the basis of its characteristics (like gender & income level) & needs (like product & brand preferences). Devise an overall, long-run plan that gives general direction to the firms & its employees. Implement an integrated strategy that combines factors like store location, transportation, product variety, pricing, and advertising & display to achieve objectives. Regularly evaluate performance & correct weaknesses or problems when observed. Importance of Retail Strategy
  • 34. Growth-oriented objectives Appeal to prime market Distinctive company image Focus Strong customer service for its retail category Multiple points of contact Employee relations Innovation Commitment to technology Community involvement Constantly monitoring performance Key to success
  • 35. Customer orientation - The retailer determines the attributes & needs of its customers & endeavors (take action) to satisfy these needs. Coordinated effort - The retailers integrates all plans & activities to maximize efficiency. Value-driven - The retailer offers good value to the customers, whether it be upscale (expensive) or discount i.e., ―appropriate pricing‖ for goods & customer service. Goal oriented - The retailer sets goal & uses its strategy to attain them. The Retailing Concept Customer orientation Coordinated effort Value- driven Goal orientation Retailing concept Retail Strategy
  • 36. Classification of Retail Institutions Ownership Store-based retail strategy mix Nonstore-based retail strategy mix & nontraditional retailing • Independent • Chain • Franchise • Leased department • Vertical marketing system • Consumer cooperative • Convenience store • Conventional supermarket • Food-based supermarket • Combination store • Box (limited line) store • Warehouse store • Specialty store • Variety store • Traditional department store • Full-line department store • Off-price chain • Factory outlet • Membership club • Flea (louse) market • Direct marketing • Direct selling • Vending machine • World wide web (WWW)
  • 37. Ownership format serves a marketplace niche. Independent retailers capitalize on a very small targeted customer base & please shoppers in a friendly, folksy (simple) way. Word-of mouth communication is important. These retailers should not try to serve too many customer & enter into price wars. Chain retailers benefit from widely known image, economies of scales (i.e. cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion), & mass promotion possibilities. They should maintain their image chain wide & not be inflexible in adapting changes in the marketplace. Franchisors have strong geographic coverage & motivation of the franchisees as owner- operators. They should not get bogged down in policy disputes with franchisees or charge excessive royalty fees. Leased departments enable store operators & outside parties to join forces & enhance the shopping experience, while sharing expertise & expenses. They should not hurt the image of the store or place too much pressure on the lessee to bring in store traffic. A vertically integrated channel gives a firm greater control over sources of supply, but it should not provide consumers with too little choice of products or too few outlets. Cooperatives provide members with price savings. They should not expect too much involvement by members or add facilities that raise costs too much. Retail Institution by Ownership
  • 38. An independent retailer owns one retail unit. Independent Retailer Advantages There is flexibility in choosing retail formats, location, assortment (variety), prices, hours etc., & devising strategy based on the target customers. Investment costs for leases, fixtures, workers, & merchandise can be brought down. There is no duplication of stock or personnel function. Responsibilities are clearly delineated (defined) within the store. Independents frequently act as specialist in a niche of the particular goods/services category. They are then more efficient & can lure (attract) shoppers interested in specialized retailers. Independents exert strong control over their strategies, & the owner-operator is typically on the premises. Decision making is centralized & layers of management personnel are minimized. There are certain image attached to independents, particularly small ones, that chains cannot readily capture. Independents can easily sustain consistency in their efforts because only one store is operated. Independents have ―Independence‖. No meetings, union, stockholders & labor unrest etc. Entrepreneurial drive.
  • 39. Independent Retailer Disadvantages Less bargaining power with the suppliers as they buy less quantity. Cannot gain economies of scale (i.e. cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion) in buying & maintaining inventory. Transportation, ordering, & handling costs are high. Operations are labor intensive. They are limited to certain media for advt. because of financial constraints. Family-run independents is overdependence on the owner. It is difficult to keep it up & running. Limited time allotted to long-run planning, since owner is intimately involved in day-to day operations.
  • 40. Chain retailer operates multiple outlets (store units) under common ownership. It usually involves in some level of centralized purchasing & decision making. Chain Retailer Advantages Many chains have bargaining power due to their purchase volume. They receive new items when introduced, have orders promptly filled, get sales support, & obtain volume discounts. Chains achieve cost efficiencies when they buy directly from the manufacturers & in large volumes, ship and store goods, & attend trade shows sponsored by the suppliers to learn about new offerings. They can sometimes bypass wholesalers. Efficiency is gained by sharing warehouse facilities; purchasing standardized store fixtures; centralized buying & decision making etc. Headquarters have broad authority for personnel policies & for buying, pricing, & advt. decisions. Computerized ordering merchandise, inventory, forecasting, sales, & bookkeeping. This reduces overall costs. Take advantage of variety of media from print to electronic. Detailed & clear responsibility for employees with available substitute incase any employee is retiring or quitting. Spend considerable time in strategic planning. Opportunity & threat are closely monitored.
