Dieting and Calorie Counting


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Dieting and Calorie Counting

  1. 1. Counting Calories and Beyond Lupus Club Meeting Lecture Allan D. Corpuz, MD Fellow, Section of Rheumatology
  2. 2. Objectives Learn to compute your ideal body weight and BMI Learn cutoffs for obesity Compute calorie requirements Learn calorie counting Understand basic principles in dieting Learn about <100 calorie snacks
  3. 3. History “Bomb calorimeter” (Wilbur Atwater) Calorie counting: how many calories were consumed when eating particular foods, and "burned" when engaging in different activities
  4. 4. Text Understanding Your Caloric Requirements
  5. 5. Carbohydrates and Protein: 4 calories per gram Fats: 9 calories per gram Identify your total caloric requirement using Ideal Body Weight
  6. 6. Determine your Body Mass Index (BMI): measure of fatness BMI = Weight in kg / (Height in meters) 70kg/(1.6m) = 27.34 2 2
  7. 7. Text Where do you belong? Our patient: Overweight by WHO Obese Class I by Asia-Pacific
  8. 8. Tannhauser Formula for Ideal Body Weight (IBW) IBW (in kg) = (height in cm minus 100) less 10% example: 5’3” (convert to cm: 63in x 2.54cm/in = 160.02cm) 160.02 - 100 = 60.02 less 10% = 54.018 kg
  9. 9. Next… find out level of physical activity Standard Average # of Calories burned (Krause) Bed rest: 25 Sedentary: 30 Light activity: 35 Average: 40 Heavy: 45 Multiply IBW with Physical activity Example: 54kg x 30 = 1620 calories This is the energy required to maintain body weight (no loss/gain)
  10. 10. Set goals… with your doctor/dietician TCR = 1620 cal/day Goal: reduce by 1 pound/week 500 calories less: weight loss of 1lb/week 1620-500 = 1120 cal/ day
  11. 11. How do we break it down? 50-60% Carbs 30% Fats 12-15% (max 20%) Protein
  12. 12. Apply what you’ve learned… 1120 calories 60% Carbs (4cal/g) = 168grams 30% Fats (9cal/g) = 37g 10% Protein (4cal/g) = 28g
  13. 13. Vegetables: 16 calories per cup or 90grams (cooked) ampalaya fruit ampalaya leaves Baguio beans Puso ng saging Cabbage Cauliflower Chayote fruit or leaves Eggplant Kangkong Malunggay Leaves Mushroom Okra Patola Onion Bulb Pechay Saluyot Upo
  14. 14. Vegetables: 1/2cup = 16 calories coconut shoot (ubod) Munggo bean sprout (togue) Sitaw Canned Green Peas Sweet corn Tomato juice
  15. 15. Fruits and desserts: 40 cal per serving apple (1/2) atis (1 fruit) lakatan, latundan, chico (per pc) dalanghita (2) duhat (20 pcs) durian (30g) grapes (10) guava (2) guyabano (1 slice) langka (40g) lansones (7) mangosteen (3) melon (1 slice) papaya (1 slice) pineapple (1 slice) rambutan (8) santol (1) star apple (1/2) buko water (1 cup) banana-Q (1/2) mango chips (2) maruya (1/4) turon (1/2)
  16. 16. Meat/Fish, etc: 41 calories tenderloin, porterhouse, shank, sirloin, shoulder, rump, chicken leg, breast (1/4) meat internal organs (3/4 cups) bangus, lapu-lapu, dalag, etc (1 slice) = 45 cal avocado, 1 tsp peanut butter, pili nut (5pcs), 1 tsp peanut or olive oil = 45 cal
  17. 17. Sugar products: 20 calories table sugar (1 tsp) taho with syrup and sago (1/4 cup) ube, halaya (1 tsp) yema (1) polvoron (1/2 pc) halo-halo (2.3 cups) = 80 calories
  18. 18. Rice and rice products: 100 calories rice (1/2 cup) lugaw (1.5 cup) bibingka, galapong (1 slice) malagkit (1 slice) biko (1 slice) cassava cake (1/2 slice) espasol (2) kalamay, latik (1) kutsinta (1) palitaw, no coconut grating (4) puto bumbong (2) sapin-sapin (1 slice) tikoy (1 slice) pan de sal (3) lady fingers (5) Mammon tostado (3) Hopia hapon (1.5) Ensaymada (1) bihon, sotanghon (1 cup) kamote (1/2) ube (1.3 cups) kastanyas (11pcs) sago (1/2 cup)
  19. 19. Other carbs: 145 calories buko pie (1 slice) bitso-bitso (1) hopia baboy (1) hot cakes (1) fruit cake (1 slice) chocolate cake (1 slice) Spanish bread (1) Cinnamon roll (1) 1/2 donut = 190 cal croissant = 235 cal muffin = 290 cal eclair = 212 cal century egg = 135 cal embotido (2.5 pcs) = 187 cal
