Lifelong Learning Programme Comenius I HUG YOU IN MY WORLD THE CULTURE DICTIONARYPOLAND PORTUGAL TURKEY 2009-1011 COMENIUS PARTNERSHIPS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 2
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 3 CONTENTSNATIONAL SYMBOLS ............................................................ 5LEGENDS ............................................................................. 13FOLKLORE .......................................................................... 23CUSTOMS AND FESTIVITIES .............................................. 47PLAYS AND FUNS ............................................................... 67MONUMENTS ....................................................................... 73
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 5 NATIONAL SYMBOLSI. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY POLISH NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE POLISH FLAGLong time ago, maybe a thousand years ago, three brothers, Lech, Czech and Rush hasspred in three sides of the world to create a new state.Lech went north. He walked a long time by a great impassable forests, which covered thetime our land, in this time tore through the oushes, marshes stayed, following the sun, or justover the water until it went out on the plain on the banks of the River Warta. Delighted withthe beauty of the country, land fertility, abundance of fish and game, he decided to stay hereand to build [...] a city.When he cut down the trees he, found a whole nest of white eagles. Lech took this as a goodomen, and chose the white eagle as a sign of war, a city that was built called Gniezno (fromthe word ”Nest”).Since then, the eagle is the emblem of Polish. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Coat of arms of Poland changed several times. Sometimes it was deprived of his crown,sometimes transformed into its shape.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 7 POLISH NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE POLISH NATIONAL ANTHEM Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła, Poland has not perished yet Kiedy my żyjemy. So long as we still live Co nam obca przemoc wzięła, That which alien force has seized Szablą odbierzemy. We at sabrepoint shall retrieve Marsz, marsz Dąbrowski, March, march, Dąbrowski Z ziemi włoskiej do Polski. From Italy to Poland Za twoim przewodem Under thy command Złączym się z narodem. Let us now rejoin the nation Przejdziem Wisłę, przejdziem Wartę, Cross the Vistula and Warta Będziem Polakami. And Poles we shall be Dał nam przykład Bonaparte, Weve been shown by Bonaparte Jak zwyciężać mamy. Ways to victory Marsz, marsz... March, march... Jak Czarniecki do Poznania Like Czarniecki Poznań regains Po szwedzkim zaborze, Fighting with the Swede, Dla ojczyzny ratowania To free our fatherland from chains Wrócim się przez morze. We shall return by sea Marsz, marsz... March, march...The text of the Dabrowski Mazurka was writtenin 1797 in town Reggio in Italy. I waswrittenby Józef Wybicki. It was a song with which they returned to their homeland - Poland.The first title was The Song of the Legions. Later it changed into Dabrowski Mazurka -and soit is now. This hymn accompanied Poles in all Napoleonic battles.After regaining independence national colors were established. The Act said: the colors ofPolish Republic will be white and red arranged white at the top and red at the bottom.Polish national symbols express love of country and national unity.There are signs of identity, honor, pride and dignity of Poland. They make us proud of ourcountry .
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 8 PORTUGUESE NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE PORTUGUESE FLAGThe Portuguese Flag was adopted by the revolutionary regime on October 5th 1910, andofficially implemented by law on June 19th 1911.The National Flag is divided into two main colors, dark green (two fifths) and red (threefifths). The green stands at the hoist. The national coat of arms (armillary sphere andPortuguese shield) stands at the division of the flag. SYMBOLISM OF THE FLAG The five shields represent the five Moorish kings defeated by D. Afonso Henriques at the battle of Ourique; Within the shields there are white spots embodying the five wounds of Christ. It is believed that Jesus appeared before D. Afonso Henriques prior to the battle and said "With this sign you shall win"; In Portuguese folklore, the seven castles correspond to the conquest of the Algarve, establishing Portugals unity; The armillary sphere is a symbol of the heroic Portuguese maritime tradition; Green symbolizes hope and is also related with the republican revolution; Red stands for the courage and the blood of those who died defending the nation.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 9 PORTUGUESE NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE PORTUGUESE NATIONAL ANTHEMThe Portuguese National Anthem is called "A Portuguesa". It was written in 1891 and latteradopted by the Republic in 1911. The music was composed by Alfredo Keil and lyrics byHenrique Lopes de Mendonça. A PORTUGUESAHeróis do mar, nobre povo, Heroes of the seaNação valente, imortal, Brave, immortal nation,Levantai hoje de novo Raise today once moreO esplendor de Portugal! Portugal‟s splendor!Entre as brumas da memória, Amidst the mists of memory,Ó Pátria, sente-se a voz Oh Fatherland, the voice is heardDos teus egrégios avós, Of your egregious forefathers,Que há-de guiar-te à vitória! That shall lead you to victory!Às armas, às armas! To arms, to arms!Sobre a terra, sobre o mar, Over the land, over the sea,Às armas, às armas! To arms, to arms!Pela Pátria lutar To fight for our Fatherland!Contra os canhões marchar, marchar! Against the cannons, march, march!
