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ap art term 3

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    Test 5 second half Test 5 second half Presentation Transcript

    • Earthworks
    • Smithson, Spiral Jetty
      1969-1970
      Sought to illustrate the “ongoing dialectic” in nature between constructive forces and destructive forces
      1,500 ft spiraling stone and earth platform extending into the Great Salt Lake in Utah
      Lake recalls both the origins of life in the salty waters of the primordial ocean and also the end of life
      Abandoned oil rigs that dot the shoreline suggested prehistoric dinosaurs and some vanished civilization
      Spiral- most fundamental shape in nature, dialectical (shape that opens and closes, curls and uncurls endlessly)
      Smithson ordered no maintenance be done on the work
    • Christo, Running Fence
      1976
      24 ½ miles long, 18 feet high nylon fence that crossed two counties in northern California and extended into the Pacific Ocean (location chosen for aesthetic reasons as well as to link urban, suburban, and rural spaces)
      Jeanne-Claude and Christo like to reveal the beauty in various spaces
      Fence broke down social barriers among supporters such as students, ranchers, lawyers, and artists
      The work remained in place for 2 weeks and then was taken down
    • Maya Lin, Vietnam Veterans Memorial
      1982
      The Mall, Washington DC
      Abstract and intimate conjoined with basic ideas of minimal grandeur of long, black granite walls and row upon row of engraved names
      Statement of loss, sorrow, and the futility of war
      Timeless monument to suffering humanity, faceless in sacrifice
      Subject of controversy due to Minimalist style
      Competition for commission
      Not only reflects faces of visitors but also reflects Washington Monument (reminds viewer of sacrifices made in defense of liberty throughout history of US)
    • Photo Realism
    • Feminist Art
    • Betye Saar, Liberation of Aunt Jemima
      1972, Mixed media
      Her assemblages show political militancy rare in postwar American art
      Appropriates the derogatory stereotype of the cheerfully servile “mammy” and transforms it into an icon of militant black feminist power
      Background papered with smiling advertising image of Aunt Jemima
      Notepad holder in the form of Aunt Jemima
      Broom whose handle is pencil for the notepad
      Rifle
      In place of the notepad is a picture of another jolly mammy holding a crying child identified by the artist as a mulatto (both black and white ancestry)
      Clenched fist in front of her stands for Black Power
      Armed Jemima liberates herself not only from racial oppression but also from traditional gender roles that had long relegated black women to such subservient positions as domestic servant or mammy
    • Faith Ringgold
      African American artist (born 1930) who drew on traditional American craft of quilt making and combined it with rich heritage of African textiles to create memorable statements about American race relations
      Put paint on soft fabrics rather than stretched canvases
      Framed images with decorative quilted borders
      Quilts narrated by women and usually address themes related to women’s lives
      Messages are reminders to the viewer of the real social and economic limitations that African Americans have faced through American history
    • Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party
      1974-1979
      Painted porcelain, needlework
      Composed of a large, triangular table (each side stretching 48 feet) which rests on a triangular platform covered with 2,300 triangular porcelain tiles
      Triangle- symbol of equalized world sought by feminism, one of the earliest symbols of women
      Porcelain “Heritage Floor” bears the names of 999 notable women from myth, legend, and history
      Thirteen place settings along the side of each triangle each represent a famous woman
      Each place setting features a 14-inch-wide painted porcelain plate, ceramic flatware, ceramic chalice with gold interior, embroidered napkin all on a runner
      Most plates feature abstract designs of female genitalia because, Chicago said, “that is all [the women at the table] had in common…They were from different periods, classes, ethnicities, geographies, experiences, but what kept them within the same combined historical space” was the fact of their biological sex
      Women had been “swallowed up and obscured by history instead of being recognized and honored” (represented by plates)
      Wanted to raise awareness of the many contributions women have made to history, thereby fostering women’s empowerment in the present
    • Cindy Sherman
      Made a series of works beginning in the late 1970’s in which she posed herself in made-up self settings that quote well-known plots of old movies
      All her works examine the rolls that our popular culture assigns to women, and Sherman shows that she understands them all very well and she plays them willingly
      Her personality is the sum of all the movies that she has seen, and she does not know where the real Cindy Sherman starts and the one derived from movies stops
    • Barbara Kruger
      Born 1945
      More militant point than Cindy Sherman with slightly different media
      Work quotes magazine advertising layouts (catchy photograph and slogan inscribed)
      Slogan talks back to the viewer with a confrontational sentence that sounds feminist
      Not an “original”  piece of graphic design that can be reproduced
      Worked in other public media, including billboards and bus shelter posters, implanting her subversive messages directly into the flow of media and advertising
    • Jaune Quick-to-See-Smith, The Red Mean: Self Portrait
      1992
      Acrylic, newspaper collage, and mixed media on canvas, 92”x60”
      Native American
      “Made in the USA” above an identification number
      Central figure quotes Vitruvian Man, but message is autobiographical
      Silhouette placed inside the red X that signified nuclear radiation
      Alludes both to the uranium mines found on some Indian reservations and also to the fact that many have become temporary repositories for nuclear waste
      Background- collage of Native American tribal newspapers
      Includes her ethic identity and life on the reservation as well as the history of Western art
    • 1990’s-2000’s
    • Rachel Whiteread, Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial
      2000
      Steel and concrete, Vienna, Austria
      Urges us to take a fresh look at everyday things by making casts of them
      Turns negative spaces into concrete blocks
      ONLY INFORMATION GIVEN IN BOOK; PIECE NOT DISCUSSED
    • El Anatsui, After Kings
      2005
      Aluminum (liquor bottle caps) and copper wire
      88” x 70”
      Gathered several thousand aluminum tops, flattened them, and stitched them together with copper wire to form large wall pieces
      Tops were chosen not only because they were plentiful but also for symbolic meaning (“To me, the bottle tops encapsulate the essence of the alcoholic drinks which were brought to Africa by Europeans as trade items at the time of the earliest contrast between these two people….”)
      Changes garbage into a form that resembles a traditional kente cloth from the Ahsanti culture of Ghana (originally for nobility only  explains the title of the work)
    • Nam June Paik, Electronic Superhighway: Continental US
      1995
      Closed-circuit installation with 313 monitors, neon, steel structure, color and sound
      “as collage technique replaced oil paint, the cathode ray [television] tube will replace the canvas”
      Strongly influenced by John Cage
      Worked with live, recorded, and computer-generated images displayed on video monitors of varying sizes, which he often combined into sculptural ensembles
      Site specific
      Featured a map of continental US outlined in neon and backed by video monitors perpetually flashing with color and movement and accompanied by sound
      Monitors display images reflecting the states culture and history
      Exception: state of New York, whose monitors displayed live, closed-circuit images of the gallery visitors, placing them in the artwork and transforming them from passive spectators into active participants