Coffee contains several compounds which are known to affect human body chemistry.
Senior citizens, many who said in a survey that they had rather give up sex than coffee, can find new support for their cherished drink in a report saying that 30 years of research indicates moderate drinking of this beverage is shown to have generally positive and even protective effects against a host of ills, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, kidney stones, depression, cancer and more.
The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) beta has long been recognized for promoting fibrosis ability acting through the Smad family of transcription factors.
Coffee and elderly
Coffee and elderly 1
Introduction The health effects of coffee have been studied to determine how coffee drinking affects humans. The coffee bean itself contains caffeine which are mild psychotropics for humans These chemicals are toxic in large doses, or even in their normal amount when consumed by many creatures which may otherwise have side effects. caffeine stimulates the production of cortisone and adrenaline two stimulating hormones -caffeine dependency and withdrawal symptoms 2
Benefits Adverse effects Reduced risk of Alzheimers • Caffeine disease and Dementia dependency Reduced risk of gallstone • Bone density disease loss Reduced risk of Parkinsons • Anxiety and disease sleep change • Gastrointestinal Cognitive performance problems Analgesic property • Cholesterol Antidiabetic Liver protection Cancer Cardioprotective Laxative/diuretic Antioxidant Prevention of dental caries 3
Reduced risk of Alzheimersdisease and Dementia Several studies comparing moderate coffee drinkers (defined as 3–5 cups per day) with light coffee drinkers (defined as 0– 2 cups per day) found that those who drank more coffee were significantly less likely to develop Alzheimers disease later in life. -caffeine significantly decreased abnormal levels of the protein (beta amyloid protein ) linked to Alzheimers disease A longitudinal study in 2009 found that moderate coffee drinkers had reduced risk of developing dementia in addition to Alzheimers disease Caffeine consumers did not seem to have lower rates of dementia. -it might be that caffeine could slow the dementia process rather than preventing it1. Caffeine Reverses Cognitive Impairment and Decreases Brain Amyloid-β Levels in Aged Alzheimers Disease Mice; Gary W Arendash, Takashi Mori, Chuanhai Cao, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Melissa Runfeldt, Alexander Dickson, Kavon Rezai-Zadeh, Jun Tan, Bruce A Citron, Xiaoyang Lin, Valentina Echeverria, and Huntington Potter; Journal of Alzheimers Disease, Volume 17:3 (July 2009).2. Caffeine Suppresses Amyloid-β Levels in Plasma and Brain of Alzheimers Disease Transgenic Mice; Chuanhai Cao, John R Cirrito, Xiaoyang Lin, Lilly Wang, Deborah K Verges, Alexander Dickson, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Chi Zhang, Takashi Mori, Gary W Arendash, David M Holzman, and Huntington Potter; Journal of Alzheimers Disease, Volume 17:3 (July 2009). 5
Reduced risk of gallstonedisease Drinking caffeinated coffee has been correlated with a lower incidence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in both men and women in two studies performed by the Harvard School of Public Health 6
Reduced risk of Parkinsonsdisease A study comparing heavy coffee drinkers (3.5 cups a day) with non- drinkers found that the coffee drinkers were significantly less likely to develop Parkinson‘s disease later in life Likewise, a second study found an inverse relationship between the amount of coffee regularly drank and the likelihood of developing Parkinsons disease 7
Cognitive performance A study published in the August 7, 2007, issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology stated that caffeine is a psychostimulant which appears to reduce cognitive decline in women but not in men -Women may be more sensitive to the effects of caffeine as their bodies may react differently to the stimulant, or they may metabolize caffeine 8
Liver protection Coffee can also reduce the incidence of cirrhosis of the liver and has been linked to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma caffeine have potent anti-fibrotic that able to antagonize the Smad pathway (by Gressner and colleagues report published in the Journal of Hepatology) This preventative effect was only seen in people at higher risk for liver disease due to heavy alcohol intake, being overweight or having diabetes or iron overload. 9
Cancer Coffee consumption is also correlated in Africa to a reduced risk of oral, esophageal, and pharyngeal cancer In ovarian cancer, no benefit was found. In the Nurses‘ Health Study, a modest reduction in breast cancer was observed in postmenopausal women only, which was not confirmed in decaffeinated coffee, and a reduction in endometrial cancer was observed in people who drank either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. According to one study, coffee protects the liver cancer. Another preliminary study found a correlation between coffee consumption and a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer -coffee has effects on insulin and glucose metabolism as well as sex hormone levels, all of which play a role in prostate cancer. 10
Cardioprotective Coffee moderately reduces the incidence of dying from cardiovascular disease, according to a large prospective cohort study published in 2008. A 2009 prospective study in Japan following nearly 77,000 individuals aged 40 to 79 found that coffee consumption, along with caffeine intake, was associated with a reduced risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.1. Dórea, J.G. and da Costa, T.H.M. 2005. Review article: Is coffee a functional food? Brit. J. Nutr. 93: 773-782.2. Higdon, J.V. and Frei, B. 2006. Coffee and health: A review of recent human research. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46(2): 101-123 11
Laxative/diuretic Coffee is also a powerful stimulant for peristalsis and is sometimes considered to prevent constipation. -However, coffee can also cause excessively loose bowel movements Caffeine does not act as a diuretic when consumed in moderation -does not lead to dehydration or to a water-electrolyte imbalance 12
Antioxidant Coffee contains the anticancer compound methylpyridinium. -Methylpyridinium is not present in raw coffee beans but is formed during the roasting process from trigonelline, which is common in raw coffee beans. -It is present in both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, and even in instant coffee. Research funded by Kraft shows that roast coffee contains more lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones that is more protective against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in primary neuronal cells 13
Prevention of dental caries The tannins in coffee may reduce the cariogenic potential of foods. In vitro experiments have shown that these polyphenolic compounds may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of mutans streptococci, which may reduce plaque formation 14
Loss of bone density According to a study on osteoporosis, Rupuri et. al found that that women with homozygous vitamin D receptor taking high caffeine has significantly higher rates of bone loss at spine However, an editorlial by Linda Massey in the American Journal of clinical nutrition recommend that moderate caffeine intake in elderly women is normal as the VDR genotype theory is not practical to be put in every elderly 16
Anxiety and sleep changes elderly with excessive coffee consumption may develop anxiety and irritability as well as withdrawal symptom. Coffee can also cause insomnia others than causing narcolepsy 17
Gastrointestinal problems Coffee can damage the lining of the gastrointestinal organs, causing gastritis and ulcers. The consumption of coffee is therefore not recommended for people with gastritis, colitis, and ulcers 18
Cholesterol A 2007 study by the Baylor College of Medicine indicates that cafestol and kahweol, found only in coffee beans, may raise levels of low-density lipoprotein or LDL in humans. This increase in LDL levels is an indicator that coffee raises cholesterol in the body. 19
Conclusions Coffee drinkers gain more benefits Moderate coffee intake is useful for elderly in term of reducing risk of Alzheimer disease, dementia, gallstone and preventing cancer. 20