Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
2-His major Theories.
Who is Sigmund Freud ?
Psychology's most famous figure and one of the
most influential and controversial thinkers of
the twentieth century.
Founder of psychoanalysis.
Freud’s Major Theories:
The Id, Ego, and Superego.
The Conscious and Unconscious Mind. (A Passage To India
The structures of the mind:
The conscious mind
(Includes everything that we are aware of)
The preconscious mind
(Is the part of the mind that represents ordinary memory)
The unconscious mind
(Is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of ourconscious
According to Freud the human
mind is like an iceberg. It is
mostly hidden in the
unconscious. He believed that
the conscious level of the mind
was similar to the tip of the
iceberg which could be seen, but
the unconscious was mysterious
and was hidden.
How Does His Theory Apply on Modern
A Passage To India
“In the case of Adela, the Marabar cave she entered might symbolize the depths of
the unconscious mind. She admits to hearing the same mysterious echo that
Mrs. Moore heard, and which had such a catastrophic effect on the old lady's
peace of mind. For these two Westerners, the caves break down their
conscious, carefully constructed personalities and lay bare what is under the
surface. Perhaps as she steps into the cave, some of her unconscious fears
about love and marriage and sex are let loose, leading her to imagine that she
has been assaulted.”
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Who is Karl Marx?
Karl Marx was a German philosopher and economist best known for his
philosophy known as Marxism.
The Marxist criticism
The Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social
institutions from which they originate.
The simplest goals of Marxist literary criticism can include an assessment
of the political 'tendency' of a literary work.
Marxist Theory and Literary Analysis:
Marx presents his theory of the materialist conception of history in
which the economic base of a society gives rise to and interacts in a
dialectical way with the societal superstructure of culture, law,
religion and art.
”When an engineer FALLS ILL ,ITS EQUALLY IMPORTANT” SAID
THE VOICE OF MR.HAQ A POLICE INSPECTOR.”OH YES WE
ARE ALL JOLLY IMPORTANT, OUR SALARISE PROVE IT” SAID
MR. SYED MOHAMMED.
Therefore, in our novel “A Passage To India” no wonder that we will
find some none-Englishmen characters in this novel, for instance,
Aziz the Indian doctor when he said “Why talk about the
English?....why be either friends with the . fellows or not friends?
Let us shut them up and be jolly. Queen Victoria & Mrs.Bannester
were the only expiation and they're dead.”
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Who is Charles Darwin?
He is an English naturalist and geologist.
Laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and
transformed the way we think about the natural world.
Charles Darwin one of the leading intellectuals of 18th
The Notion of His Theory:
He established that all species of life have descended over time
from common descent.
Evolution Theory :
Survival of the strongest.
Struggle for Existence.
His Theory In “A Passage To India”
England vs. India
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Who is Friedrich Nietzsche?
He was a classical philologist then transferred to be a
He suffered from health problems.
His most famous philosophies:
Death of God.
Apollonian and Dionysian.
Dionysian is the spirit that feels the oneness of all things and
which shares in all the pain and ecstasy in the universe.
Apollonianism establishes measure and morality and imposes
the image of finite humanity upon the disorder of experience
by recognizing forms borders and categories.
How Does His Theory Apply on
A Passage To India:
The unity of all living things.
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Who is Carl Jung?
He was a Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical
Jung decided to study medicine .
Jung worked with psychiatric patients .
created some of the best known psychological concepts
The Content of His Theory:
It is called Analytical Psychology:
The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation .
Jung to understand the human mind through dreams and symbol
believed the human psyche exists in three parts:
the ego .
the personal unconscious .
the collective unconscious .
His theory focuses on four basic psychological
Extraversion vs. Introversion
Sensation vs. Intuition
Thinking vs. Feeling
Judging vs. Perceiving
A Psychological Critique from Jungian Perspective
of E.M Forster A Passage To India :
The Marabar caves is the central psychological symbol of the narrative,
representing what Jung calls the collective unconscious. Both Adela
quested and Mrs .Moore, the novel effective protagonist ,encounter
heretofore unconscious material in the caves the precipitate
psychology growth for each . Adela encounter is best understood as
an animus confrontation while Mrs . Moore more profound journey
is best characterized as a meeting of the self archetype .
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)
Who is Ferdinand de Saussure?
He was a Swiss linguist and semiotician whose ideas laid a
foundation for many significant developments both
in linguistics and semiology in the 20th century.
He defines language as a system of signs, which we can study it (as a complete
system at any given point) or (in its historical development).
What is semiotics?
It is a study ofsigns and symbols ,especially as elements
of language (written or spoken)
The Main Focus of His Theory:
Saussure focuses on the linguistic sign, making a number of
crucial points about the relationship between the signifier (Sr)
and the signified (Sd).
A signifier (Sr), the sound-image or its graphical equivalent, for
example (C A T) means the phoneme word small animals,
and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning. For
example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the
three black marks c-a-t serve as the signifier which evokes
His Theory In Relation To E.M.
Forster’s A Passage To India
He Suggests that there are 3 levels on which an audience read a
1- syntactic level.
2- representational level.
1- The Mosque.
5- The wasp.
6-The festival of lord Krishna.
The Selfish Gene BY Richard Dawkins
the Origin of Species
Thank you all
Any questions are always welcome