  • 41. Chain Retailer Disadvantages Flexibility may be limited. Consistent strategies on pricing, promotions, & product variety must be followed throughout all units which may be difficult to adapt to local diverse market. Investment is high due to infrastructure & store as multiple store has to be stocked. Managerial control is complex due to geographically dispersed branches. Limited independence to the personnel.
  • 42. Franchising involves a contractual arrangement between a franchisor (a manufacturer, wholesaler, or service sponsor) & a retail franchisee, which allows the franchisee to conduct business under a established name & according to a given pattern of business. The franchisee pays an initial fees & a monthly %age of the gross sales in exchange for the rights to sell goods & services in an area. A franchisee operates autonomously in setting store hours, chooses a location, & determines facilities & displays. Franchising Three structural arrangements dominate retail franchising Manufacturer-retailer – A manufacturer gives independent franchisees the right to sell goods & related services through licensing agreement. (Eg., Auto/truck dealers like GM, Petroleum products dealers like IOC). Wholesaler-retailer Voluntary - A wholesaler sets up a franchise system & grants franchises to individual retailer. (Eg., Auto accessories stores, Consumer electronics stores). Cooperative – A group of retailers sets up a franchise system & shares the ownership & operations of a wholesaling organization. (Eg., Food stores). Service sponsor-retailer – A service firm licenses individual retailers so they can offer specific service packages to customers. (Eg., McDoland‘s).
  • 43. Advantages of Franchisees They own a retail enterprise with a relatively small capital. They acquire well-known names & goods/services lines. Standard operating procedures & management skills may be taught to them. Cooperative marketing efforts (like national advt.) are facilitated. They obtain exclusive selling rights for specified geographical territories. Their purchases may be less costly per unit due to the volume of the overall franchise. Franchising contd.. Disadvantages of Franchisees Oversaturation could occur if too many franchisees are there in one geographical area. Due to overzealous selling by some franchisors, franchisees‘ income potential, required managerial ability, & investment may be incorrectly stated. They may be locked into contracts requiring purchases from franchisors or certain vendors. Cancellation clauses may give franchisors the right to void agreement if provisions are not satisfied. In some industries, franchise agreements are of short duration. Royalties are often a %age of gross sales, regardless of franchisee profits.
  • 44. Advantages of Franchisors A national & global presence is developed more quickly & with less franchisor investment. Franchisee qualification for ownership are set & enforced. Agreement require franchisees to abide by stringent operating rules set by franchisors. Money is obtained when goods are delivered rather than when goods are sold. Because franchisees are owners & not employees, they have greater initiative to work hard. Even after franchisees have paid for their outlets, franchisors receive royalties & may sell products to the individual proprietors. Franchising contd.. Disadvantages of Franchisors Franchisees harm the overall reputation if they do not adhere to company standards. Lack of uniformity among outlets adversely affects customer loyalty. Intra-franchise competition is not desirable. The resale value of individual units is injured if franchisees perform poorly. Ineffective franchised units directly injure franchisors‘ profitability. Franchisees, in greater number, are seeking to limit franchisors‘ rules & regulations.
  • 45. A leased department is a department in a retail store – usually a department, discount, or specialty store – that is rented to outside party. The leased department proprietor is responsible for all aspects of its business & normally pays a %age of sales as rent. The store sets operating restrictions for the leased department to ensure overall consistency & coordination. Leased Department Advantages (from the stores’ prespective) The market is enlarged by providing one-stop customer shopping. Personnel management, merchandise displays, & reordering items are undertaken by lessees. Regular store personnel do not have to be involved. Leased department operators pay for some expenses, thus reducing store costs. A %age of revenue is received regularly. Disadvantages (from the stores’ prespective) Leased department operating procedures may conflict with store procedures. Lessees may adversely affect the stores‘ image. Customers may blame problems on the store rather than on the lessees.
