A passage to India by E.M forester. Theories


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A passage to India by E.M forester. Theories
by Bashayer Almalki

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  • A passage to India by E.M forester. Theories

    1. 1. The Most Influential Theories (of The Modern Age)
    2. 2. Guidance 1-Sigmund Freud. 2-Karl Marx. 3-Charles Darwin. 4-Friedrich Nietzsche. 5-Carl Jung. 6-Ferdinand de Saussure.
    3. 3. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) 1-Introduction. 2-His major Theories. 3-Application.
    4. 4. Who is Sigmund Freud ? Psychology's most famous figure and one of the most influential and controversial thinkers of the twentieth century. Founder of psychoanalysis.
    5. 5. Freud’s Major Theories: Defense Mechanisms. The Id, Ego, and Superego. The Conscious and Unconscious Mind. (A Passage To India
    6. 6. The structures of the mind: The conscious mind (Includes everything that we are aware of) The preconscious mind (Is the part of the mind that represents ordinary memory) The unconscious mind (Is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of ourconscious awareness.
    7. 7. According to Freud the human mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden in the unconscious. He believed that the conscious level of the mind was similar to the tip of the iceberg which could be seen, but the unconscious was mysterious and was hidden.
    8. 8. How Does His Theory Apply on Modern Literature? A Passage To India “In the case of Adela, the Marabar cave she entered might symbolize the depths of the unconscious mind. She admits to hearing the same mysterious echo that Mrs. Moore heard, and which had such a catastrophic effect on the old lady's peace of mind. For these two Westerners, the caves break down their conscious, carefully constructed personalities and lay bare what is under the surface. Perhaps as she steps into the cave, some of her unconscious fears about love and marriage and sex are let loose, leading her to imagine that she has been assaulted.”
    9. 9. Karl Marx (1818-1883) 1-Introduction. 2-His Philosophy. 3-Application.
    10. 10. Who is Karl Marx? Karl Marx was a German philosopher and economist best known for his philosophy known as Marxism. The Marxist criticism The Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions from which they originate. The simplest goals of Marxist literary criticism can include an assessment of the political 'tendency' of a literary work.
    11. 11. Marxist Theory and Literary Analysis: Marx presents his theory of the materialist conception of history in which the economic base of a society gives rise to and interacts in a dialectical way with the societal superstructure of culture, law, religion and art. ”When an engineer FALLS ILL ,ITS EQUALLY IMPORTANT” SAID THE VOICE OF MR.HAQ A POLICE INSPECTOR.”OH YES WE ARE ALL JOLLY IMPORTANT, OUR SALARISE PROVE IT” SAID MR. SYED MOHAMMED.
    12. 12. Therefore, in our novel “A Passage To India” no wonder that we will find some none-Englishmen characters in this novel, for instance, Aziz the Indian doctor when he said “Why talk about the English?....why be either friends with the . fellows or not friends? Let us shut them up and be jolly. Queen Victoria & Mrs.Bannester were the only expiation and they're dead.”
    13. 13. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) 1-Introduction. 2-His Theory. 3-Application.
    14. 14. Who is Charles Darwin? He is an English naturalist and geologist. Laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and transformed the way we think about the natural world. Charles Darwin one of the leading intellectuals of 18th century England.
    15. 15. The Notion of His Theory: He established that all species of life have descended over time from common descent. Evolution Theory : Survival of the strongest. Struggle for Existence. Natural Selection. Sexual Selection. Mutation.
    16. 16. His Theory In “A Passage To India” England vs. India
    17. 17. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) 1-Introduction 2-His Philosophy. 3-Application.
    18. 18. Who is Friedrich Nietzsche? He was a classical philologist then transferred to be a philosopher. He suffered from health problems.
    19. 19. His most famous philosophies: Death of God. Apollonian and Dionysian. Dionysian is the spirit that feels the oneness of all things and which shares in all the pain and ecstasy in the universe. Apollonianism establishes measure and morality and imposes the image of finite humanity upon the disorder of experience by recognizing forms borders and categories.
    20. 20. How Does His Theory Apply on A Passage To India: The unity of all living things. The wasp. The echo.
    21. 21. Carl Jung (1875-1961) 1-Introduction. 2-His Theory. 3-Application.
    22. 22. Who is Carl Jung? He was a Swiss psychiatrist who founded analytical psychology . Jung decided to study medicine . Jung worked with psychiatric patients . created some of the best known psychological concepts .
    23. 23. The Content of His Theory: It is called Analytical Psychology: The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation . Jung to understand the human mind through dreams and symbol . believed the human psyche exists in three parts: the ego . the personal unconscious . the collective unconscious .
    24. 24. His theory focuses on four basic psychological functions : Extraversion vs. Introversion Sensation vs. Intuition Thinking vs. Feeling Judging vs. Perceiving
    25. 25. A Psychological Critique from Jungian Perspective of E.M Forster A Passage To India : The Marabar caves is the central psychological symbol of the narrative, representing what Jung calls the collective unconscious. Both Adela quested and Mrs .Moore, the novel effective protagonist ,encounter heretofore unconscious material in the caves the precipitate psychology growth for each . Adela encounter is best understood as an animus confrontation while Mrs . Moore more profound journey is best characterized as a meeting of the self archetype .
    26. 26. Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) 1-Introduction. 2-His Theory. 3-Application.
    27. 27. Who is Ferdinand de Saussure? He was a Swiss linguist and semiotician whose ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments both in linguistics and semiology in the 20th century. He defines language as a system of signs, which we can study it (as a complete system at any given point) or (in its historical development). Semiotics Theory What is semiotics? It is a study ofsigns and symbols ,especially as elements of language (written or spoken)
    28. 28. The Main Focus of His Theory: Saussure focuses on the linguistic sign, making a number of crucial points about the relationship between the signifier (Sr) and the signified (Sd). A signifier (Sr), the sound-image or its graphical equivalent, for example (C A T) means the phoneme word small animals, and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning. For example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the three black marks c-a-t serve as the signifier which evokes the "cat.“
    29. 29. His Theory In Relation To E.M. Forster’s A Passage To India He Suggests that there are 3 levels on which an audience read a text: 1- syntactic level. 2- representational level. 3-symbolic level. Example: 1- The Mosque. 2-The Cave. 3-The Temple. 4-Godble song. 5- The wasp. 6-The festival of lord Krishna. 7-Birth
    30. 30. Links http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/consciousuncon.htm http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/freud.htm#Theory questions-india/essay-to-passage-http://www.novelguide.com/a The Selfish Gene BY Richard Dawkins .htmlcriticism_literary_Marxistwww.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/.../docs/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/darwin_charles.shtml the Origin of Species http://www.jstor.org http://www.academia.edu http://www.glyndwr.ac.uk http://ariel.synergiesprairies.ca http://www.butler-bowdon.com/carl-jung-archetypes-collective-unconcious http://www.novelguide.com/reportessay/biography/historical-figures/life- philosophy-friedrich-nietzsche http://ieas.unideb.hu/admin/file_1372.pdf http://dc.etsu.edu//etd
    31. 31. Thank you all Any questions are always welcome