  20. 20. Dishes: Adobong baboy 1 cup = 302 cal Callos 1 cup = 260 cal Dinuguan 1 cup = 124 cal Kare-kare 1/2 cup = 103 cal Kilawin 1/2 cup = 113 cal Lechon baboy (50g) = 273 cal Lumpia fresh with sauce = 273 cal Lumpia with peanut sauce = 403 cal Menudo 2/3 cup = 144 cal Okoy = 184 cal Pochero 1 cup = 282 cal
  21. 21. Alcoholic drinks Pure water = 0 cal Beer 11oz = 163 cal Cognac = 75 cal Gin dry = 107 cal/jigger Ginebra 1 bottle - 832 cal Martini = 143 cal Whisky = 107 cal Wine Red = 73 cal/glass Wine White = 85 cal/glass Champagne = 85 cal
  22. 22. Text What about if I exercise? Physical activity burns calories
  23. 23. Average calories burned in 30minutes Sleeping = 35 Typing on computer = 50 Ironing = 63 Cooking = 86 Light housework = 115 Mopping floor = 119 Shopping = 102 Fishing = 119 Climbing Hills (no load) = 232 Walking slowly = 106 Walking briskly = 120 Running slowly = 280 Running fast = 384 Jogging = 215 Cycling = 123 Swimming = 311 Ballroom dancing = 98 Aerobic dancing = 198 Volleyball = 96 Football = 253 Basketball = 265 Golf = 140 Tennis = 209 Badminton = 186 Foreplay x 15mins = 22.5 cal Actual Intercourse x 15 mins = 67.5 cal
  24. 24. Text Think of this general rule… Estimated caloric burn for 10minutes of moderate physical activity is 100 calories
  25. 25. Text Not “losing” weight does not mean lack of success Muscle gain causes weight gain Hence, sometimes, you can estimate appropriate weight loss by checking your clothes: looser clothes mean a smaller waist.
  26. 26. Text Balance Caloric intake and Caloric burn Intake minus burn will determine whether one will lose or gain weight
  27. 27. Example: 1247 calories intake Breakfast: Pandesal 3pcs (100cal) + taho 1 cup (80 cal) + papaya 1 slice (40cal) = 220 Lunch: rice 1 cup (200cal) + adobo 1 cup (302 cal) = 502 Snacks: Donut (380 cal) Dinner: rice 1/2 cup (100cal) + bangus1 slice (45 cal) = 145 Walking slowly for 30 mins = 120 calories 1247 minus 106 = 1127 calories
  28. 28. What if I overeat? What if I like to eat a lot of donuts and sugary foods? 2426 calories 3 pieces of banana: 40cal/pc x 3 = 120 calories 2 pieces of donuts: 380cal/pc x 2 = 760 calories 5 cups of rice = 200cal/cup x 6 = 1000 calories Lechon baboy 100g = 546 calories
  29. 29. What activities will burn calories to target TCR of 1120? You need to burn 1306 calories How: Jog for 1 hour = 430 calories Swim for 30mins = 311 calories Aerobic dancing for 45mins = 297 Have sex 3x = 270 calories
  30. 30. Text Basic Principles in Dieting Avoiding Diet Mistakes
  31. 31. Text Do NOT rely on Crash diets -too fast -vegetable or fruits only -less than 1000 cal/day -metabolism slows down, body burns calories more slowly
  32. 32. Text Skipping Breakfast -this will make u hungry the rest of the day -unplanned snacking or supesized lunch -eat breakfasts high in protein and fiber
  33. 33. Text Losing Track of Your Snacks -take note of the nibbles in between -milk tea, cake, ice cream, pizza, donuts -mindless munching -use a smartphone or a notebook to keep track
  34. 34. Text Not Snacking at All -several small meals and snacks a day are more likely to control hunger and cause weight loss -snacking puts metabolism in high gear (esp protein rich snacks) -nuts are GOOD
  35. 35. Text Loading Up on Low-Fat -low fat is not the same as low calorie -eating too much of “low-fat” cake may have you end up with more calories than a smaller size of regular cake -always check the nutritional level
  36. 36. Text Sipping Too Many Calories -we tend to overlook what’s in our drinks -fancy coffee and alcoholic beverages have more than 500 calories -watch out for calories in fruit juice and soda -liquid calories don’t curb hunger
