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Responsive Media


Bo Begole
James Glasnapp


 Strategic review March
 2009                     parc confidential
Mixed-Initiative Interaction
       Conventional systems: User initiates                                                 ...
Business  Marketplace

   In-store signage
     – Traditional: Point-of-Purchase displays, shelf positioning,
       pac...
Avatars
  Today we are
just at the tip of
 the iceberg in
 conversational       Voice
   interaction       Systems


     ...
In-Store Product Recommendations
                                    Sensor   Inferred User                 Personalized
D...
Existing Research: Many indicators
   of a person’s engagement with media
                              eye gaze          ...
Responsive and Personalized Public
Information Display                                                       Interaction S...
Improving social capability and                                                   Linking research in human
              ...
Sales Interaction Model
   Representing Elements of Sellers’ Goals

        Representation of dependencies and degree to ...
Psychographic Profiling
through Clothes Recognition

   Mens shirts: multiple features
    –   Collar vs. crew neck
    –...
Similarity: Example shirt matches
Shirt style classification
   Classes
           Class                  Collar            Sleeve         Button
         ...
Research Opportunities

      Perception                                                   Composable Content
      • Dete...
Interdependencies Between Perception,
          Decision and Action Components

             Perception                   ...
Responsive Interaction Platform
 Sensing of Environment
                                                   Perception of E...
Summary
    Mixed-Initiative Interaction generates new business opportunities
    Mixed-Initiative Interaction Engine
  ...
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Responsive Media

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Presentation of concepts and research around the idea of Responsive Media presented at the 2009 Workshop on Pervasive Advertising in Nara Japan.

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Transcript of "Responsive Media"

  1. 1. Responsive Media Bo Begole James Glasnapp Strategic review March 2009 parc confidential
  2. 2. Mixed-Initiative Interaction  Conventional systems: User initiates MIT interaction and commands the system Media Lab  Mixed-initiative: System sometimes initiates interaction with the user – You have mail. – Can I help you find that? – Here is something useful to you. Microsoft Research Related PARC Research: Responsive Technologies Psychographic Profiling Information also: Recommendation Human-Robot Interaction Multi-party conversations Camera-based Clothing Responsive Recognition tracking Mirror [IUI 2008, HCII 2009] [ICDSC 2008] Magitti [CHI 2008]
  3. 3. Business  Marketplace  In-store signage – Traditional: Point-of-Purchase displays, shelf positioning, packaging, store-handouts (coupons), specials (e.g., Kmart blue light), aisle coupons, loyalty programs (lower price) – Emerging: digital kiosks, digital signage, directed audio  Companies – NewsAmerica leases store space and sells ad spaces to consumer packaged goods  Search Engine Marketing $13B to $26B in 2013  Advertisers pay more for personalization  Reactrix charged higher rates than static digital signage. Reactrix is just the tip of the iceberg. 3
  4. 4. Avatars Today we are just at the tip of the iceberg in conversational Voice interaction Systems Media In the future we will interact Robots with all types of technology Service Agents as if they were social entities Marketing Sales Education Therapy Performance Coaching 4
  5. 5. In-Store Product Recommendations Sensor Inferred User Personalized Data Type Question Perception Goal Recommendation Web Shopping Previous Interest Profile: Personal Items: x, y, Style, colors, price Similar items Profile purchases z, …. range, etc. today Eye-contact What product Looking for Matching Is she looking A blue blazer Business clothes skirts in the sensors at now? store Tracking Is she searching Shopping for gifts Highlight browsing gift items Sensors or just browsing? Floor Is this a group Wants to show Highlight new Sensors or individual? Group “Fashion sense” trendy fashions Is she Display Motion Rushing Needs to decide Impulse-buy Sensors rushing in quickly a hurry? items Responsive Personalized Sales Promotions
  6. 6. Existing Research: Many indicators of a person’s engagement with media eye gaze facial affect eye blinks proximity, orientation of head & body [Haro, Flickner, Essa 2000] [Grauman et al. ‘01] pupil dilation [Cohen et al. ‘03] skin temperature vocal affect [Vogel & Balakrishnan ‘04] [Yu, Aoki, Woodruff, PARC ‘04] [Daugman ‘94] Component technologies exist, but not integrated, not directed by behavioral models: - What are sequential structures of engaged interactions? - Which indicators are most predictive of engagement? - Can we predict disengagement before it happens?
  7. 7. Responsive and Personalized Public Information Display Interaction Structure of a Marketing Engagement1  Attract and maintain audience engagement –Approach (hook) –Assess  Content follows interaction model toward Monitor & –Relax an objective: –Describe Re-engage as needed  Marketing, Entertainment, Education, … –Benefit –How to buy –Reduce resistance –Incentive to act [HCII 2009]  Engineering approach (Reactrix) currently achieves Phase 1 using disruptive techniques  Phase 4 is the real value – requires recognizing human micro-behaviors  Conversation and interaction analysis bring clarity to vague notions like “engagement” – Detect, describe and model the structured organization of natural interaction – Create systems that interact and respond to individuals [1Robert Prus, Making Sales]
  8. 8. Improving social capability and Linking research in human behavior to technology interactive personalization design. Making systems socially interactive  Conversation analysis (CA) can build a more personalized, smooth interaction between technological systems and humans Interaction Analysis provides Technology designed using frameworks inspired by conversational structures  Previous research: Sotto Voce, Responsive Mirror, Human-Robot Interaction Broad Applications of Conversational Responsiveness  Any field with interactive features with customers: call centers and interactive voice responses to improve voice interactions; games – making characters more interactive; mobile phone manufactures can make more use of conversational data (i.e., providing analysis of conversations to provide feedback); and automobile - design better audio-based interfaces 8
  9. 9. Sales Interaction Model Representing Elements of Sellers’ Goals  Representation of dependencies and degree to which each sales goal has been achieved Not engaged Neutralize Offer Service Reservations engaged Assess engaged engaged engaged Obtain Engage Commitment Present Products Show Customer Need Appears uninterested Generate Trust Maintain Trust Maximize Trust low [adapted from Making Sales, Robert Prus]
  10. 10. Psychographic Profiling through Clothes Recognition  Mens shirts: multiple features – Collar vs. crew neck – Short vs. long sleeve – Color, texture – Pattern, emblems  What you wear says more about your tastes than demographics [Zhang, et al. IUI 2008]
  11. 11. Similarity: Example shirt matches
  12. 12. Shirt style classification  Classes Class Collar Sleeve Button T-shirt No Short No Polo shirt Yes Short Half Casual shirt Collar Short Full Business shirt Collar Long Full  SVM results Classified T-shirt Polo Casual Business as -> T-shirt 80.8% 3.9% 15.4% 0% Polo 16.7% 41.7% 8.3% 33.3% Casual 0% 12.5% 50% 37.5% Business 0% 5% 5% 90% Overall accuracy: 72.7% Sellers would approach someone wearing a T-shirt differently than someone wearing a Business shirt
  13. 13. Research Opportunities Perception Composable Content • Detect external cues that • Content organized according to indicate internal mental state abstract actions Computer Vision Multimedia Data Structures • Robust algorithms to detect • Efficient data structures for specific behaviors realtime program re-composition • Measures of inaccuracy • Other Sensors Decision Engine & • Audio, thermal, pupil, etc. Objective Model • Select best abstract response toward objective Ethnography • Internal user mental states • External behavioral cues • Abstract actions toward objective Interaction Engine • Develop realtime decision engine
  14. 14. Interdependencies Between Perception, Decision and Action Components Perception Composable Content • Detect external cues that • Content organized according to indicate internal mental state abstract actions Computer Vision Multimedia Data • Robust algorithms to Structures detect specific behaviors • Efficient data structures • Measures of inaccuracy Decision Engine & for realtime program Objective Model composition • Select best abstract response toward objective 1. Decision engine and objective model depend on 1. Structure of composable reliability of computer Ethnography content framework vision techniques. • Identify user mental states depends on output of 2. Required computer vision • Identify external cues of decision engine and object depends on needs of model. decision engine and object mental state 2. Output of decision engine model. • Identify abstract actions and object model should leading to an objective allow for realtime composition of content.
  15. 15. Responsive Interaction Platform Sensing of Environment Perception of Environment Interaction Image/Video eye gaze hand/body gestures Emotional state Energy level Engine Analyzer facial expression Person Model Patience Mental activity – thinking, Interaction Model Person Model confusion This is the sequencing Interest level Audio non-vocal sounds Person Model Attitude toward information structure in the POMDP Home position framework that defines what Analyzer speech Model of internal state … stages the interaction should Interaction among people follow. E.g., Sales*: Positions and postures • Approach sensor features … Sensor Analyzer • Assess • Relax • Pitch state of environment • Benefit • Reduce Resistance Decision Engine • Incentive to act Select “best” abstract action based on abstract state of environment and the objective. Use the framework of Interaction stages Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes Objective (POMDP). metrics abstract action – e.g., Promote Interest, Gain Trust, Present Product, make joke, … Objective Model This is the objective function in the POMDP framework that Content Actuation Engine defines what the “best” action Convert abstract action to content segments. is. Example Objectives: Increase brand awareness, Abstract Display Sound Ambient action Motion, Introduce new product, Lights Direct sales to mobile device, Promote Fast Animation Catchy music Movement, Provide navigation Content Actuation actuator Interest light flash information, … control Gain trust Scenes of family Smooth music Non- life with product distracting … … … …
  16. 16. Summary  Mixed-Initiative Interaction generates new business opportunities  Mixed-Initiative Interaction Engine – Inference models to measure audience engagement » Identify the most predictive set of sensors and the cost tradeoffs – Precise assessment metrics of content effectiveness – Engagement Detection » Convert raw data to human-meaningful cues of engagement  Dynamic content framework – Maps abstract actions to content segments to achieve the objective – Tailorable to structure of engagements across multiple target domains » Education, Training, Service, Sales, etc.  Far-reaching research and invention of next-generation interaction paradigm for media technologies – Displays, mobile device, speech conversation, etc.
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