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 10 TURKISH NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE TURKISH FLAGThe flag of Turkey (Turkish: Türk bayrağı) is a red flag with a white crescent moon and a starin its centre. The flag is called Ay Yıldız (literally, moon star.) or Albayrak (Red flag). TheTurkish flag is referred to as Alsancak (Red banner) in the Turkish National Anthem.The flag uses the same symbols of the late flag of the Ottoman Empire which were adoptedin 1844 with the Tanzimat reforms; though the shape, placement and shade of the color vary. The geometric proportions of the flag were legally standardized with the Turkish Flag Law in1936. It reminds the flag of Tunisia during the Ottoman period.HISTORYThe current design of the Turkish flag is directly derived from the late Ottoman flag, whichhad acquired its final form in 1844.Ottomans used several different designs, most of them featuring one or more crescents, fordifferent purposes, such as the flag with green background signifying the caliphate. Duringthe late imperial period, the distinctive use of the color red for secular and green for religiousinstitutions became an established practice. In 1844, the eight-pointed star was replaced witha five-pointed star and the flag reached the form of the present Turkish flag; Red was thecolor of Umar I, the Caliph who ruled from AD 634 to 644 and was known as a greatconsolidator of the Islamic Empire. In the 14th century red became the color of the OttomanEmpire. The Ottoman Flags crescent moon was thicker than its current design.The origin of the flag is the subject of various legends in the country, some contradicting thehistorical knowledge about the Ottoman Flag.OCCURENCE OF TURKISH FLAGAccording to legend, known as a result of the collection after the Kosovo War in a pit in theblood of Turkish soldiers side by side with the arrival of the moon and said to consist ofYildiz. Building out of all the assumptions yet, this is one of the greatest opportunities to becaused by the Kosovo War, the history of the war side by side in the evening sky, Jupiter andMoon lived in one of the rare moments.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 11 TURKISH NATIONAL SYMBOLSTHE TURKISH ANTHEM ĠSTIKLAL MARġIKorkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al Fear not! For the red flag that proudly ripples insancak; this glorious twilight, shall never fade,Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son Before the last fiery hearth that is ablaze withinocak. my nation is extinguished.O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak; For That is the star of my nation, and it willO benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak. forever shine; It is mine; and solely belongs to my valiant nation.Çatma, kurban olayım çehreni ey nazlı hilâl! Frown not, I beseech you, oh thou coy crescent,Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet bu But smile upon my heroic race! Why the anger,celâl? why the rage? ¹Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helâl, Our blood which we shed for you will not beHakkıdır, Hakk‟a tapan, milletimin istiklâl! blessed otherwise; For freedom is the absolute right of my God- worshiping nation.DESCRIPTION OF THE TURKISH ANTHEMThe Ġstiklâl MarĢı (Independence March) is the Turkish National Anthem, officially adopted on12 March 1921 - two and a half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of theRepublic of Turkey, both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the TurkishWar of Independence, and as an anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established.Penned by Mehmet Âkif Ersoy and ultimately composed by Osman Zeki Üngör, the theme isone of affection for the Turkish homeland, freedom, and faith, of sacrifice for liberty, and ofhope and devotion, explored through visual, tactile and kinesthetic imagery as they relate tothe flag, the human spirit and the soil of the homeland.The manuscript by Ersoy, between the title line İstiklâl Marşı and the first text line, carries thededication Kahraman Ordumuza – "To our Heroic Army", the army that won the IndependenceWar. The lyrics reflect on the sacrifice of the soldiers during the War.The Anthem is regularly heard during state and military events, as well as during nationalfestivals, bayrams, sporting events, and school ceremonies.Of the ten-stanza anthem, only the first two quatrains are typically sung. A framed version ofthe national anthem typically occupies the wall above the blackboard in the classrooms ofevery public – as well as almost every private – school in Turkey (accompanied by a Turkishflag, a photograph of the countrys founding father Atatürk, and a copy of Atatürks famousinspirational speech to the nations youth).The composition has also been adopted as the National Anthem of the Turkish Republic ofNorthern Cyprus. A scroll displaying the first two quatrains of the anthem was depicted on thereverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1983-1989.