  37. 37. Text Drinking Too Little Water -water is essential for burning calories -dehydration drags metabolism = slower weight loss -more water = more calorie burn
  38. 38. Text Ditching Dairy -this may be counterproductive -body burns more fat when it gets enough calcium; it produces more fat when it’s calcium-deprived -calcium supplements do not appear to yield the same benefit -stick to non-fat or low-fat
  39. 39. Text Taking the Drive-Thru Bait -fast food is habit forming -fastfood 2x a week: 10 lb weight gain
  40. 40. Text Weighing Yourself Every Day -daily weighing leads to frustration -more important to look for a long-term trend (weekly) -full-pound drops are more motivating
  41. 41. Text Setting Unrealistic Goals -do NOT attempt to lose 20lbs in your first week -talk to a dietician
  42. 42. Text How to Stay on Track General Dieting Tips
  43. 43. Text Tip No. 1: Drink plenty of water or other calorie-free beverages. -people confuse thirst with hunger so they end up eating extra calories when an ice cold glass of water is all they really need -try flavored sparkling water or a cup of fruit-infused herbal tea
  44. 44. Text Tip No. 2: Be choosy about nighttime snacks. -snacking in front of the TV: one of the easiest ways to throw diet off course -close down kitchen -allow only low-calorie snack
  45. 45. Text Tip No. 3: Enjoy your favorite foods. -be a slim shopper -buy one fresh bakery cookie instead of a box -moderation is key
  46. 46. Text Tip No. 4: Eat several mini-meals during the day. -you will lose weight by eating fewer calories than you burn -but when you’re hungry all the time, this will be difficult -eat 4-5 meals/snacks per day
  47. 47. Text Tip No. 5: Eat protein at every meal. -protein is the ultimate “fill-me-up” food -protein keeps you feeling full for longer -seafood, lean meat, egg whites, yogurt, cheese, soy, nuts, beans
  48. 48. Text Tip No. 6: Spice it up. -food that is loaded with flavor will stimulate your taste buds and be more satisfying so you won’t eat much
  49. 49. Text Tip No. 7: Stock your kitchen with healthy, convenient foods. -have ready-to-eat snacks and meals-in-minutes on hand to avoid the urge to eat fast-food -frozen vegetables, whole grain pasta, reduced fat cheese, canned tomatoes, canned beans, pre-cooked grilled chicken breast, whole grain tortillas or pitas, bags of salad greens
  50. 50. Text Tip No. 8: Order children's portions at restaurants. -this is a good way to cut calories and keep portions reasonable -another trick is to use smaller plates -this helps the portions look more (if the mind is satisfied, so will the stomach be)
  51. 51. Text Tip No. 9: Swap a cup of pasta for a cup of vegetables. -reduction in the portion of starch and increasing the amount of veggies saves 100-200 calories
  52. 52. Text Tip No. 10: Always eat breakfast. -not eating BF can make you hungry later leading to too much nibbling and binge eating at lunch and dinner -try high fiber cereal, low-fat milk and fruit
  53. 53. Text Tip No. 11: Include fiber in your diet. -fiber aids digestion, prevents constipation and lowers cholesterol -women: 25g/day; men: 38g/day = 14g per 1000 calories -Good sources: oatmeal, beans, whole grain foods, fruits and veggies
  54. 54. Text Tip No. 12: Clean the cupboards of fattening foods. -Chips in the pantry and ice cream in the freezer makes weight loss harder than it has to be -Purge your cupboard of fattening foods -Walk to the mall/resto/snackhouse
  55. 55. Text Tip No. 13: Lose weight slowly. -dropping pounds take time -realistic goal: 1-2 pounds per week -health benefits start to appear when you’ve lost just about 5%-10% of your body weight
  56. 56. Text Tip No. 14: Weigh yourself once a week. -so as not to be derailed by daily fluctuations -weigh yourself at the same time of the day, on the same day of the week, and in the same clothes