  • 46. Leased Department Advantages for Leased department operators Stores are known, have steady customers, & generate immediate sales for leased departments. Some costs are reduced through shared facilities like security equipment & display windows. Their image is enhanced by the relationships with popular stores. Disadvantages for Leased department operators There may be inflexibility as to the store hours they must be open & the operating style. The goods / services lines are usually restricted. If they are successful, the store may raise rent or not renew leases when they expire. In-store locations may not generate the sales expected.
  • 47. A vertical marketing system consists of all the levels of independently owned businesses along a channel of distribution. Vertical Marketing System Type of channel Channel Functions Ownership Independent system • Manufacturers or retailers are small • Intensive distribution is sought • Customers are widely dispersed • Unit sales are high • Company resources are low • Channel members share costs & risk • Task specialization is desirable Manufacturing Wholesaling Retailing Independent manufacturer Independent wholesaler Independent retailer Partially integrated system • Manufacturers & retailers are large • Selective or exclusive distribution • Unit sales are moderate • Company resources are high • Greater channel control is desired • Existing wholesalers are too expensive or unavailable Manufacturing Wholesaling Retailing Two channel members own all facilities & perform all functions. Fully integrated system • Firm has total control over its strategy • Direct customer contact • Exclusive offerings • System is costly & requires lot of expertise Manufacturing Wholesaling Retailing All production & distribution functions are performed by one channel member.
  • 48. A consumer cooperative is a retail firm owned by its customer members. A group of customers invests, elects officers, manages operations & share profits. They account for tiny piece of retail sales. Cooperatives are formed because they think they can do retailing function, traditional retailers are inadequate & prices are high. They have not grown because consumer initiative is required, expertise may be lacking, expectations have frequently not been met, & boredom occurs. Consumer Cooperative
  • 49. Agri & Food Retailing Retail Location Strategies & Decisions
  • 50. There are three most important aspects in Retailing – location, location & location. Locating the retail store in the right place was considered to be adequate for success. It is a important part of the retail strategy as it conveys a fair amount of image. It influences the merchandise mix & interior layout of the store. It is difficult to change the location once the store comes into existence. Change of location may result in loss of customer & employees. Why Location is Important?
  • 51. The choice of the location of the store depends on the target audience & kind of merchandise to be sold. Types of Retail Location Types: Freestanding/Isolated store Store located along major traffic artery No competitive retailers around Rents are usually low Advertising cost are high Customers may not prefer to travel long distance to visit only one store Part of a business district A business district (primary, secondary or neighborhood) is a place of commerce in the city Rent is high; parking is cumbersome It has good accessibility in terms of transport Customers are more
  • 52. Types of Retail Location contd.. Types: Part of a shopping centre Shopping centre - A group of retail & other commercial establishments that is planned, developed, owned & managed as single property Parking is available Basic configuration – mall or strip centre with walkway Ideally enclosed & climate control
  • 53. Steps involved in choosing a retail location 1. Identify the market in which to locate the store 2. Evaluate the demand & supply within that market i.e., determine the market potential 1. Demographic features of the population 2. The characteristics of the households in the area 3. Competition & compatibility 4. Laws & regulations 5. Trade area analysis 3. Identify the most attractive sites 1. Traffic 2. Accessibility of the market 3. The no. & types of stores in the area 4. Amenities available 5. To buy or to lease 6. The product mix offered 4. Select the best site available
  • 54. The Spread of Organized Retail in India Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Pune Chandigarh Hyderabad Indore Gurgaon Noida Jaipur Bhopal Bhubaneshwar Nagpur Udaipur Bangalore Chennai
  • 55. Agri & Food Retailing Retail Merchandising
  • 56. What is Merchandising? Merchandising is planning, buying & selling of merchandise (product). The American Marketing Association defined merchandising as ―the planning involved in marketing the right merchandise at the right place at the right time in the right quantity at the right price‖. Merchandising can be termed as the analysis, planning, acquisition, handling & control of the merchandise investments of a retail operation. Factors affecting the merchandising function Merchandising function Size of organization Types of stores Organization structure Merchandising tobecarried
  • 57. Merchandise Planning Merchandise planning can be defined as the planning & control of the merchandise inventory of the retail firm, in a manner which balances between the expectations of the target customers & the strategy of the firm. Implication of Merchandise Planning Merchandise Planning Finance Payments to suppliers Profitability measurements Store Operations Space planning Communication about new products & their features Marketing Newproductintroductions Developingadvertisements Warehouse&Logistics DetailsofPurchaseOrder Detailsofallocations