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THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 13 LEGENDSII. LEGENDS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 14 POLISH LEGENDSPOLISH LEGENDSTHE BAZYLISHLong, long time go in Warsaw, in the underground city, live terrible basilisk. He looked like acock, had bloody eyes, dragon‟s winks and lizard‟s tail. His skin was yellow-brown and coveredwith scaleń. His scary appearance frightened people.The monster had a terrible power- when he looked at his prey, it turnet into a stone. Basiliskusually hunt At night spreading among the residents great fear and terror. During the day hedidn‟t go from underground.- Basislisk gaze…- whisper people with the fear.They tried different ways to appease the Basilisk: spells, whispers holy water. All for nothing.There were also heroes who went to the dungeons, but they were turned into stones and didnot return.They were looping for an idea to defeat the monster. Every night, people disappeared andthere were more stones at the river.Finally, the mayor of the capital sent the bravest man to the dungeon. This man carried a mirrorand when the Basilisk looked in the mirror, it turnet into a stone. Good news quickly spreadaround the city.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 15 POLISH LEGENDSWARS AND SAWA (Warsaw)Long time ago in Poland grew huge forest, with wild animals, where people lived in small villages.In one of them, over Vistula River lived a young fisherman named Wars. He was a hard workingman. He built boats and made webs himself. He was lucky and always returned from fishing withfull nets. Wars liked to spent time at water and like listening birds sings. He liked to swim in theriver at night, he watched what is happening aroundOne night, he sat in the boat and accused Web, from the turbulent water, emerged a verybeautiful girl. She had long golden hair, big blue eyes and … a fish tail, covered with silver scales.Wars could not believe, but remembered childhood stories - It was a mermaid! Suddenly themermaid swam closer to shore and started to sing. She didn‟t know that someone was peepingher. Wars loved her, when he listening her voice.Since then, he could not wait see the mermaid. He didnt care that she didnt know who he was.One night, enchanted for her voice, he stuck his head to see her better. Surprised, the mermaidswimming to him and ask:- Why are you looking at me and listening my voice?- I am a fisherman…- he explained.- I know who you are, I saw you at the boat, but…- Yes, I know. I shouldn‟t‟ look at you, but the first time I saw you I felt love. - says Wars.- I love you, too, but we are different.They looked at each other and understand that they were made for each other.Then, the mermaid- Sawa remembered mysteries: When a mermaid falls in love and is loved bya man, she can become a woman.Wars asked to Sawa for her hand, she said “Yes” and Sawa became a beautiful woman. Warsand Sawa married and lived long and happy.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 16 PORTUGUESE LEGENDS PORTUGUESE LEGENDS GAIA A long, long time ago there was a story about love and war… A Christian king named Ramiro II, married to a beautiful queen named Gaia, ruled in the north (Galiza). In the lands at the south of the river Douro ruled an Arab king named Alboazar with his sister Zahara. The two kings had common businesses related to horses . One day, King Ramiro saw Zahara and felt in love with her. So, he decided to kidnap her. Alboazar got furious… One day his soldiers told him that Ramiro had left to fight a war and Gaia was under control of a few old tired guards and some chambermaids. Alboazar decided to kidnap queen Gaia and take her to his castle. And both felt in love. When king Ramiro came back home he didn´t find his wife and very displeased he decided to rescue his queen Gaia. He prepared then three galleys that should arrive by sea at Afurada (nowadays belonging to the city of Vila Nova de Gaia).They entered the castle, whose doors were open,without any difficulty. The Arabs were defeated andAlbazar was killed.