  57. 57. Text Tip No. 15: Get enough sleep. -sleep deprivation: overproduction of ghrelin (appetite-stimulating hormone) and underproduces leptin (hormone that tells you when you’re full) -sleep makes you feel rested and full and keeps you from unnecessary snacking
  58. 58. Text Tip No. 16: Understand portion sizes. -use kitchen scales and measuring cups to measure meals for a week or two -use smaller plates and glasses to downsize your portions -split restaurant servings in half -portion out snack servings instead of eating them directly from the container
  59. 59. Text Tip No. 17: Eat more fruits and vegetables. -Best “diet”: eating more food, not less -it is important to feel full -choose smart snacks
  60. 60. Text Tip No. 18: Limit alcohol to weekends. -alcohol has empty calories -5oz glass of wine: 125 cal -bottle of beer: 153 cal -our body doesn’t use these calories well; they get converted directly to fat -try weekends only: 1 drink for women, two for men
  61. 61. Text Tip No. 19: Chew sugarless gum. -this manages hunger, control snack cravings, aid in weight loss
  62. 62. Text Tip No. 20: Keep a food diary. -writing down what you eat and drink tends to make you more aware of what, when, and how much you’re consuming -Study: food diary 6days/week lost 2x more weight than those who kept a diary one day a week or less
  63. 63. Text Tip No. 21: Celebrate success (but not with food). -buy a CD, watch a movie, go shopping, travel
  64. 64. Text Tip No. 22: Get help from family and friends. -tell your family and friends about your efforts -use apps: LIFT, LIVESTRONG, MYFITNESSPAL.COM
  65. 65. Text Food Frauds That Can Wreck Your Diet
  66. 66. Text Caesar Salad - 300-400 calories; 30 grams fat Food Fix: Use only 1 tablespoon of dressing and 2 tablespoons of tangy Parmesan cheese.
  67. 67. Text Fresh Smoothies -80grams sugar, 350 calories or more, little protein, no fresh fruit Food Fix: Get the small cup. Ask for fresh fruit, low-fat yogurt, milk, or protein powder to blend in protein and good nutrition.
  68. 68. Text Energy Bars -up to 500 calories; small size does not curb hunger Food Fix: Choose bars that have 200 calories or less, some fiber, and at least 5 grams of protein, which helps provide energy when the sugar rush fades.
  69. 69. Text Chicken Burrito -1000 calories, plenty of saturated fat - cheese, sour cream, fat in the jumbo flour tortilla Food Fix: Share one. Or try a soft taco with fajita-style grilled meats and veggies on a corn tortilla with tasty, low-calorie salsa.
  70. 70. Text Sugar-Free Foods -if it gives you the license to have a large order of fries or big dessert (adds 300 cal) Food Fix: Watch your total calories.
  71. 71. Text Enhanced Water -may have added 125 calories Food Fix: Refrigerating tap water may make it more appealing. Or try packets of crystallized lemon to add flavor without calories.
  72. 72. Text 2% Milk Whole milk (3.25%) = 150 cal., 8g fat, 5g sat. fat Reduced-fat (2%) = 130 cal., 5g fat, 3g sat. fat Skim (nonfat) = 80 cal., 0g fat, 0g sat. fat Food Fix: If you like whole milk, blend it with 2% for a while, then 1%, then skim, until you get used to the taste of nonfat milk.
  73. 73. Text 2% Milk Latte -whipped cream: 580 calories and 15g saturated fat (per 20oz white choco mocha) Food Fix: A sweetened, frothy beverage is a diet splurge. Limit the damage with nonfat (skim) milk and no whipped cream. You'll avoid 130 calories and two-thirds of the saturated fat.
  74. 74. Text Turkey Hot Dogs -variable fat content Food Fix: Compare nutrition labels for the lowest fat content. There are some really good choices now available. Or eat them only a few times a year.
  75. 75. Text Breakfast Muffins -muffins beat donuts (500 cal with 11 teaspoons of sugar) Food Fix: Go no larger than 2 1/2 inches in diameter. Or look for 100-calorie muffins at the store. Some brands are a surprisingly good source of whole grains and fiber.