  • 58. Merchandise Planning Process Stage I: Developing the Sales Forecast 1. Reviewing past sales 2. Analyzing the changes in the economic conditions 3. Analyzing the changes in the sales potential 4. Analyzing the changes in the marketing strategies & the competition 5. Create the sales forecast Stage II: Determining the Merchandise Requirements Planning in merchandising is at two levels: 1. The creation of the Merchandise Budget (5 parts) 2. The Assortment Plan Merchandise Budget Sales Plan Stock support plan Planned reduction Planned Purchase Gross Margins
  • 59. Merchandise Planning Process Stage II: Determining the Merchandise Requirements Planning in merchandising is at two levels: 1. The creation of the Merchandise Budget (5 parts) 2. The Assortment Plan Company Department Merchandise Classification Merchandise Category Merchandise Sub Category Style Price point SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) The Merchandise Hierarchy
  • 60. Merchandise Planning Process Some key merchandising terms Staple/basic merchandising – products always in demand (basic necessities) Fashion merchandising – products has high demand for a relatively short period of time Seasonal merchandising – seasonal products Fad merchandising – enjoy popularity for a limited period of time; generated high sales for a short time Style – unique shape or form of any product (taste in music) Assortment – variety of merchandise mix The width/breadth of assortment – refers to the number of brands The depth of assortment – variety in one goods/services category Points to be kept in mind while creating a plan - The merchandise budget should be prepared in advance of selling season. The language of the budget should be easy to understand. Merchandise budget must be planned for a short period – 6 months is the normal norm. Budget should be flexible.
  • 61. Key Components of Merchandise Planning Planned sales – Planned sales are projected sales for a period that is planned. Month %age increase Planned sales (Rs) Feb 12% 35,000 X 12% + 35,000 = 39,200 April 25% 43,750 June 21% 42,350 Example: Last year’s sale for the same period = 35,000 Planned purchase – Planned purchases represent the merchandise that is to be purchased during any given period. Planned Purchase = Planned Sales + Planned Reductions + Planned EOM – Planned BOM
  • 62. Key Components of Merchandise Planning Planned reduction – Markdowns (deductions in prices), employee discounts & inventory shrinkage due to theft or pilferage come under planned reduction. Planned markup – After calculating the level of inventory that needs to be purchased, the retailer needs to determine the initial markup for the products. Markup in Rs. = Selling Price – Cost Price Markup % = Markup in Rs. Retail Price Gross Margin – Gross margin is the difference between the selling price & the cost of the product, less reductions from markdowns, shrinkage & employee discounts. Profit = Gross margin – operating expenses B.O.M (Beginning-of-month) & E.O.M (End-of-month) planned inventory levels – Four Methods of Inventory Planning: a. Stock-to-Sales Method S/S Ratio = Stock in hand E.O.M (at retail value) = Value of inventory Sales for the same month Actual sales Planned BOM Inventory = Stock-sales ratio x Planned sales
  • 63. Key Components of Merchandise Planning The Basic Stock Method – In this method, the buyer believes that he needs to carry a certain amount of inventory in the store at all times. Basic Stock = Average stock for the season – Average monthly sales for the season Average monthly sales for the season = Total planned sales for the season No. of months in the season Average stock for the season = Total planned sales for the season Estimated inventory turnover rate for the season Beginning of the month (BOM) stock = Planned monthly sales + Basic Stock The Percentage Variation Method – This method of inventory calculation is used in case the stock turnover typically exceeds six times a year. BOM Stock = Avg. stock for season * 1/2 * [1 + (Planned sales for the month / Avg. monthly sales)] The Week’s Supply Method – Retailers who need to maintain a control over the inventories on a weekly basis, may use this method. BOM Stock = Average weekly sales x No. of weeks to be stocked
  • 64. Merchandise Planning Process Stage III: Merchandise Control – The Open to Buy The concept of Open to buy has two folds: 1. depending on sales of the month & the reduction, the merchandise buying can be adjusted. 2. the planned relation between the stock & sales can be maintained. Open to buy ensures that the buyer – Limits overbuying & under buying Prevents loss of sales due to unavailability of the required stock Maintain purchases within the budgeted limits Reduce markdowns i.e., reduction in price which may arise due to excess buying Open-to-Buy = Planned EOM Stock – Projected EOM Stock Projected EOM Stock = Actual BOM Stock + Actual Additions to stock + Actual on order – Planned monthly sale – Planned reductions for the month
  • 65. Merchandise Planning Process Stage IV: Assortment Planning Assortment Planning involves determining the quantities of each product that will be purchased to fit into the overall merchandise plan. Details of color, size, brand, materials etc. have to be specified. To create a balanced assortment merchandise for the customer. Depth Breadth Product Line Department Menswear Shirts Zodiac Styles Color …… Van Heusen Louis Philippe Arrow Trousers Accessories
