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Utterly otterly 28 02 12 v3

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  • 1. Utterly Otterly Why barley? What barley? Whither barley?
  • 2. Why Barley?• Barley was there first• Fertile Crescent• Bread and beer• Starch as carbohydrate for alcohol• Enzymes• Nutrients for yeast growth• Husk for filtration• Availability
  • 3. Why Barley?• Bread and beer• Wheat appealed to the wealthy• Barley bread for the poor• Barley for all men as beer• Other cereals?• Migration across Europe
  • 4. What Barley?• Landraces• Varieties• Classification – Winter / Spring
  • 5. b B bb B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B b C C 1.5
  • 6. What Barley?• Landraces• Varieties• Classification – Winter / Spring – 2-row / 6-row
  • 7. 1.7
  • 8. What Barley?• Landraces• Varieties• Classification – Winter / Spring – 2-row / 6-row – Malting / Feed• Varietal features
  • 9. Longitudinal section of a malting barley corn pericarp husk testa acrospire vascular pathway scutellum aleurone layer scutellar epithelial cells cell wall roots large starch granule small starch granule protein matrix Unmodified endospermModified endosperm
  • 10. 1.10
  • 11. Agronomy• Improved grain yields• Shorter and stiffer straws• Ears that do not shatter• Earlier ripening• Greater disease resistance• Greater uniformity
  • 12. Market• Brewhouse extract• Processability – Malting • Water uptake • Rapid germination • Complete cell wall breakdown – Brewing • Enzymes • Filterability
  • 13. Journey to Maris Otter• Landraces• Selection• Chevallier 1824• Plumage, Spratt, Archer to 1900• Pioneer 1943• Proctor 1953• Plant Varieties and Seeds Act 1964• Maris Otter 1965
  • 14. Journey from Maris Otter• Plant Varieties and Seeds Act 1964• Breeding cycles• 1976 – 1985 - Yield• Halcyon, Pipkin – Quality• 1985 – 2000 - Yield/Quality• 2000 onwards – Yield and Quality – Pearl, Flagon
  • 15. Journey from Maris Otter
  • 16. Chevallier• • Gene marker- assisted breeding project for mould resistance • 1824 – wettest autumn since records began!
  • 17. Winter Malting Quality Pedigree Pioneer Proctor Igri Athos MarisOtter Warboys Sergeant Cross1Finesse Torrent Puffin T Angora Halcyon NRPB87/5378 Pipkin Fanfare Rifle NFC296-7 NSL96-7157 Opal Pearl Cross2 Cassata Flagon
  • 18. Whither barley?• New varieties – tried and tested – For the farmer – For the brewer• A little bit of Otter in everything – And some Chevallier!Date

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