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# Chapter 03 orthographic projection

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### Chapter 03 orthographic projection

1. 1. Chapter 3 Orthographic Projection
2. 2. TOPICS Object representation Glass box concept Line convention Orthographic projection of point, line, plane, surface and object. Multiview projection
3. 3. PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Oblique Orthographic Axonometric Multiview Parallel
4. 4. OBJECT REPRESENTATION Axonometric projection Multiview projection
5. 5. MULTIVIEW PROJECTION Three principle dimensions of an object … Width Depth Height Width Height Depth Depth … can be presented only two in each view. Adjacent view(s) is needed to fulfill the size description.
6. 6. 1. Revolve the object with respect to observer. TO OBTAIN MULTIVIEW REPRESENTATION OF AN OBJECT 2. The observer move around the object.
7. 7. REVOLVE THE OBJECT Front view Right side view Top view
8. 8. OBSERVER MOVE AROUND Front view Right side view Top view
9. 9. THE GLASS BOX CONCEPT Bottom view Left side view Rear view
10. 10. Height Width Depth History
11. 11. Orthographic Projection of Object Features
12. 12. OBJECT FEATURES Edges are lines that represent the boundary between two faces. Corners Represent the intersection of two or more edges. Edge Corner Edge No edge No corner No corner
13. 13. Surfaces are areas that are bounded by edges or limiting element. Limiting element is a line that represents the last visible part of the curve surface. Surface Surface Surface Limit Limit OBJECT FEATURES
14. 14. A B PROJECTION OF POINT(S) AF BR AT BF AR BT AF AR AT BF BR BT Equal distance
15. 15. A B AF BF BRAR AT BT BR AR AF BF AT BT True length NORMAL LINE True lengthPoint Equal length PROJECTION OF LINE
16. 16. A B AF BF BRAR AT BT INCLINED LINE Foreshortened BR AR AF BF Foreshortened AT BT True length A Equal length PROJECTION OF LINE
17. 17. A B AF BF BR AR AT BT OBLIQUED LINE A Equal length B Foreshortened Foreshortened Foreshortened BR AR AF BF AT BT PROJECTION OF LINE
18. 18. B C A PROJECTION OF PLANE BF AF,CF CRAR,BR AT CT NORMAL PLANE Equal length Edge Edge True size CR AR,BR AF,CF BF AT BT CT BT
19. 19. B C BF AF CR AR,BR AT CT INCLINED PLANE A Equal length BT C CF Edge CR AR,BR Foreshortened BT CT AT AF CF Foreshortened BF PROJECTION OF PLANE
20. 20. B C BF AF CR AR AT CT OBLIQUED PLANE A Equal length BT C CF B BR Foreshortened CR AR BR AF BF CF Foreshortened AT BT CT Foreshortened PROJECTION OF PLANE
21. 21. PROJECTION OF OBJECT The views are obtained by projecting all object features to the picture plane. You have to project the remaining surfaces which are invisible too !
22. 22. s s s PROJECTION OF OBJECT
23. 23. PROJECTION OF OBJECT
24. 24. Line Convention
25. 25. LINE CONVENTION Precedence of coincide lines. Hidden line drawing. Center line drawing.
26. 26. PRECEDENCE OF LINE Visible line Order of importance Hidden line Center line
27. 27. HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE Hidden line should join a visible line, except it extended from the visible line. Correct No ! Join Leave space
28. 28. Correct No ! Hidden line should join a visible line, except it extended from the visible line. Leave space Leave space HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
29. 29. Hidden line should intersect to form L and T corners. Correct No ! L T HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
30. 30. Hidden arcs should start on a center line. HIDDEN LINE PRACTICE
31. 31. CENTER LINE PRACTICE In circular view, short dash should cross at the intersections of center line. For small hole, center line is presented as thin continuous line. Center line should not extend between views. Leave space Leave space
32. 32. Leave the gap when centerline forms a continuation with a visible or hidden line Leave space Leave space Leave space Leave space Center line should always start and end with long dash. CENTER LINE PRACTICE