2STRESSSTRESSCosts companies an average of $ 1616 per employee per year.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
3STRESSSTRESSIf your company employs 100 employees then stress coststhe company $ 647 per day.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
4STRESSSTRESSIn an average lifetime the average employee loses one anda half years from work because of stress-induced illness.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
5STRESSSTRESSExperts in many different areas of medicine estimate that90% and 95% of all illnesses can be blamed totally ormainly on psychological forces.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
6STRESSSTRESSHas an effect on industrial efficiency and corporateprofits in a number of ways.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
7STRESSSTRESS5% to 10 % of company’s wages bill is paid to people whoaren’t working but who are at home, in hospital orconvalescing.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
8STRESSSTRESSCompany directors or senior management are seven timesas likely as clerical staff to have a heart attack, 5 times aslikely to have duodenal ulcers, 7 times likely to commitsuicide and nearly 20 times as likely to have a stroke.Source: Dr. Vernon Coleman Stress Management
9STRESSSTRESSMost pressure today is abstract and not real. It is notwhat is really happening around us that produces areaction. It is what we suspect might be happening. It iswhat we think is likely to happen. It is what we imagine.The damage is done through our brain.
10THE MINDTHE MINDScientists have proven that the mind exerts most of itspower through the medium of imagination.There is proven link between the well being of the bodyand the way the mind uses its faculty of imagination.Our bodies are affected by what we think had happened,is happening or is likely to happen.
11THE MINDTHE MINDIf the imagination can have such a powerful effect, itsstrength as a healing power must surely match itsdamaging potential.
12STRESSSTRESSIs the wear and tear on a person’s physical and mental states.Stress = Force + ResistanceForce = any adaptive demand made on an individualResistance = the tendency of the individual to resist change
13BURN OUTBURN OUTWith increasing stress, coping skills begin to deteriorate.As coping skills deteriorate, vulnerability to stressmultiplies and a vicious cycle ensues. It can result infailing mental and physical health and premature death.
14SYMPTOMS OF BURN OUTSYMPTOMS OF BURN OUT Depression Anxiety Insomnia Pain in the back Appetite disturbance Increased smoking Increased alcoholconsumption Abuse of drugs Increased caffeine intake
15SHORT TERM STRESSSHORT TERM STRESS Where stress is low you will findthat your performance is lowbecause you become bored, lackconcentration and motivation. Where stress is too high, yourperformance can suffer from allsymptoms of short-term stress. In the middle, at a moderate levelof stress, there is a zone ofoptimum performance, If youcan keep yourself in this zone,then you will be sufficientlyaroused to perform well whilenot being over-stressed andunhappy.PerformanceAreaStress LevelLow stressboredomHigh stressAnxiousness,unhappinessOptimum Stressofoptimumperformance
16THE EFFECT OF LONG-TERMTHE EFFECT OF LONG-TERMSUSTAINED STRESS ONSUSTAINED STRESS ONPERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE During the first phase you will facechallenges with plenty of energy.Your response will probably bepositive and effective. After a period of time you may beginto feel seriously tired. You may startto feel anxious, frustrated and upset.The quality of your work may beginto suffer. As high stress continues you maybegin to feel a sense of failure andmay be ill more frequently. You mayalso start to feel exploited by yourorganisation. At this stage you maystart to distance yourself from youremployer, perhaps start to look for anew job. If high levels of stress continuewithout relief you may ultimatelyexperience depression, burnout,nervous breakdown, or some otherform of serious stress related illness.PerformanceTime at high stressIntended performancehealthy tensionfatigueexhaustionill healthbreakdownActual performance
17BENEFITS OF STRESS MANGEMENT -BENEFITS OF STRESS MANGEMENT -FOR THE ORGANISATIONFOR THE ORGANISATION Reduced turnover (loss of valuable employees costs agreat deal of time and money to replace). Reduced sick leave, workers compensation and medicalcosts. Increased morale and decreased conflict, dissatisfaction. Enhanced performance, reduced errors, mistakes,accidents.
18THE PEP (Peak EfficiencyTHE PEP (Peak EfficiencyPerformance) ZONEPerformance) ZONE The size of this zone varies from person to person.Stress occurring outside this zone is distress and this isthe harmful stress. The objective of true stress management is to keepstresses in your life within this zone. This prevents itfrom becoming “distress”. Dealing with the symptoms is not stress management.Preventing distress is stress management.
19THE CONCEPTS OF STRESS INPHYSIOLOGICAL TERMS DESCRIBINGAROUSAL. Excitement = Emotional reaction which elevates cognitiveand physiological activity levels. Stimuli = Demands upon the system for physical orcognitive productivity.
20STRESSSTRESSIs of two kinds Eustress Distress
21KINDS OF STRESSKINDS OF STRESS Eustress = Positive exhilarating challenging experiencesof success followed by higher expectations. Distress = Disappointment, failure, threat, embarrassmentand other negative experiences.
