4 approaches to creativity• Person• Process• Product• Press/Environment
PersonA creative person is different from an ordinary person. Hepossess unique capabilities like:• Seeing problems• Fluency• Flexibility• Originality• Elaboration• Inquisitiveness• Persistency• Risk-taking• Visualisation• ExtendingBoundaries• Humour
ProcessAccording to “Wallace” a creative thinking process involves• Preparation• Incubation• Illumination• Verification
According to “Torrance”creativity is a process ofenhancing incubation through• Heightening anticipation• Deepening expectations• Keeping it going
ProductA creative product must be• Novel• Meaningful• Useful• Aesthetic
PressA creative environment must be• Stimulating cum protective• Absent from premature criticism• Freedom for diversity• Opportunities to master techniques• Physical and financial facilities• Esteem for innovators
Principles for generating creativeenvironment• Be respectful for unusual questions• Be respectful of imaginative, unusual ideas.• Show your peers that their ideas havevalues.• Encourage experimentation without thethreat of evaluation• Evaluation with causes and consequences.
Blocks to Creative Thinking• Perceptual• Intellectual• Emotional• Cultural• Environmental
Perceptual BlocksThese blocks result from our mental set or predispositiontowards seeing the problem or situation in the way we want toor are used to.• Imposition of selfrestrictions• Unable to see theproblems from variedframes• Fixed mental set• Difficulty to establishremote relationships• Saturation of senses• Failure to utilise allsensory inputs etc.
Intellectual BlocksThese arise from our inability to restructure the problemand/or our existing knowledge• Preference for verbalforms• Inadequate use ofalternative problemsolving• Lack of correct relevantinformation• Inability to identifyhidden assumptions• Need for closure-forcingincomplete incorrectinferences etc.
Emotional BlocksThese frustrate our problem solving efforts and have onecommon source…FEAR. They might have their origin inchildhood experiences and are usually irrational.• Fear of making a mistake,falling or taking risks.• Fear of criticism, of beingchanged, of insecurity.• Inability to tolerateambiguity• Preference for judgingrather than generatingideas• Inability to incubate• Over motivation• Difficulty in visualisation
Cultural BlocksThese blocks derive sustenance from an over-anxiety toconform• Fantasizing is a wasteof time• Work and play cannotmix• Reason is rational,Intuition is irrational• Scientific thinking isTHE answer.
Environmental BlocksThese blocks arise outside ourselves and are the result of theenvironment about us• Compulsion towardsconformity• Boss’ idea is the best• Over reliance onexpertise• Frequent distractions
Multiple Intelligences• Linguistic – Skill with words (writers, publicspeakers and negotiators)• Mathematical/Logical – Skill in analysis and logic(scientists, economists, mathematicians andstatisticians)• Visual/Spatial – the ability to visualise and createimages in your mind’s eye (architects, navigators,artists and photographers)
Multiple Intelligences• Musical – The ability to create and identifycomplex patterns of sound (musicians,composers and lovers of classical music)• Kinesthetic – The ability to use the bodyskillfully – surgeons, athletes, dancers andpeople who are “good with their hands”)
Multiple Intelligences• Interpersonal- the ability to communicatewell (salespeople, gifted trainers and someparents)• Intra-personal – The ability to create one’sown goals and plans, to be reflective (toanalyse one’s behaviour as a guide to futureaction)
Ingredients of Creativity• Recognising patterns• Making connections• Taking risks• Challenging assumptions• Taking advantage of chance• Seeing new ways
Six common mistakes in logic• Jump to conclusions• Attack the person• Appeal to an authority• Think in “all-or-nothing” terms• Base arguments on emotion• Preconceived notions
Thinking CharacteristicsRoutine Thinking• Little new or unknown• Limited use of memory storage• Little redefinition and comparingof retrieved information• Logical and precise• Rigidity of ideas• Conformist• Passive• Stereotyped• Inhibited• Reassuring, certainty• High degree of “rightness”• Convergent thinking – directedtowards right answer or solutionCreative Thinking• Much new and unknown• Full use of memory storage• High degree of redefinition andexperimenting with retrievedinformation• Non-logical and approximate• Fluency of ideas• Spontaneous, flexible• Active• Original• Free-ranging• Confusion, uncertainty• “Wrongness” accepted• Divergent thinking –no precisesolutions but searching andexperimenting for further retrievaland learning
ActivistHaving an ExperienceMost Preferred• New Experiences• Ideas withoutconstraint• In at the deep end -challengesLeast Preferred• Listening to how to do• Data Assimilation• Solitary Work
Blockage to Learning - Activist• Short of time to plan or think• Preference to move quickly from oneactivity to another• Impatient for action• Reluctance to listen carefully andanalytically• Reluctance to write down things
Developing Learning Style -Activist• Practise observing verbal and non verbalbehaviour of others• Keep a diary and reflect on what you have learnt• Practise reviewing and summarising meetings anddiscussions• Offer to investigate a problem, research some facts• List the pros and cons of proposed actions
ReflectorReviewing the experienceMost Preferred• Stand back andobserve• Opportunity to reviewlearning• Making decision inown timeLeast Preferred• Instant reactionrequired• Given cut and driedinstructions• Pressed for time –rushed activities
Blockage to Learning- Reflector• Fear of failure and of making mistakes• Fear of ridicule• Anxiety about trying unfamiliar things• Strong wish to have everything wellthought out in advance• Self-doubt, seeking confidence• Taking life very seriously
Developing Learning Style -Reflector• Experiment with new behaviour• Practise starting conversations• Talk to managers from different functions• Force yourself into the limelight e.g. chairmeetings, make presentations
TheoristConcluding from the experienceMost Preferred• Structured situation• Clear Purpose• System or modeloffered• Chance to analyse andgeneraliseLeast Preferred• Emotional Situation• IncompatibleTechniques• Being out of tune withothers.
Blockages to Learning - Theorist• Preference for perfect rather than practicalsolutions to problems• Seeing even useful techniques as over-simplifications or gimmicky• Enjoying interesting diversions and being side-tracked• Leaving things open-ended rather than committingto specific action• Believing someone else’s ideas will not work inyour situation
Developing Learning Style -Theorist• Collect as many techniques as possible• Take the opportunity to experiment• If others do something well, try to modelyourself on them• Invite others to observe your techniques andgive feedback• Concentrate on producing action plans dailywhich are specific and have deadlines
PragmatistPlanning the next stepsMost Preferred• Linkages betweensubject and problemclear• Opportunity to tacklereal problemsLeast Preferred• Talk and Chalk• No apparent relevance
Blockage to Learning -Pragmatist• Taking things at face value• Preference for intuition and subjectivity• Dislike of a structured approach to life• Giving high priority to fun-lovingspontaneity
Developing Learning Styles -Pragmatist• Devote time to reading course material• Practise spotting inconsistencies inarguments of others• Plan discussions and meetings with clearagendas• Practise asking open questionsWhy? What? How?
Attitudes that kill creative ideas• Don’t be ridiculous• We’ve tried that before• We’ve never done itbefore• It costs too much• That’s beyond ourresponsibility• It’s too radical a change• We don’t have time• We are too small forthat• That will make otherequipment obsolete• Not practical foroperating people• The union will scream• Lets go back to reality
Attitudes that kill Creative thinking• Why change it? It’s stillworking OK.• You are two years aheadof your time.• We are not ready for that.• It isn’t in the budget.• Can’t teach an old dognew tricks• Top management will gofor it• We’ll be the laughingstock• We did all right withoutit• Let’s form a committee• Has anyone else evertried it?• Are our competitorsdoing it?• That’s not our problem
SCAMPER• Substitute• Combine• Alter• Modify• Put to other use• Eliminate• Reverse
Random Stimulation• This is a discovery approach to findingideas, looking in random places where wedetect no kind of parallel in the hope offinding something of value.
Random Stimulation – Step One• Select any product you want to improve• Write down the attributes of that product
Random Stimulation- Step Two• Choose any word at random from adictionary or from the list below:Barrack, tent, truant, blossom, cake, truck, fire, paper, lamp,shirt, cigarette, TV, cow, heart, gambler, book, bed,spectacles, bath tub, toothbrush, shoes, circle, sky, branch,glue, ulcer, cloak, weed, miracle, forest.• List the features or ideas that the wordbrings to your mind.
Random Stimulation – StepThree• Now force fit the first attribute of theproduct with the first attribute/idea of yourrandom word.• Do it for all the attributes you have listedfor the product.
Plant Analogy• Plants are the basic producers of all food. Theytrap solar energy and store it up as starch. To dothis they need water taken in through the roots andcarbon dioxide gas taken in through the leaves. Inaddition for healthy growth they need variousminerals from the soil which may have to bereplaced with compost or fertilisers. Plant systemsoffer many useful parallels for analysing thebusiness situation in fresh ways.
Plant Analogy• What kind of plant is our business most like – flower, vegetable,shrub, tree?• What is the sunshine of our business?• What cuts off the sunshine and shades the plant?• Describe the root system and explain how it spreads.• Are there any stones or layers of hardpan or rock that restrict theroot growth?• Does the plant get sufficient water; how can it be watered orirrigated?• Does the plant need fertilising, and if yes how this done?• Is there a natural limit to the growth of this kind of plant even ifno other plants compete? Explain.• Does the plant produce seeds?
Morphological AnalysisPowerSupplyBulbTypeLightIntensitySize Style Colour MaterialBattery Halogen Low VeryLargeModern Black MetalMains Bulb Medium Large Antique White CeramicSolar Daylight High Medium Roman Metallic ConcreteGenerator Coloured Variable Small Art TerraCottaBoneCrank Arc VerySmallEastern Enamel GlassGas Flame Hand Held Industrial Natural WoodOil/Petrol Ethnic Fabric StonePlastic
Story MakingMain Secondary Other Scene Body EndFather Mother Aunt House Character HappyUncle Sister Cousin CountrysideMurder SadFriend Neighbour Dog City RelationshipMysteryI Colleague Hospital Emotional Tragic
How to grow up Creatively GiftedE Paul Torrance• Don’t be afraid to “fall in love with” something andpursue it with intensity (You will do best what youlike to do best)• Know, understand, take pride in, practice, develop,use, exploit, and enjoy your greatest strengths.• Learn to free yourself from the expectations of othersand to walk away from the games they try to imposeupon you.
How to grow up Creatively GiftedE Paul Torrance• Free yourself to “play your own game” in such a wayas to make good use of your gifts.• Find a teacher or mentor who will help you.• Don’t waste a lot of expensive, unproductive energytrying to be well rounded (Don’t try to do everything.Do what you can do well and what you love)• Learn the skills of interdependence (Learn to dependon one another, giving freely of your greateststrengths and most intense love)