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 17 PORTUGUESE LEGENDSAs the boats were shoving off, the queen dropped tears looking atthe castle where she had been happy with the king Alboazar.King Ramiro asked her: «Why are you crying» and queen Gaiaanswered «I cry for the love of the Moorish king you killed».Furious, king Ramiro said: «Soldiers, wound a rope around herhands and feet and tie her to a stone»and then he said to the queen«Mira (look) Gaia!Look, because you are doing that for the last time!».While he was saying that, he pushed her into the water of the riverDouro. The legend says that it was like this that queen Gaia died in the waters that flow through a place which nowadays is called Miragaia ( in Porto). King Ramiro returned to Galiza and married Zahara. He had a great number of descendents. THE “TRIPEIROS” (viscera eaters)In 1415, the ships and boats that would take the Portuguese to theconquest of Ceuta, and later to the Epic of Discoveries were beingbuilt on the banks of the river Douro in the city of Porto.The aims of this project was top secret and in shipyards rumorswere many and varied: some said that the vessels were intendedto carry Infant D. Helena to England, where she would get married,others said it was to take King D. João I to Jerusalem to visit the Holy Sepulcher and there were stillthose who ensured that the fleet was to carry Infants D. Pedro and D. Henrique to Naples to getmarried there...It was then that Infant D. Henrique appeared unexpectedly in Porto to see the progress of work and,although pleased with the effort, thought it could be done much more and he confided to master Vaz(the responsible for the construction), the true and secret reasons that were in the origin of this work:the conquest of Ceuta.So, he said to master Vaz that the people of Porto should do even more efforts and sacrifices.Master Vaz assured the Infant that they would do the same they made thirty years ago, when thewar with Castile: they would give all the meat and eat only the hogs‟ casings.This sacrifice gave the people of Porto the nickname "tripeiros” (viscera eater). Moved, D. Henrique told that the name "tripeiros" was a real honor for the people of Porto. This unusual heroic sacrifice of the "tripeiros" contributed with seven galleons and twenty ships to the large fleet of D. Henrique, that sailed to conquer Ceuta.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 18 PORTUGUESE LEGENDSTHE COCK OF BARCELOS According to this legend, the inhabitants of Barcelos 1 were very frightened by a crime which they never could find the author. One day, however, there appeared a man from Galicia who was suspected of having committed it. He was arrested and, notwithstanding his protestations of innocence, nobody believed him, when he said that he was on his way to S. Tiago of Compostela to fulfil a vow; that he was a fervent devotee of that Saint who, in Compostela, was venerated on a par with St. Paul and Our Lady. And so he was condemned to be hanged. But, before the execution, he asked to be taken to the presence ofthe judge who had pronounced the sentence. His request was granted, and they took him to thehouse of the magistrate, who was dining with some friends. The Galician, once again, protestedhis innocence and, to the amazement ofthose who were present, pointed to a roastchicken on the table and exclaimed «Assurely as I am innocent, that cock will crow ifl am hanged! »There was an outburst of laughter andcomments, but nobody touched the cock.And what seemed impossible actuallyhappened. When the pilgrim was beinghanged, the cock stood up on the table and crowed. No one any longer doubted the innocence ofthe condemned man.The judge rushed to the gallows and horrified saw the wretched man with the rope round hisneck, but the knot was caught and thus prevented him from being strangled.He was immediately released and sent on his way in peace. Years later, he returned to Barcelosand built the monument to the Virgin and St. James (San Tiago).1 1 Barcelos is a city next to Porto
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 19 PORTUGUESE LEGENDSLORD OF MATOSINHOS According to tradition, the image of Lord of Matosinhos2 is one of the oldest of all Christendom. The legend says that this image has been carved by Nicodemus3, who witnessed the last moments of Jesus life, being considered a faithful copy of His face. Nicodemus carved four more images but this one is considered the first and most perfect. This image is hollow because Nicodemus hid inside the instruments of the Passion4 - the Cross, the Crown of Thorns and the Holy Lance - in these times of persecution the sacred objects were hidden or thrown overboard to escape the fire. Nicodemus throwed the image to the Mediterranean Sea, in Judea, which was carried away by water, passed the Strait of Gibraltar and came to a beach in Matosinhos, losing an arm in the sea. The population of Bouças5 baptized the image of Our Lord Bouças and erected a temple. This image has been venerated for 50 years for his many miracles. One day a womanThe image is about two meters talland is extremely curious, because walked on the beach of Matosinhos to get wood for the fireplaceof the symbolic asymmetry of the when she found a different piece