Aristotle's Poetics - Epic And Tragedy


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  • Source: Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 6th Edition 2003.
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  • Aristotle's Poetics - Epic And Tragedy

    1. 1. Epic and Tragedy (poetics) <ul><li>What is an epic? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a tragedy? </li></ul><ul><li>How tragedies originated? </li></ul><ul><li>How Epic originated? </li></ul><ul><li>Nine characteristics of epic, examples of famous epic </li></ul><ul><li>Six characteristics of tragedy, examples of famous tragedies </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities between and Epic and Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between and Epic and Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>How epic and tragedy should be presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Hopefully I can do this all In time. I need to study the tragedies and epic as well. U ALL ARE GOING TO LIKE IT. </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Plato’s most famous student. Aristotle is considered father of modern science.
    4. 4. What is an epic? <ul><li>(Literature / Poetry) a long narrative poem recounting in elevated style the deeds of a legendary hero, esp one originating in oral folk tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Epic = Heroic Drama + Long Narrative </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is a tragedy? <ul><li>The word tragedy is contracted form of the trag(o)-aoidiā = &quot;goat song&quot;, which comes from tragos = &quot;goat&quot; and aeidein = &quot;to sing“. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle Poetics: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself; in appropriate and pleasurable language;... in a dramatic rather than narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish a catharsis of these emotions.” </li></ul><ul><li>Drama in which the protagonist is overcome by some superior force or circumstance; excites terror or pity. </li></ul>
    6. 6. How tragedy originated (Poetics)? <ul><li>In Aristotle’s Poetics, Aristotle provides the earliest-surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art-form. Aristotle explains that Tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs - hymns sung and danced in praise of Dionysus; the god of wine and fertility. </li></ul>
    7. 7. How epic originated? <ul><li>Oral poetry may qualify as an epic, and Albert Lord and Milman Parry have argued that classical epics were fundamentally an oral poetic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Homer, Odyssey and Illiad and Virgil, Aenied are it’s examples. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Nine Characteristics of Epic <ul><li>opens in medias res. </li></ul><ul><li>The setting is vast, covering many nations, the world or the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>begins with an invocation to a muse. </li></ul><ul><li>starts with a statement of the theme. </li></ul><ul><li>the use of epithets. </li></ul><ul><li>includes long lists. </li></ul><ul><li>features long and formal speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>shows divine intervention on human affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Star&quot; heroes that embody the values of the civilization. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Six characteristics of Tragedy <ul><li>“ good or fine.” Aristotle relates this quality to moral purpose and says it is relative to class: “Even a woman may be good, and also a slave, though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ fitness of character” (true to type); e.g. valor is appropriate for a warrior but not for a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>“ true to life” (realistic) </li></ul><ul><li>“ consistency” (true to themselves). Once a character's personality and motivations are established, these should continue throughout the play. </li></ul><ul><li>“ necessary or probable.” Characters must be logically constructed according to “the law of probability or necessity” that governs the actions of the play. </li></ul><ul><li>“ true to life and yet more beautiful” (idealized, ennobled). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples of epic <ul><li>Homer's IIiad and Odyssey are the main Greek epics, but the other writers of the Trojan Cycle and Hesiod are also epic poets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Iliad - Heroic role of Achilles in the Trojan War . </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>The Odyssey - Misadventures of Odysseus trying to return from the Trojan War and the shenanigans of the suitors trying to take over his place back in Ithaca. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Examples of Tragedy <ul><li>Most famous Greek Tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides they regularly took part in Dionysia (festival) held for five days. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Sophocles: Oedipus Rex (430-425?) </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy of Oedipus and hermartia </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Euripides: Heracles (422?) Heracles the greek hero who fought mighty masters </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Aeschylus: The Supplicants (c. 468) </li></ul><ul><li>THE SUPPLIANTS is probably the earliest of Aeschylus' surviving plays. The story, taken from the Epic Cycle, tells how the fifty daughters of Danaus, sought in marriage by their cousins, the fifty sons of Aegyptus, fled for protection to a place near Argos. The fifty suitors overtook them and through a messenger commanded the maidens to give themselves up; but at this point the king of Argos interfered, sending the suitors off about their business. The play closes with a hymn of thanksgiving sung by the chorus.Source: </li></ul>
    16. 16. Similarities between epic and tragedy.
