45 years in cm (slide share2013)

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  • 1. Ray BeebeLessons learnt in 45 years ofcondition monitoring……..www.monash.edu.au
  • 2. Condition monitoring is a type of maintenance inspection whereoperational assets are monitored, on or off-line, and the dataobtained is analysed to - – detect signs of degradation, – diagnose cause of any fault, – predict for how long the items can be safely (or economically) run, and – lead to the root cause being identified and if economical, engineered out. www.monash.edu.au 2
  • 3. Predictive Maintenance is a process that requirestechnologies and people skills that integrates allavailable equipment condition indicators (diagnosticand performance data, operator loggeddata), maintenance histories and design knowledgeto make timely decisions about maintenancerequirements of important equipment. (EPRI) www.monash.edu.au 3
  • 4. My start: Yallourn www.monash.edu.au 4
  • 5. • Basic vibration analysis and balancing• Performance monitoring: turbines, pumps, boilers• Inspiring bosses gave me the CM virus! • Lesson #1 Choose your bosses well • Lesson #2 Plant new, or THE major asset? What is current hot issue for your management? Easier to get proposals accepted. www.monash.edu.au 5
  • 6. Hazelwood8 x 200MW (then) www.monash.edu.au 6
  • 7. New 200MW unit: erratic vibration. 38Case 1 weeks offline to fix!Example of how an image would be positioned.Please refer to 4.1 – 4.5 of the Brand Guidelines(www.adm.monash.edu.au/mapa/brand) forguidance on imagery. www.monash.edu.au 7
  • 8. Vector effect of loose mass is like a balancecalibrating run (simple vibration meter with tunedfilter/strobe used)PHASE gives the clue, e.g. – Time A: 100 μm www.monash.edu.au 8
  • 9. Vector effect of loose mass is like a balancecalibrating runPHASE gives the clue, e.g. – Time A: 100 μm – Time B: 50 μm Loose rubber bung inside rotor centre counter-bored www.monash.edu.au section! All bungs removed 9 –OK.
  • 10. Pump vibration so high that outlet valvewobbled shut. Operations tied it open! Solution – stiffen up bearing support to raise resonance away from rotation speed www.monash.edu.au 10
  • 11. • Lesson #3 Simple instruments andapproaches can do a lot.• Lesson #4 Use “5 Whys” right back to acomponent’s manufacture. www.monash.edu.au 11
  • 12. Case 2 Balancing mill wheel Timed-oscillation method, off- speed. Plot of swing times to find balance mass, location Typical vibration meter with tuned filter, strobe output for phase. Several balances gave sensitivity www.monash.edu.au (amplitude/phase), enabled one-shot 12
  • 13. Points at around normal duty are enough for CM.Case 3 So, ceased the long full Head-Flow testsExample of how an image would be positioned.Please refer to 4.1 – 4.5 of the Brand Guidelines(www.adm.monash.edu.au/mapa/brand) forguidance on imagery. Try using DCS to obtain data points, minimising special www.monash.edu.au tests. 13
  • 14. • Lesson #5 Review monitoringprocedures regularly: – Still needed? – Can be simplified? – Stretch interval ? www.monash.edu.au 14
  • 15. 2 years in UK (Babcock, Parsons, CEGB, plus several plant visitsin UK, Europe, USA. Wrote reports on return, bought advance vibrationanalysis gear. Application involved reps from our several power plants) www.monash.edu.au 15
  • 16. • Lesson #6 If worthwhile learning can only be obtained outside, make proposal, BUT ensure that only you can be selected!• Lesson #7 To get buy-in, involve locals deeply. www.monash.edu.au 16
  • 17. www.monash.edu.au 17
  • 18. • Lesson #8 Document the procedures, makeavailable to all• Lesson #9 Estimate costs/benefits and keeprunning score (sample period each year may beenough). Publicise your activities widely, but admitshortcomings. www.monash.edu.au 18
  • 19. • Lesson #10 Engineers do initial set-up well. Ongoing routine CM is better run by technicians.• Lesson #11 Check your cupboards for under- utilised equipment! www.monash.edu.au 19
  • 20. An FFT! One set of gear bought to be used by people at 6 sites - simple user manual written. www.monash.edu.au 20
  • 21. Case 4 High vibration on www.monash.edu.aubooster pump bearing 21
  • 22. Analysis showed vibration wasat main pump blade passfrequency.Cause diagnosed as acousticresonance. www.monash.edu.au 22
  • 23. • Lesson #12 Specialist test equipment needs regular owner, full-time skilled operators www.monash.edu.au 23
  • 24. • Lesson #13 Don’t fully believe the data unless it looks about right! www.monash.edu.au 24
  • 25. Case 5 120MW unit – generator trim balanced at speed after disconnected from turbine: exciter used as motor. But, massive vibration when returning to service… LP CouplingHPP Generator Gearbox and Exciter Journal bearings www.monash.edu.au 25
  • 26. Case 5 Note that generator bearings are longer than diameter- LPHP unusual… CouplingP Generator Gearbox and Exciter Journal bearings www.monash.edu.au 26
  • 27. At near to synchronising, vibration rapidly increased. Held on PEAK mode, found to be at rotor first critical speed….Vibration Vibrationvelocity increasing @ 19.5Hz 0 20 50 Vibration frequency Hz www.monash.edu.au 27
  • 28. Luckily, hadthis ESDU chart(IMechE research) www.monash.edu.au 28
  • 29. Lines of Recommended increasing area Load parameter W’ constant b/d 2 / W cdW 10 e Nbd d Original Oil 71°C operation Operation when 1.0 Bearing bearings Oil 40°C too short modified Increased risk of half- frequency whirl (Shorter bearings 0.1 fitted) 0.1 0.5 0.9 ESDU66023 Eccentricity ratio www.monash.edu.au 29
