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Chapter 3
Orthographic
Projection
TOPICS
Object representation
Glass box concept
Line convention
Orthographic projection of point,
line, plane, surface and ...
PROJECTION METHOD
Perspective
Oblique Orthographic
Axonometric Multiview
Parallel
OBJECT REPRESENTATION
Axonometric projection
Multiview projection
MULTIVIEW PROJECTION
Three principle dimensions
of an object …
Width Depth
Height
Width
Height
Depth
Depth
… can be presen...
1. Revolve the object with respect
to observer.
TO OBTAIN MULTIVIEW
REPRESENTATION OF AN OBJECT
2. The observer move aroun...
REVOLVE THE OBJECT
Front view Right side view
Top view
OBSERVER MOVE AROUND
Front view Right side view
Top view
THE GLASS BOX CONCEPT
Bottom view
Left side view
Rear view
Height
Width
Depth
History
Orthographic
Projection
of Object Features
OBJECT FEATURES
Edges are lines that represent the boundary
between two faces.
Corners Represent the intersection of two o...
Surfaces are areas that are bounded by edges
or limiting element.
Limiting
element
is a line that represents the last visi...
A
B
PROJECTION OF POINT(S)
AF
BR
AT
BF
AR
BT
AF AR
AT
BF
BR
BT
Equal
distance
A
B
AF BF BRAR
AT
BT
BR
AR
AF BF
AT
BT
True length
NORMAL LINE
True lengthPoint
Equal
length
PROJECTION OF LINE
A
B
AF BF BRAR
AT
BT
INCLINED LINE
Foreshortened
BR
AR
AF
BF
Foreshortened
AT
BT
True length
A
Equal
length
PROJECTION OF ...
A
B
AF
BF BR
AR
AT
BT
OBLIQUED LINE
A
Equal
length
B
Foreshortened
Foreshortened
Foreshortened
BR
AR
AF
BF
AT
BT
PROJECTIO...
B
C
A
PROJECTION OF PLANE
BF AF,CF CRAR,BR
AT
CT
NORMAL PLANE
Equal
length
Edge
Edge
True size
CR
AR,BR
AF,CF
BF
AT
BT
CT
...
B
C
BF AF
CR
AR,BR
AT
CT
INCLINED PLANE
A
Equal
length
BT
C
CF
Edge
CR
AR,BR
Foreshortened
BT
CT
AT
AF
CF
Foreshortened
BF...
B
C
BF
AF
CR
AR
AT
CT
OBLIQUED PLANE
A
Equal
length
BT
C
CF
B
BR
Foreshortened
CR
AR
BR
AF
BF CF
Foreshortened
AT
BT
CT
Fo...
PROJECTION OF OBJECT
The views are obtained by projecting all object
features to the picture plane.
You have to project th...
s
s
s
PROJECTION OF OBJECT
PROJECTION OF OBJECT
Line Convention
LINE CONVENTION
Precedence of coincide lines.
Hidden line drawing.
Center line drawing.
PRECEDENCE OF LINE
Visible
line
Order of
importance
Hidden
line
Center
line
HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
Hidden line should join a visible line, except it
extended from the visible line.
Correct
No !
Join
L...
Correct No !
Hidden line should join a visible line, except it
extended from the visible line.
Leave
space
Leave
space
HID...
Hidden line should intersect to form L and T
corners.
Correct
No !
L T
HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
Hidden arcs should start on a center line.
HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
CENTER LINE PRACTICE
In circular view, short dash should cross at the
intersections of center line.
For small hole, center...
Leave the gap when centerline forms a
continuation with a visible or hidden line
Leave
space
Leave
space
Leave
space
Leave...
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Transcript of "Chapter 03 orthographic projection"

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Orthographic Projection
  2. 2. TOPICS Object representation Glass box concept Line convention Orthographic projection of point, line, plane, surface and object. Multiview projection
  3. 3. PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Oblique Orthographic Axonometric Multiview Parallel
  4. 4. OBJECT REPRESENTATION Axonometric projection Multiview projection
  5. 5. MULTIVIEW PROJECTION Three principle dimensions of an object … Width Depth Height Width Height Depth Depth … can be presented only two in each view. Adjacent view(s) is needed to fulfill the size description.
  6. 6. 1. Revolve the object with respect to observer. TO OBTAIN MULTIVIEW REPRESENTATION OF AN OBJECT 2. The observer move around the object.
  7. 7. REVOLVE THE OBJECT Front view Right side view Top view
  8. 8. OBSERVER MOVE AROUND Front view Right side view Top view
  9. 9. THE GLASS BOX CONCEPT Bottom view Left side view Rear view
  10. 10. Height Width Depth History
  11. 11. Orthographic Projection of Object Features
  12. 12. OBJECT FEATURES Edges are lines that represent the boundary between two faces. Corners Represent the intersection of two or more edges. Edge Corner Edge No edge No corner No corner
  13. 13. Surfaces are areas that are bounded by edges or limiting element. Limiting element is a line that represents the last visible part of the curve surface. Surface Surface Surface Limit Limit OBJECT FEATURES
  14. 14. A B PROJECTION OF POINT(S) AF BR AT BF AR BT AF AR AT BF BR BT Equal distance
  15. 15. A B AF BF BRAR AT BT BR AR AF BF AT BT True length NORMAL LINE True lengthPoint Equal length PROJECTION OF LINE
  16. 16. A B AF BF BRAR AT BT INCLINED LINE Foreshortened BR AR AF BF Foreshortened AT BT True length A Equal length PROJECTION OF LINE
  17. 17. A B AF BF BR AR AT BT OBLIQUED LINE A Equal length B Foreshortened Foreshortened Foreshortened BR AR AF BF AT BT PROJECTION OF LINE
  18. 18. B C A PROJECTION OF PLANE BF AF,CF CRAR,BR AT CT NORMAL PLANE Equal length Edge Edge True size CR AR,BR AF,CF BF AT BT CT BT
  19. 19. B C BF AF CR AR,BR AT CT INCLINED PLANE A Equal length BT C CF Edge CR AR,BR Foreshortened BT CT AT AF CF Foreshortened BF PROJECTION OF PLANE
  20. 20. B C BF AF CR AR AT CT OBLIQUED PLANE A Equal length BT C CF B BR Foreshortened CR AR BR AF BF CF Foreshortened AT BT CT Foreshortened PROJECTION OF PLANE
  21. 21. PROJECTION OF OBJECT The views are obtained by projecting all object features to the picture plane. You have to project the remaining surfaces which are invisible too !
  22. 22. s s s PROJECTION OF OBJECT
  23. 23. PROJECTION OF OBJECT
  24. 24. Line Convention
  25. 25. LINE CONVENTION Precedence of coincide lines. Hidden line drawing. Center line drawing.
  26. 26. PRECEDENCE OF LINE Visible line Order of importance Hidden line Center line
  27. 27. HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE Hidden line should join a visible line, except it extended from the visible line. Correct No ! Join Leave space
  28. 28. Correct No ! Hidden line should join a visible line, except it extended from the visible line. Leave space Leave space HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
  29. 29. Hidden line should intersect to form L and T corners. Correct No ! L T HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
  30. 30. Hidden arcs should start on a center line. HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
  31. 31. CENTER LINE PRACTICE In circular view, short dash should cross at the intersections of center line. For small hole, center line is presented as thin continuous line. Center line should not extend between views. Leave space Leave space
  32. 32. Leave the gap when centerline forms a continuation with a visible or hidden line Leave space Leave space Leave space Leave space Center line should always start and end with long dash. CENTER LINE PRACTICE
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