  • 66. Merchandise Planning Process Stage IV: Assortment Planning The Range Plan: The aim of the range plan is to create a balanced range for each category of products that the retailer choose to offer. Range planning should take care of - The no. of items/options available to the customer should be sufficient at all times & should be such that it helps the customer make a choice. The overbuying & under buying is limited. Sufficient quantities of the product are available, so that all the stores can be serviced & the product is available at all the stores across various locations. The lower limit of the range width is often called aesthetic minimum
  • 67. Merchandise Planning Process Stage IV: Assortment Planning The Model Stock Plan: After determining the money available for buying, a decision needs to be taken on what to buy? & in what quantity? Steps - 1. Identify the attributes that the customer would consider while buying the product. 2. Identify the number of levels under each attribute. 3. Allocate the total units to the respective item category. The process of merchandise planning may be top down or bottom up. Top down planning occurs when the corporate objectives dictate the company’s financial objectives in terms of sales, profit & working capital. In Bottom up planning, individual department managers work on the estimated sales projections
  • 68. The Model Stock Plan Men’s shirt 100% (1000) Casual 40% (400) Small 25% (100) Medium 40% (160) Full Sleeve 30% (48) Half Sleeve 70% (112) Button Down 40% (45) White 40% (18) Cotton 25% (4) Cotton Blend 75% (14) Blue 30% (14) Cream 20% (9) Grey 10% (4) Other 60% (67) Large 25% (100) Extra large 10% (100) Dress 10% (100) Formal 20% (200) Sport 30% (300)
  • 69. Agri & Food Retailing Branding & Private Labels
  • 70. Branding Brand The American Marketing Association defined a brand as “a name, term, design, symbol or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers & to differentiate them from those of the competitors”. Branding existed from the time man felt the need to differentiate his products from that being offered by others. Branding gradually became a guarantee of the source of the product & ultimately its use as a form of legal protection against copying grew. With the development of shops, shopkeepers hung pictures above their shops indicating the types of goods they sold. With industrial revolution mass production came into existence but the distance between the manufacturers & customers increased. This eventually led to the evolution of the role of the brands as tools by which consumers identified the products.
  • 71. Building a Retail Brand Key questions for retail brands – Can the brand be identified with the lifestyles of its target customers? Is there a perceptible difference between the brand & the products offering by the retailer & other retailers? Can a story be woven around the brand? A retail brand is a combination of the company‘s heritage, the merchandise mix, the store environment, the service strategy, the advertising & promotion. Successful retail branding starts with a clear definition of what retailers stand for – an identification of what the customers associate it with, leading customers to think: “This brand is a reflection of me.. This brand is meaningful to me..” The retailer needs to determine the specific value proposition for the end customers. Playing on emotional benefits can also be a branding exercise of the retailer. Retail branding does not sell a specific product. It is about customer service.
  • 72. The Retail Value Chain Suppliers Third Party Logistics Retail Operations Customer Mgmt. Customers Support Functions Systems
  • 73. Private Label When the retailer decides to sell products or a line of merchandise which is owned, controlled, merchandised & sold by the retailer in his own store/chain of stores, he is said to be Selling Own Label / Brand or Private Label merchandise. A private label can be classified as: Store Brand – which carries the retailer‘s name, such as Westside, Food World, Big Bazaar etc. An Umbrella Brand – where a common brand name is used across multiple categories – example Splash (Lifestyle), Bare (Pantaloon) etc. Individual Brands – where specific brand names are created for specific market segments and/or categories. The Private Label Marketing Association defines store products as “all merchandise sold under a retail store’s private label. That label can be stores name or a name created exclusively by that store. In some cases, a store may belong to a wholesale buying group that owns labels, which are available to the members of the group. These whole-sale owned labels are referred to as controlled labels” Private Labels
  • 74. Private Label - Evolution Private labels were traditionally defined as generic product offerings that competed with national brands on the basis of value proposition. They were often seen as the lower priced alternative to the ―real‖ thing. Private label carried the stigma of inferior quality & therefore inspired less confidence. Generics, which were products distinguishable by their plain & basic packaging were the first type of private labels. With the increase in retail stores, the need to earn higher profit & the desire to service the gaps in consumer requirements gave rise to private labels, both in apparel & the food & grocery sector. Today, most of the large department stores have their own private labels which cater to a specific audience. Private labels rely on in-store advertisements. In order to compete with national brands, private labels need to focus on quality. The average quality of one product compared to other Consistency in quality over a period of time Private label goods become more successful where the no. of competing products is lower.