  76. 76. Text Low-Fat Granola -low fat version only has 10% less calories and is still full of sugar -low fat label encourages overeating Food Fix: Look for low-sugar, whole-grain cereal, and sweeten it with fresh fruit.
  77. 77. Text Low-Fat Yogurt -some brands add lots of sugar (30g fructose, sucrose or other sweeteners) -compare plain to fruited yogurts Food Fix: Six ounces should be 90-130 calories and under 20 grams of sugar. Avoid sugary "fruit on the bottom" yogurts. Or blend sweetened yogurt with plain, nonfat yogurt.
  78. 78. Text Multigrain Products -check if they used “refined grains” such as wheat (this is stripped of natural fiber and many nutrients) Food Fix: Look for "100% whole grain" (oats, wheat) as the first ingredient. Or choose the brand with more fiber.
  79. 79. Text Light Olive Oil -light olive oil has the same calorie and fat content; it’s just lighter in taste and color Food Fix: Some light foods do help you save calories. Compare the labels in the store.
  80. 80. Text Added Omega-3 -they may not have EPA and DHA (they instead have ALA, which is not as beneficial) Food Fix: Try 6 ounces of salmon. It has 100 times more omega-3 than is in a serving of fortified yogurt. Vegetarians could consider algae-derived omega-3 supplements.
  81. 81. Text Iced Tea -20 oz bottle can have >200 calories and 59 grams of sugar -C2: 35 cal per 200grams Food Fix: Skip "sweet tea" in favor of unsweetened iced tea. Lemon or artificial sweeteners add zing without calories. Herbal and berry teas taste mildly sweet without sugar.
  82. 82. Text Microwave Popcorn -9grams fat into each “snack size” bag Food Fix: Compare nutrition labels, and get a lower-fat popcorn that has no trans fat at all. Sprinkle with Parmesan cheese or low-salt spice blends for added flavor without a lot of fat.
  83. 83. Text Iceberg Lettuce -the problem is in the dressing Food Fix: Add spinach or arugula to the mix. Crumble 2 tablespoons (100 calories) of blue cheese or feta on top. Then splash the salad with a little oil and vinegar to spread flavor without a lot of calories.
  84. 84. Text Salty Toppings -limit anything that comes out of a can; pass up cured meats; choose beans or tuna but not both Food Fix: Radishes, bell peppers, cucumbers, and other fresh vegetables are low in sodium. Rinse canned beans to remove a lot of the salt.
  85. 85. Text -small cup (4.5 oz) = 260 calories, 21g fat (mayonnaise) Food Fix: Some places make a healthier slaw, so ask for nutrition information. At home, try low-fat mayonnaise or mix with nonfat yogurt.
  86. 86. Text Banana Chips -1 oz =145 calories, 8g saturated fat (same as fastfood hamburger) Food Fix: Try a fresh banana: four times more food, 0 grams of fat, all for about 100 calories.
  87. 87. Text Super Snacks Snacks with 100 calories or less
  88. 88. Text 3/4 Cup Frozen Mango Cubes Saturated Fat: 0g Sodium: 0mg Cholesterol: 0mg
  89. 89. Text Apple Slices With Peanut Butter Saturated Fat: 0.8mg Sodium: 2mg Cholesterol: 0mg Don’t use more than 2 tsp of peanut butter
  90. 90. Text Nonfat Greek Yogurt with Honey Saturated Fat: 0g Sodium: 53.5mg Cholesterol: 0mg Protein: 12g per 1/2 cup
  91. 91. Text Yogurt With Sunflower Seeds Saturated Fat: 0.26g Sodium: 53.5mg Cholesterol: 0mg
  92. 92. Text 20 Pistachios Saturated Fat: 0.8g Sodium: 53.5mg Cholesterol: 0mg
  93. 93. Text Frozen Banana Pop (coated with plain yogurt) Saturated Fat: 0.35g Sodium: 3mg Cholesterol: 7mg
  94. 94. Text 1 Cup Tomato Soup Saturated Fat: 0.19g Sodium: 471mg Cholesterol: 0mg
  95. 95. Text 1 Cup Grapes Saturated Fat: 0.1g Sodium: 2mg Cholesterol: 0mg High in Vitamin K and Manganese, fiber
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  97. 97. Text Thank you for your attention!