Political Correctness As A Modern Trend In Language


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Political Correctness As A Modern Trend In Language

  1. 1. Political correctness as a modern trend in language development Made by Abramova Anna Govorova Antonina
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Political correctness is a term applied to language, ideas, policies, or behavior seen as seeking to minimize offense to gender, racial, cultural, disabled, aged or other identity groups. </li></ul><ul><li>T he term &quot;politically incorrect&quot; is used to refer to language or ideas that may cause offense </li></ul>
  3. 3. Political correctness a s a linguistic concept <ul><li>U sing &quot;inclusive&quot; and &quot;neutral&quot; language is based upon the idea that &quot;language represents thought, and may even control thought“ . A language's grammatical categories shape the speaker's ideas and actions . </li></ul>
  4. 4. I noffensive language usage goals <ul><li>Stereotyping largely is implicit, unconscious, and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable, people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Race baiting <ul><li>is an act of using racially derisive language, actions or other forms of communication, to anger, intimidate or incite a person or groups of people, or to make those persons behave in ways that are inimical to their personal or group interests. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hate speech <ul><li>R ace </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>S exual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>G ender identity </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Language ability </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial class </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance (height, weight, hair color, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>M ental capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Any other distinction that might be considered by some as a liability </li></ul>is a term for speech intended to degrade a person or group of people based on
  7. 7. Race card <ul><li>is an idiomatic phrase that refers to the act of bringing the issue of race or racism into a debate, perhaps to obfuscate the matter. It is a metaphorical reference to card games in which a trump card may be used to gain an advantage. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethnic joke <ul><li>Ethnic jokes , sometimes referred to as race jokes , or racist jokes are jokes that exploit ethnic stereotypes. They are often considered to be offensive and as a form of hate speech, though they still remain popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic jokes come and go with social change, particularly with waves of immigration from one country to another.As public awareness of racism has increased, racial and ethnic jokes have become increasingly socially unacceptable in recent years, and have become socially taboo to tell in public in many regions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethnic joke <ul><li>“ Q : How does every ethnic joke start? A : With a look over your shoulder.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethnic joke s about the Chuk с hi <ul><li>“ A chukchi man is riding a cab. Having looked at the counter, the driver says: </li></ul><ul><li>- 3.20 (Three twenty). </li></ul><ul><li>The chukchi man opens his wallet: </li></ul><ul><li>- First twenty, second twenty, third twenty. Here!” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethnic joke s about English and Irish people <ul><li>“ Q: Why are Irish jokes so simplistic? </li></ul><ul><li>A: So Englishmen can understand them.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Q: What's the best thing that ever happened between England and Ireland? </li></ul><ul><li>A: the Irish Sea!” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ethnic joke s about Black people <ul><li>“ -Why do niggers stink? </li></ul><ul><li>- So blind people can hate them too.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ - What is a nigger on a bike? </li></ul><ul><li>- Thief.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ - What do nigger kids get for Christmas? </li></ul><ul><li>- Your bike.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ - Why is Stevie Wonder always smiling? </li></ul><ul><li>- He doesn't know he's black.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ethnic joke s about Jews
  14. 14. Ethnic joke s about Indians <ul><li>If the Titanic was made in India: </li></ul><ul><li>10) There would be 10 times as many people on the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>9) There has to be a song with a girl wearing a white dress, singing in the rain. </li></ul><ul><li>8) By the end of the movie he finds his mom, dad, sister and brother. </li></ul><ul><li>7) It's seven and half-hours long. </li></ul><ul><li>6) The movie would be called &quot;Doobta Hua Pyar&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Kate Winslet played by Madhuri Dixit, and Leonard Di' Caprio played by Salman Khan. </li></ul><ul><li>4) The boat would sink, because there are too many people on it. </li></ul><ul><li>3) None of the people would float for long cause of the saris. </li></ul><ul><li>2) They would be serving mango fruity on the boat. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Wait a minute it was an Indian movie if you think about it. </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Can you imagine how many times we would hear &quot;Bachaoooo&quot;!!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ A monk was driving in India when suddenly a dog crosses the road. The car hit and killed the dog. The monk looked around and seeing a temple, went to knock on the door. A monk opened the door. The first monk said: &quot;I'm terribly sorry, but my karma ran over your dogma.&quot; </li></ul>