  • 30. Case 6 Reduced Valve Wide Open output found on test…. www.monash.edu.au 30
  • 31. Cause diagnosed asdeposition on blades.Steam Forced Cool had www.monash.edu.auwashing effect. 31
  • 32. • Lesson #14 Consider OEM recommendations carefully, but do not follow them blindly. www.monash.edu.au 32
  • 33. Case 7 Corrected VWO Output MW Comparison- high accuracy tests vs plant instruments 530 Upper points - accurate tests Lower points - DCS tests 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 31-Jan-93 28-Oct-95 24-Jul-98 19-Apr-01 14-Jan-04 Date of test www.monash.edu.au 33
  • 34. • Lesson #15 Find if plant instruments can give usable trend for CM. If a DCS or SCADA exists, then try data extraction and utilisation. www.monash.edu.au 34
  • 35. Post-overhaul – excessive vibration – but on bearinCase 8 cover, not on bearing as shown in control room 2” air gap to bearing www.monash.edu.au 35
  • 36. • Lesson #16 Do not believe everything you read in the control room! Verify actuality at, and inside, the machine. www.monash.edu.au 36
  • 37. • Lesson #17 Training is essential, at start and ongoing. Certification will help. I am Chair of CMSkills Peter Todd is Chair Condition Monitoring Certifying Board within the AINDT is working on processes (in Australia). www.monash.edu.au 37
  • 38. • Lesson #18 Share your learning via on-line forums, networking, conferences, articles for magazines , even a book (e.g. this session presented 6 times : USA, Asia and Australia) www.monash.edu.au 38
  • 39. www.monash.edu.au 39
  • 40. • Lesson #19 Make recommendations clear and concise:• Lesson #20 THE MAJOR ONE. Condition monitoring is not an end in itself, and should be applied along with other maintenance strategies as decided by an RCM or similar analysis. www.monash.edu.au 40
  • 41. Questions or comments? Thank you for sharing my 45 years in 45 minutes with around 45 slides! AND, thanks to all of the many who worked along with me! Happy monitoring! email for free papers raybeebemcm@gmail.com www.monash.edu.au 41
  • 42. • 55 000 students, 7 campuses• Gippsland campus at Churchill www.monash.edu.au 42
  • 43. The Lessons in full – Lesson #1 Choose your bosses well – Lesson #2 Lesson #2 Plant new, or THE major asset? What is current hot issue for your management? When a plant is new and/or the major asset makes it easier to get proposals for CM etc. accepted – Lesson #3 Correct and confident diagnosis is often possible without complex instruments. www.monash.edu.au 43
  • 44. -Lesson #4 Persist with the “5 Whys” untilevery possibility for a cause has beenexhausted - right back to the intimate detail ofa component’s manufacture.-Lesson #5 Review monitoring proceduresregularly, to find if a test or procedure is in factstill needed, or can be simplified, or have itsinterval stretched. www.monash.edu.au 44
  • 45. - Lesson #6 If you find that worthwhile learning for your organization can only be obtained outside it (whether in another country or not), make the proposal, but ensure that it is only you that can be selected to go!- Lesson #7 To get buy-in, involve locals deeply in any development. www.monash.edu.au 45
  • 46. - Lesson #8 For staff training and for briefing ofrelevant staff, document the procedures (includedigital pictures) and make them available to all onthe company intranet.-Lesson #9 To ensure continuity of the CMprogram, estimate costs/benefits and maintain arunning score sheet. Even if only done for a sampleperiod each year, worthwhile payback will be shown.Publicise your activities widely, admitting anyshortcomings. www.monash.edu.au 46
  • 47. - Lesson #10 Initial development of CM applications is well done or managed by professional engineers, but ongoing routine CM is better run by technicians whose career expectations are likely to be less ambitious. Trades/crafts people can also find this a fulfilling career.- Lesson # 11 Check your cupboards – you may have under-utilised equipment with as yet unknown capability! www.monash.edu.au 47
  • 48. • Lesson #12 Specialist test equipment needs to have a regular owner and full-time skilled operator• Lesson #13 Check, and recheck, critical data values if any look to be unusual• Lesson #14 Take OEM recommendations into careful consideration, but do not follow them blindly. www.monash.edu.au 48
  • 49. • Lesson #15 Assess whether the plant instruments can be used to give a usable trend for CM. If a DCS or SCADA exists, then try data extraction and utilisation.• Lesson #16 In critical cases, do not believe everything you read in the control room without verification of labels and actuality at and inside the machine. www.monash.edu.au 49
  • 50. • Lesson #17 Training is essential before starting CM work, followed by regular reinforcement via courses, conferences. Consider getting certification to verify capability.• Lesson #18 Share your learning via on-line forums, networking, conferences, articles in engineering magazines. www.monash.edu.au 50
  • 51. • Lesson #19 Make recommendations clear and concise: put the technical complexity in appendices.• Lesson #20 THE MAJOR ONE. Condition monitoring is not an end in itself, and should be applied along with other maintenance strategies as decide by an RCM or similar analysis. www.monash.edu.au 51