22 Stress Reduction = eliminating the source of stress makingchanges, taking action. Stress Management = coping, recovery, re-interpretation,reframing cognitive restructuring.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRESSDIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRESSMANAGEMENT AND STRESS REDUCTIONMANAGEMENT AND STRESS REDUCTION
23STRESSSTRESSDifferences Stress = general concept describing a "load" on the system,usually external, with humans it is internal. Stressor = a specific problem, issue, challenge, personal conflict(External/internal). Stress Reaction = an individual response to a given stressor(physiological, behavioural, emotional, cognitive, signs andsymptoms). Strain = the prolonged impact of a/the stressor on the system(overload), fatigue, precursor to illness.
24BENEFITS OF STRESS MANAGEMENTBENEFITS OF STRESS MANAGEMENTTRAINING - FOR THE INDIVIDUALTRAINING - FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Learn to recognize and respond to early warning signs ofoverload and burnout (headache and fatigue). Learn new models of effective stress management and pickthose right for you ( lifestyle, symptoms). Become aware of the immediate physical signs of stress (cold,sweaty hands, nervous/tense).
25BENEFITS OF STRESS MANAGEMENTBENEFITS OF STRESS MANAGEMENTTRAINING - FOR THE INDIVIDUALTRAINING - FOR THE INDIVIDUAL Recognize and respond to emotionally distressing eventsin your life(change exposure if possible). Learn to recognize speech patterns that reflect"tension"(rapid, accelerating, staccato, couplets). Develop more efficient and relaxing breathing patterns toreduce tension (abdominal breathing). Discover ways to use these warning signs as signals tochange work or leisure circumstances to reduce stressors .
26 The greater the stress, the less likely that individuals cantolerate "ambiguity". Under increasing stress, there is a decrease in productivethoughts and an increase in distracting thoughts. The greater the stress, the greater the distortion inperception of threat and poor judgment often occurs. The greater the fear, frustration and hostility aroused by a"crisis", the greater the tendency to aggression and escapebehaviours.DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-1DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-1
27DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-2DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-2 In a stressful situation (whether real or perceived stress),only immediate survival goals are considered which meansthat longer range considerations must be sacrificed. The greater the stress, the greater the likelihood that adecision maker will choose a risky alternative. Groups experiencing substantive conflict more frequentlyemploy creative alternatives to achieve more productivedecisions than groups without conflict.
28DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-DECISION MAKING UNDER STRESS-33 The greater the group conflict aroused by a crisis, thenumber of communication channels available to handleincoming information decrease. During crisis, the ability of the group to handle difficulttasks requiring intensely focused attention is decreased. The greater the stress, the greater the tendency tomake a premature choice of alternatives for a correctresponse.
29ATTITUDES AT HIGH RISK FORATTITUDES AT HIGH RISK FORBURNOUTBURNOUT - I- I Having very high ideals. Always getting impatient/annoyed with others. Feeling only your ideas are RIGHT! Blaming yourself ("shouldering on yourself"). Having a tendency to always blame others. Feeling like you have to do every job for yourself.
30ATTITUDES AT HIGH RISK FORATTITUDES AT HIGH RISK FORBURNOUTBURNOUT - II- II Feeling equally upset with minor hassles, etc. vs.something more serious. Feeling you have more and more to do and less andless time to do it in. Accepting social obligations that you know you willnot have time for later. Spending more time and energy on trivial taskswhile avoiding the more difficult ones.
31STAGES OF BURNOUTSTAGES OF BURNOUTStage 1: Early Stress ArousalStage 2: Struggle & ResistanceStage 3: Exhaustion & Breakdown
32STRESS AROUSAL STAGESTRESS AROUSAL STAGEOverload and Burnout at Work Persistent irritability and anxiety. Bruxism and/or Insomnia. Occasional forgetfulness and/or inability toconcentrate.
33STRESS RESISTANCE STAGESTRESS RESISTANCE STAGEOverload and Burnout Absenteeism or tardiness for work. Tired and fatigued for no reason. Procrastination and indecision. Social withdrawal with cynicism. Resentful, indifferent, defiant. Increased use of coffee, alcohol, tobacco, etc.
34SEVERE EXHAUSTION STAGESEVERE EXHAUSTION STAGEOverload and Burnout Chronic sadness or depression. Chronic mental and physical fatigue. Chronic stress related illnesses (headache, stomach ache,bowel problems, etc.). Isolation, withdrawal, self-destructive thoughts.
35DEFENSE AND COPING MECHANISMSDEFENSE AND COPING MECHANISMSUsual Defence Repression (blocking out). Denial (refusal to accept). Displacement (take it out onothers). Projection (blaming others). Rationalization (excuses).Coping Strategy Letting go of the past. Maintain hope for thebetter. Take it out on a punchingbag. Help others get over it. Re-structure the incident.
36SIGNS OF SUCCESSFUL COPINGSIGNS OF SUCCESSFUL COPING The ability to carry out jobs effectively. Taking responsibility. Working well under rules and limits. Tolerating frustration. Adapting to change. Being reliable. Having a sense of belonging. Having a sense of humour and fulfilment. Being self-directed. Having a reasonable sense of self-reliance and independence.