  • 75. Why Private Label? Retailer can fill in the need gaps that may exist in the market place. Private label gives the retailer an advantage of offering the customer another option. A private label allows the retailer to offer a unique product in the marketplace. Private label allows a retailer to earn a higher margin than other brands he chooses to retail because designing, merchandising, sourcing & distribution is done by the retailer. Also, advertisement is in-store. Make or Buy Placing the order & Allocating the goods Marketing Identification of the need Performance Measurement Private Label Creation Process
  • 76. Merchandise Procurement / Sourcing The term sourcing means finding or seeking out products from different places, manufacturers or suppliers. Method of Procuring Merchandise 1. Identifying the sources of supply Costs associated with global sourcing: Country of origin effects – Many a times, where the merchandise has been manufactured makes a difference in the final sale of the product. Foreign currency fluctuations – Effects the buying price of the products. Tariffs – Taxes placed by the govt. on imports. Foreign trade zones – These are special areas within the country that can be used for warehousing, packaging, inspection, labeling, exhibition, assembly, fabrication etc., of imports, without becoming subject to the country‘s tariffs. Cost of carrying inventory Transportation cost
  • 77. Merchandise Procurement / Sourcing 2. Contacting & Evaluating the sources of supply Contacting can be vendor initiated contact or retailer initiated contact Points to be kept in mind The target market for whom the merchandise is being purchased. The image of the retail organization & the fit between the product & the image of the retail organization. The merchandise & the prices offered. Terms & service offered by the vendor. The vendor‘s reputation & reliability. 3. Negotiating with the sources of supply The types of discounts that could be made available to the buyer Trade discounts Chain discounts Quantity discounts Seasonal discounts Cash discounts
  • 78. Merchandise Procurement / Sourcing 4. Establishing Vendor Relations To build & maintain strategic partnership with vendors, the buyer needs to build on: Mutual trust Open communication Common goals Credible commitments 5. Analyzing Vendor Performance The total orders placed on the vendor in a year The total returns to the vendor, the quality of the merchandise The initial markup on the products The markdowns (if any) Vendor‘s participation in various schemes & promotions Transportation expenses if borne by the retailer Cash discounts offered by the vendor The sales performance of the merchandise
  • 79. Agri & Food Retailing Category Management - A Method of Merchandise Management
  • 80. Category Management Category Management can be defined as “the distributor/supplier process of managing categories as SBUs, producing enhanced business results by focusing on delivering customer value”. A category is an assortment of items that a customer sees as reasonable substitutes of each other. A category management concept is a focus on a better understanding of consumer needs as the basis for retailers‘ & suppliers‘ strategies, goal, & work processes. The need to reduce costs, control inventory levels & replenish (refill) stock efficiently led to the concept of Efficient Consumer Response (ECR). Category management provides renewed opportunities for meeting consumer needs & at the same time, for achieving competitive advantage as well as lower costs through greater work process efficiencies.
  • 81. Category Management contd.. Category Management is now considered as the “new science of retailing” because - 1. It involves a systematic process. 2. It emphasizes decision-making based on complex analysis of consumer data & market level syndicate data. 3. It replaces the brand bias that stems from suppliers‘ interest & encourages objective view based on consumers‘ desires. Why Category Management? Consumer changes Competitive pressures Economic & efficiency considerations Advances in IT
  • 82. Components Category Management Strategy Business Process Performance Measurement Organizational Capabilities Information Technology Trading Partner Relationships
  • 83. The Category Management Business Process
  • 84. Step 1: Category Definition A distinct, manageable group of products/services that consumers perceive to be interrelated/substitutable in meeting a consumer need. The category definition should be based on how the customer buys, & not on how the retailer buy. This step decides the products that represent a category, sub-category & major segmentation. At this step, the retailer assigns products to the various categories based on factors such as consumer usage & packaging. The Category Management Business Process Step 2: Category Role It determines the priority & importance of each category in the overall business. It serves the basis of resource allocation. Consumer-based category roles: Destination categories – Why you as a retailer? Preferred/routine category Occasional/seasonal category Convenience category – one-stop shop
  • 85. Step 3: Category Assessment – Brain Harris’s Quadrant Analysis The Category Management Business Process Opportunities - Harmonise product mix with market trends - Improve price image via low prices for key products - Maximise shelf space at category level - Give promotional support to key items Questionable - Limit product mix to core assortment & delist marginal products - Look for price raises - Minimise self space at category level - Transfer logistical & operational work to third parties Winners - Continue current policies - Be alert to adaptation of new products - Minimise operational problems like “out of stock” - Optimise margin mix Sleepers - Identify key products within category - Delist slow movers & marginal products - Give quick movers more self space - Optimize margin mix MarketShare Market Growth