    17. 17. Affinities between Epic and Tragedy <ul><li>Epic and tragedy both are imitations of higher subjects, that is they deal with characters of higher type. It means that the major character in epic and tragedy deals with high class in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Plot, characters, thought and diction are considered as common elements in epic and tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>Epic and tragedy both show unity in their plot. Note here in this matter an epic is allowed more freedom than tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued… </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>In Poetics Aristotle makes it clear that the structure of the epic should be modeled on dramatic principles. </li></ul><ul><li>It should follow a single action. This should have a proper beginning, middle and end; be a complete organic whole, just as it should be in tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Epic poetry is similar to tragedy in that it has as many species as in tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Epic plots are complex or simple whether they are full of suffering, or concentrate on characters they are similar to tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Basis of dividing the epic into different kind is the same as it is in the tragedy. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Dissimilarities between Epic and Tragedy <ul><li>There are many differences between epic and tragedy; some of them are as follows: 1. Epic and tragedy are different in length. Tragedy is more concentrated , simple and compact. For this reason its size is much more limited than that of the epic. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the tragedy is based on the principle that the work is short enough to be grasped as an artistic whole this holds well for the epic as well. the greater size of an epic allowed it more grandeur and dignity in the treatment of its incidents. … continued </li></ul>
    20. 20. Dissimilarities between Epic and Tragedy <ul><li>2. Incidents in tragedy have necessarily been shortened, and more concentrated, while in epic each and every incident is highly elevated. 3. The epic allows greater scope for marvelous. Tragedy, however, can't make too much use of the marvelous with in the action, for this would see improbable and unconvincing. Epic can relate marvelous because it is not going to be presented on stage before the eyes of the spectators. So, it is left to the imagination of the readers. But in tragedy it is not possible, to a greater extent. 4. The epic uses the mode of the narration, and tragedy uses the mode of dramatics. 5. Tragedy has a vividness which is absent in epic. 6. Epic narrates in versified language, and does not imitate an action, as tragedy does through acting. </li></ul>
    21. 21. How Epic and Tragedy should be presented? <ul><li>Epic and tragedy are of fictional and should be presented in a way that would capture and captivate spectators. It should convince audience that it is true. Involving and engaging the reader in the text as if they are part of it. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Aristotles quotations - </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Greece - </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ARISTOTLE QUOTES - </li></ul><ul><li>Greek philosophy - </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY OF GREEK EPIC – </li></ul><ul><li>Personality in Greek epic, tragedy, and philosophy: </li></ul><ul><li>the self in dialogue C Gill - 1998 - </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle - </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Greek Theatres - </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>MLA format - </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ttp:// </li></ul><ul><li>--- epic --- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>-- homer and Iliad -- what does Aristotle say? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Differences between epic and tragedy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>epic cycle - </li></ul><ul><li>-- epic cycle -- great Aristotelians epics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>-- epic poem -- </li></ul><ul><li>epic definition - </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Similarities - </li></ul><ul><li>Dissimilarities - </li></ul><ul><li>Greek tragedies - </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of epic poem </li></ul><ul><li>Beowulf – </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Six elements of drama according to Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Marvelous according to Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
    26. 27. Thank You so much for Existing – in this drama of Life we are all stuck in
    27. 28. Aristotles six Elements of Drama <ul><li>PLOT – what happens in a play; the order of events, the story as opposed to the theme; what happens rather than what it means. </li></ul><ul><li>THEME – what the play means as opposed to what happens (plot); the main idea within the play. </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTER – the personality or the part an actor represents in a play; a role played by an actor in a play. </li></ul><ul><li>DICTION/LANGUAGE/DIALOGUE – the word choices made by the playwright and the enunciation of the actors delivering the lines. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSIC/RHYTHM – by music Aristotle meant the sound, rhythm and melody of the speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>SPECTACLE – the visual elements of the production of a play; the scenery, costumes, and special effects in a production. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul>