Biological Insect Pest Control for Greenhouses Brooke Edmunds, PhD CSU Extension-Adams County Regional Specialist,  Commer...
What is Biological Control? <ul><li>The rearing and release of living organisms that seek out and destroy organisms consid...
Why consider Biocontrol? <ul><li>Pesticide options are limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs & vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul...
Outline <ul><li>General biocontrol agents </li></ul><ul><li>Common biocontrol insects used in greenhouses </li></ul><ul><l...
Lysiphlebus testaceipes  Parasitoids
Predators
Beauveria bassiana  Pathogens
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora   Entomopathogenic Nematodes
Parasitoids Predators
Today’s Focus: <ul><li>Predators & Parasitoids </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator: In...
Specificity of biocontrols <ul><li>Most biocontrol insects are specific to a pest </li></ul>
Whitefly <ul><li>Silverleaf whitefly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator – none commercially available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Spider mites -know pest species <ul><li>Predators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neoseiulus   californicus  (mite) </li></ul></ul><...
Aphids -Know pest species <ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aphidoletes aphidimiza  (midge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pa...
Thrips <ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amblyseius cucumeris  (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><...
Generalists <ul><li>Orius insidiosus  (minute pirate bug) </li></ul><ul><li>Amblyseius swirskiis  (predatory mite) </li></...
Getting started: <ul><li>Accurate Pest ID </li></ul><ul><li>Most biocontrols are host-specific! </li></ul><ul><li>For help...
<ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>Scout pest populations before starting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are your pests? </li...
<ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Dependi...
 
Eggplant in Gerbera crop Photo: Cornell Univ.
<ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Dependi...
 
<ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Dependi...
Photos: UC Davis
Getting started: <ul><li>Educate yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Know biology/life cycles of pests & biocontrol </li></ul><ul><...
Encarsia formosa
Getting started: <ul><li>Start Small </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the ropes in a single house or with a single crop </li></ul><...
Getting started: <ul><li>Give biocontrols best chance for success </li></ul><ul><li>Screen vents to restrict pest entry </...
Getting started: <ul><li>Plan Ahead-Compatible Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible pesticides available to treat hot s...
Encarsia formosa  (parasitic wasp) Abamectin (Avid insecticide)
http://www.biobest.be/ click ‘side effects’ on top menu
Getting started: <ul><li>Select a Supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Is the supplier a member of the Association of Natural Biocon...
Local Sources <ul><li>No endorsements implied-FYI only! </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Gardens  www.hydro-gardens.com  (Colorado ...
Getting started: <ul><li>Insure quality during & after shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping & holding temp are important! <...
Getting started <ul><li>Insure quality during & after shipping: </li></ul><ul><li>Do counts if possible immediate on arriv...
Getting started: <ul><li>Know Release Rates & Timing </li></ul>
Getting started: <ul><li>Success = Patience & Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Biocontrol doesn’t produce instant results </li...
Resources <ul><li>Univ. of Wisconsin ‘Biological Control of Insects and Other Pests of Greenhouse Crops’   108 pp   ( http...
Resources-Suppliers <ul><li>Hydro Gardens  www.hydro-gardens.com  (Colorado Springs) </li></ul><ul><li>M & R Durango  www....
<ul><li>Brooke Edmunds, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>CSU Extension-Adams County </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Specialist, Commercial...
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Introduction Biocontrol Insects For Greenhouses

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This was a presentation given at the ProGreen 2009 expo on biocontrol insects for greenhouse production.

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Introduction Biocontrol Insects For Greenhouses

  1. 1. Biological Insect Pest Control for Greenhouses Brooke Edmunds, PhD CSU Extension-Adams County Regional Specialist, Commercial Greenhouses & Nurseries
  2. 2. What is Biological Control? <ul><li>The rearing and release of living organisms that seek out and destroy organisms considered to be pests </li></ul><ul><li>First known use: 324 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese growers strategically placed ant colonies to control foliar insects in citrus trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial biocontrol started in late 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>~30 species of insects available today </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why consider Biocontrol? <ul><li>Pesticide options are limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs & vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticide resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce risk of worker exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced re-entry times-better scheduling </li></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>General biocontrol agents </li></ul><ul><li>Common biocontrol insects used in greenhouses </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to getting started </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasitoids
  6. 6. Predators
  7. 7. Beauveria bassiana Pathogens
  8. 8. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Entomopathogenic Nematodes
  9. 9. Parasitoids Predators
  10. 10. Today’s Focus: <ul><li>Predators & Parasitoids </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator: Insect that utilizes other insects as a food source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite: Insect that requires another insect to complete it’s life cycle (eggs laid in other insect) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Specificity of biocontrols <ul><li>Most biocontrol insects are specific to a pest </li></ul>
  12. 12. Whitefly <ul><li>Silverleaf whitefly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator – none commercially available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eretmocerus eremicus (wasp) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse whitefly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator – none commercially available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encarsia formosa (wasp) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Spider mites -know pest species <ul><li>Predators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neoseiulus californicus (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoseiulus longipes ( mite ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galendromus occidentalis (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytoseiulus persimilis (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None commercially available </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Aphids -Know pest species <ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aphidoletes aphidimiza (midge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aphidius colemani (wasp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aphidius ervi (wasp) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thrips <ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amblyseius cucumeris (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None commercially available </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Generalists <ul><li>Orius insidiosus (minute pirate bug) </li></ul><ul><li>Amblyseius swirskiis (predatory mite) </li></ul><ul><li>Chrysopa carnea (lacewings) </li></ul><ul><li>Hippodamia convergens (lady beetle) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Getting started: <ul><li>Accurate Pest ID </li></ul><ul><li>Most biocontrols are host-specific! </li></ul><ul><li>For help with identification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CSU Extension Faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams Co. Greenhouse Plant Diagnostic Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet sources </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>Scout pest populations before starting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are your pests? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are your problems? Hot spots? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When do they occur? </li></ul></ul>Getting started:
  19. 19. <ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the species released: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for aphid mummies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for shriveled spider mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for blacken pupa </li></ul></ul>Getting started:
  20. 21. Eggplant in Gerbera crop Photo: Cornell Univ.
  21. 22. <ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the species released: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for aphid mummies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for shriveled spider mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for blacken pupa </li></ul></ul>Getting started:
  22. 24. <ul><li>Scouting </li></ul><ul><li>After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the species released: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for aphid mummies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for shriveled spider mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for blacken pupa </li></ul></ul>Getting started:
  23. 25. Photos: UC Davis
  24. 26. Getting started: <ul><li>Educate yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Know biology/life cycles of pests & biocontrol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is optimum environment for biocontrol? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity? Temps? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Create resource list & contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers, other growers, Extension agent </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Encarsia formosa
  26. 28. Getting started: <ul><li>Start Small </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the ropes in a single house or with a single crop </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term crops (i.e. Poinsettia) work better than short-term crops (bedding plants) </li></ul>
  27. 29. Getting started: <ul><li>Give biocontrols best chance for success </li></ul><ul><li>Screen vents to restrict pest entry </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect new plants/ quarantine </li></ul>Screen vents to restrict new pest entry
  28. 30. Getting started: <ul><li>Plan Ahead-Compatible Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible pesticides available to treat hot spots? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’) have great databases showing the effect of insecticides on biological control performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results are compiled from research studies so small-scale tests should be done </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Encarsia formosa (parasitic wasp) Abamectin (Avid insecticide)
  30. 32. http://www.biobest.be/ click ‘side effects’ on top menu
  31. 33. Getting started: <ul><li>Select a Supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Is the supplier a member of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers? </li></ul><ul><li>Have other growers you know dealt with the supplier before and been pleased with the service? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the producer provide information about its products? </li></ul><ul><li>Do packages arrive quickly (1-3 days), on time and in good condition? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the supplier a primary producer of the biocontrol insect, or a distributor? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the producer a firm that has been around for some years, or a small start up company? </li></ul>
  32. 34. Local Sources <ul><li>No endorsements implied-FYI only! </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs) </li></ul><ul><li>M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield) </li></ul><ul><li>Web search will turn up other sources </li></ul>
  33. 35. Getting started: <ul><li>Insure quality during & after shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping & holding temp are important! </li></ul>Shaker bottle of predatory mites mixed with vermiculite
  34. 36. Getting started <ul><li>Insure quality during & after shipping: </li></ul><ul><li>Do counts if possible immediate on arrival </li></ul><ul><li>If you receive a shipment of biological control agents and they are all dead: Call the supplier immediately to file a claim . </li></ul><ul><li>If the counts are low, let the supplier know before you discard the samples. A rep may want to examine the containers to find out what went wrong and how to remedy the problem. Complain about consistently low counts . </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a serious problem or you are having difficulty doing the counts, try to find an extension agent or pest manager to help you. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Getting started: <ul><li>Know Release Rates & Timing </li></ul>
  36. 38. Getting started: <ul><li>Success = Patience & Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Biocontrol doesn’t produce instant results </li></ul><ul><li>Requires intensive management </li></ul><ul><li>Takes more time </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between allowing biocontrol time to work and managing an insect outbreak another way </li></ul>
  37. 39. Resources <ul><li>Univ. of Wisconsin ‘Biological Control of Insects and Other Pests of Greenhouse Crops’ 108 pp ( http://learningstore.uwex.edu/pdf/NCR581.pdf ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers http://www.anbp.org/beneficialinsectprofiles.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible pesticides with biocontrols www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’) </li></ul>
  38. 40. Resources-Suppliers <ul><li>Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs) </li></ul><ul><li>M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield) </li></ul><ul><li>Koppert www.kopperts.com </li></ul><ul><li>Syngenta Bio-line </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Brooke Edmunds, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>CSU Extension-Adams County </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Specialist, Commercial Greenhouses & Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>303/637-8016 office </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.adamscountyextension.org </li></ul><ul><li>Click on Greenhouse & Nursery then Presentations </li></ul>
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