  • 86. Step 4: Category Performance Measures Sales Profits Market Share Inventory Turnover Changes in the Assortment Consumer Transaction The Category Management Business Process Step 5: Category Strategies Typical category marketing strategies are: Traffic building Transaction building Turf defending Profit generating Cash generating Excitement creating Image enhancing (Areas: Price, Service, Quality & Varity)
  • 87. Step 6: Category Tactics Category tactics work towards the determination of optimal category pricing, promotion, assortment & shelf management/presentation of the merchandise. The Category Management Business Process Step 7: Category Plan Implementation What specific tasks needs to be done? When each task needs to be completed? Who will accomplish each task? Step 8: Category Review
  • 88. Retail Marketing Mix The Retail Marketing Mix
  • 89. Customer Service People Brand Associations Shopping Experience Pricing Promotion Place / Location Product / Merchandise features Presentation The Retail Image Factors Retail Store Image
  • 90. The Retail Communication Mix Retail Communication Mix Sales Promotion Public Relations Direct Marketing Personal Selling Advertising
  • 91. Retail Selling Process Acquiring Product/Merchandise Knowledge Studying the Customer Approaching the Customer Presenting the Merchandise Overcoming Resistance Suggestive Selling Closing the Sale
  • 92. Agri & Food Retailing Retail Management Information System
  • 93. Effect of a Single Customer Transaction Customer Transaction Marketing & Promotions Inventory Management Sales Analysis Credit Card Payments Customer Database Warehouse Recording Merchandise
  • 94. Efficient Stocking of Merchandise Collection of Data Efficiency in Operations Helps Communication Why IT in Retail? Factors affecting the use of IT Scale & scope of operations The financial resources available The nature of business HR availability
  • 95. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Database Management, Data Warehousing, Data Mining Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Transaction Processing System (TPS) Decision Support System (DSS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Intranet & Internet E-Commerce or E-Trailing …… Application of IT
  • 96. Agri & Food Retailing SCM in Retail
  • 97. The Basic Supply Chain Finance Flow Supplier Raw material packaging warehouse Manufacturer Manufacturer warehouse Retailer warehouse Retailer PhysicalFlow
  • 98. Framework for Analyzing Issues in SCM Customer Service Channel Design Network Strategy Policies & Procedures Organization & Change Management Information Systems Facilities & Equipment Warehouse Design & Operations Materials Management Transportation Management STRATEGIC STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
  • 99. Agri & Food Retailing Servicing the Retail Customer
  • 100. Customer Service ―Customer service is a task, other than proactive selling, that involves interactions with customers in person or by telecommunication, mail or automated process. It is designed, performed & communicated with two goals in mind – Operational Production Customer Satisfaction Kill a Brand, Keep a Customer! Customer Service focuses on measurement of how well a firm meets the established performance standards that are viewed as important for meeting customer needs. Customer Satisfaction is how the customers measure externally the service performance of a firm.
  • 101. Customer Service – A USP Retail mix like Product, Price, Place, Promotion can be duplicated or copied by competitors – the total experience (image of the store, ambience, music,& level of service offered) that the customer gets in the store stay unique. Identify the key customers & listen & respond to them Define superior service & establish a service strategy Set standards & measure performance Select, train & empower employees to work for the customer Recognize & reward accomplishments
  • 102. Measuring Gaps in Service
  • 103. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
  • 104. How CRM Benefits Retailer? Customer needs Retailer traditionally provides CRM benefits customer by enabling Product choice Range selection Tailored range Access Channel choice Consistent experience Support Information Enhanced service Individual treatment Customer service Customer defined “value” Value Scale efficiencies
  • 105. Customer Segmentation in Retail Lower Value Segment Grow able Segment Most Valued Segment In-store PoS Advertisement Merchandising Targeted Direct Mail Added value services Tailored, cross- learning based relationship No. of customers Value per customer Lower value segment Grow able Segment Most Valuable Segment
  • 106. Agri & Food Retailing Retail Store Design & Visual Merchandising
  • 107. Retail stores needs to be designed to be more competitive, the retailer first needs to catch the customer‘s eye & then, to draw his attention away from other stores. The basic principles of store design require that the image being created in tune with the merchandise, the advertising & the service offered by the store. Retail design is primarily a specialized practice of architecture and interior design, however it also incorporates elements of interior decoration, graphic design, ergonomics, and advertising. Retail Store Design Store Image Store Atmosphere Store Theme Elements of the Store Environment
  • 108. Why Retail Store Design is Important? The store design & layout tells a customer what the store is all about. The creates the image of the retail store in the minds of the customer. This image is the starting point of all marketing efforts. It make the store simple to navigate. It creates the sense to belongingness, responsibility, security, & pleasure in shopping.