  15. 15. Racial targets in e thnic joke s <ul><li>Ethnic jokes are often aimed at minorities within certain regions, or peoples from neighboring areas. A common ethnic joke format is the &quot;stupid person&quot; joke, where the stock character, who is the butt of the joke, belongs to an ethnic group singled out for abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Southafricans about Afrikaners </li></ul><ul><li>English about Irish and vs </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians about Newfies </li></ul><ul><li>White people about Black people </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans about Asian people </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans about Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people </li></ul><ul><li>Europe ans and North America ns about Jews and Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Russians about people from the North Pole (the Chuckchi) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gender-neutral language <ul><li>G ender-inclusive language or gender neutrality is language use that aims at minimizing assumptions regarding the gender of human referents. </li></ul><ul><li>The advocacy of gender-neutral language reflects at least two different agenda: </li></ul><ul><li>One aims to clarify the inclusion of all sexes or genders (gender-inclusive language). </li></ul><ul><li>The other proposes that gender, as a category, is rarely worth marking in language (gender-neutral language). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gender-specific job title s <ul><li>firefighter instead of fireman </li></ul><ul><li>mail carrier , letter carrier , or post worker rather than mailman </li></ul><ul><li>flight attendant instead of steward or stewardess </li></ul><ul><li>bartender instead of barman or barmaid </li></ul><ul><li>woman or female should be used instead of lady </li></ul><ul><li>server instead of waiter and waitress </li></ul>
  18. 18. Unisex names <ul><li>also known as an epicene name , is a given name that is often given to either a boy or a girl. Some countries, however, require that a given name be gender-specific . </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander (a masculine name) or of Alexandra/Alexa (a feminine name ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chris can be considered a shortening of Christopher or Christian (both masculine names), or of Christina or Christine (feminine names). </li></ul>
  19. 19. The &quot;euphemism treadmill&quot; <ul><li>Euphemisms often evolve over time into taboo words themselves. This is the well-known linguistic process known as pejoration. Words originally intended as euphemisms may lose their euphemistic value, acquiring the negative connotations of their referents. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>concentration camp for civilian prisoners house </li></ul><ul><li>restroom , W.C. , bathroom , water closet for toilet room </li></ul><ul><li>i diot, imbecile, and moron for toddler, preschool, and primary school mental ages </li></ul><ul><li>lame -> crippled -> handicapped -> disabled -> physically challenged -> differently abled for mentaly retarded </li></ul><ul><li>outgassing or runoff for pollution </li></ul><ul><li>premature birth for a bortion </li></ul><ul><li>gosh and g ee for God and Jesus ( used by Christians to avoid taking the name of God in a vain oath ) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;He Who Must Not Be Named&quot; or &quot;You-Know-Who&quot; for devil </li></ul><ul><li>Gay for homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>wom a n in sensible shoes for lesbian </li></ul><ul><li>gone to be with the Lord or called to higher service for death ( used by Christians ) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The &quot;euphemism treadmill&quot; <ul><li>curvy , fluffy , full-figured or heavy-set instead of fat </li></ul><ul><li>lost their lives for were killed </li></ul><ul><li>ill-advised for very poor or bad </li></ul><ul><li>pre-owned vehicles for used cars </li></ul><ul><li>a student being held back a grade level for having failed or flunked the grade level </li></ul><ul><li>correctional facility for prison </li></ul><ul><li>the big C for cancer </li></ul><ul><li>bathroom tissue or bath tissue for toilet paper </li></ul><ul><li>sanitation worker for &quot;bin man&quot; or garbage man </li></ul><ul><li>economically depressed neighborhood for ghetto </li></ul><ul><li>force , police action , or conflict for war </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol-related, single-car crash for drunk driver </li></ul><ul><li>mature for old or elderly </li></ul><ul><li>haem or heme (Americanism) for blood </li></ul><ul><li>fee for fine </li></ul><ul><li>gaming for gambling </li></ul><ul><li>to cut excesses for to fire employers </li></ul><ul><li>gender reassignment for sex change </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention! 