  • 109. Elements of Retail Design Store Design Location Parking Access Building Arch. Frontage & Entrance Safety Store Theme Target Customer Merchandise Mix
  • 110. Interior Store Design Space Planning Layout Atmosphere & Aesthetics Space Planning helps determining: The location of various departments. The location of various products within the department i.e., creating planograms. The pros/cons of specific location for impulse products, destination areas, seasonal products, products with specific merchandising needs, adjacent departments etc. The relationship of space to profitability. Atmosphere & Aesthetics Fixtures Flooring & Ceiling Lighting Graphics & Signage Theme graphics Campaign graphics Promotional graphics
  • 111. Free-flow Layout Fixtures and merchandise are grouped into free-flowing patterns on the sales floor.
  • 112. Grid Layout The counters and fixtures are placed in long rows or ‗‗runs,‘‘ usually at right angles, throughout the store.
  • 113. Racetrack/Loop Layout A major customer aisle begins at the entrance, loops through the store— usually in the shape of a circle, square, or rectangle—and then returns the customer to the front of the store.
  • 114. Spine Layout A single main aisle runs from the front to the back of the store, transporting customers in both directions, and where on either side of this spine, merchandise departments using either a free-flow or grid pattern branch off toward the back side walls.
  • 115. Visual Merchandising An orderly, systematic, logical, & intelligent way of putting stock on the floor.
  • 116. It has several aspects & involves SKU planning, store windows & floor displays, signs, space design, fixtures & hardware, props & mannequins. Creating the right atmosphere in the store & presenting the merchandise in the right manner is very important. Good visual merchandise means a selling space that is neat, easy-to-see, follow & shop. Visual Merchandising contd.. Methods of Display Color dominance Presentation by price Coordinated presentation
  • 117. The supply chain umbrella • Purchasing • Quality control • Demand and supply planning • Material or inventory control
  • 118. Buying process of organised food retailers • Buy locally from the traders in the retailing destination • Buy in bulk from the traders in the production/processing destination and distribute to the retailing destination • Buy in bulk from the processors in the production/processing destination and distribute to the retailing destination • Buy raw materials from farmers or local traders in production destination; carry processing and packaging activities by self or by job work followed by distribution to the retailing destinations.
  • 119. Channel of Procurement by retailers
  • 120. Credit Period by retailers
  • 121. Supply chain innovations under organised retail • Backward integration/ dis-intermediated model – Spencer’s retail, Smart (WRPL), More (ABRL) and Reliance Fresh follow this kind of model, in which they procure directly fresh produce from farmers either through own personnel or appointed agents
  • 122. Supply Chain Efficiency in Direct Model
  • 123. Effect on farmer and consumer prices due to direct procurement
  • 124. Corporate farming model (Namadhari fresh)
  • 125. Precision farming model • Promoting hi-tech horticulture through the use of precision technology • Promoting market-led horticulture by encouraging farmer’s forums and associations and increas-ing the overall value accruing to the farmers
  • 126. Horticulture Producers Co-operative Marketing and Processing Society limited (HOPCOMS) • To provide a fair price to the producers of fruits and vegetables through direct procurement and make them available to consumers • The District HOPCOMS get the produce from their farmer members and sell it to both the household and institutional customers. • The societies have a large network of farmer members, decentralized procurement centers at district levels and retail network
  • 127. Franchisee model (Suguna poultry) • It has come up with the concept of ‘Suguna Daily Fresh’, which is a chain of high-quality, modern air- conditioned futuristic retail stores. • Operating on a dealership model, Suguna Daily Fresh retails, fresh, hygienic, nutritious and tender chicken in eight forms including whole dressed chicken, portioned plain and marinated items • The outlet also stocks Suguna value added eggs in four variants, frozen fish, sea food, sausages, salami and Suguna Home Bites, a range of ready to cook and ready to heat-and-eat items.