of wood.eyes. The left eye looks to Heaven At home, she throwed this piece of wood to fire but immediatelyand the right eye looks at theEarth, in a clear symbiosis it jumped out of the fireplace. The woman throwed it again to thebetween God and man fire and again it jumped out.The daughter of this woman was mute since birth, and withdesperate gestures tried to say something. Finally, and before themothers amazement, she spoke and said that this piece of woodwas the arm of the Lord of Bouças.Admired by this miracle the people found that the arm could fit the image, looking like it had never been separated from the image. In the sixteenth century, the image was moved to another church in Matosinhos, built in his honor and became known as Lord of Matosinhos. Nowadays, every year, a festival is held in honor of this Lord.2 Matosinhos is a city next to Porto3 Nicodemus is venerated as a Saint by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. He was a Phariseeand a member of the Sanhedrin and contemporary of Jesus Christ4 The Passion is the Christian theological term used for the events and suffering – physical, spiritual, and mental –of Jesus in the hours before and including his trial and execution by crucifixion5 Bouças was an ancient village. To this village belonged a small place called Matosinhos. Nowadays Bouçasdisappeared and Matosinhos grew and became a city.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 20 TURKISH LEGENDSTURKISH LEGENDSEPIC OF ERGENEKONIts a legend, tells about a story of Göktürks (skyturks).As thelegend tells,while Turks were living in middle asia,they lostthe war against their enemies and enemy killed every singleTurk.Only the "Il Kagan" s (the ruler) two sons, called Kayıand Dokuz Oguz found a way and fled.They ride for days andfinally found a place. A valley , which had beautiful rivers,nice fruit trees and a lot of hunting animals. There was onlyone way leading into this place.It was steep over themountains a horse could hardly walk through.They called thatplace Ergenekon and lived over 400 years there. After thattime they couldnt fit in and decided to get out. But they didnt know the way out. A blacksmithsaid the mountain has iron ore in it. So they set a big fire and feed it for days until they melt themountain for a passage.When they get out, a grey wolf led the way from the steep mountain way .They marched ontotheir enemies and captured their forefathers lands once again.OGHUZ KHAN According to legend, Oghuz is born in Central Asia, as the son of Qara Khan, leader of Turks. He starts talking as soon as he was born. He stops drinking his mothers milk after one time and asks for kımız(an alcoholic beverage made by horse milk) and meat. After that he grews up supernaturally fast and only in forty days he becomes a young adult. At the time of his birth, lands of Turks was preyed upon by a dragon named Kıyant. Oghuz arms himself and goes to kill the dragon. He kills the great dragon with his lance and cuts his head. After Oghuz kills the dragon Kıyat, he becomes a heroof the nation. He formes a special warrior band from the forty sons of forty Turk nobles. But hisChinese stepmother and half-brother who is the heir to the throne, become jealous andconvince Qara Khan that Oghuz was planning to dethrone him. Qara Khan decides toassassinate Oghuz at a hunting party. Oghuz learns about this plan and instead, kills his fatherand becomes the khan. His stepmother and half brother flee to China.After Oghuz becomes the khan, he goes to steppes by himself to praise and pray to Tengri(Sky-God). While praying he sees a circle of light coming from the sky and there is asupernaturaly beautiful girl in that light. Oghuz falls in love with the girl and marries her.He has three sons which he names Gün (Sun), Ay (Moon) and Yıldız (Star). Later, Oghuzgoes hunting and sees a supernaturaly beautiful girl inside a tree. He marries her and hasthree sons which he names Gök (Sky), Dağ (Mountain) and Deniz (Sea).
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 21 TURKISH LEGENDSAfter his sons are born, Oghuz Khan gives a great toy (feast) and invites all of his beys (lords).At the feast he gives this order to his lords:"I am became your Khan; Lets all take swords and shields; Kut (divine power) will be our sign;Grey wolf will be our uran (warcry); Our iron lances will be a forest; Khulan will walk on thehunting ground; More seas and more rivers; Sun is our flag and sky is our tent."Then he sends letters to the kings of four directions, saying:"I am the Khan of Turks. And I will be Khan of the for corners of earth. I want your obedience."Altun Khan (Golden Khan) on the right corner of earth submits his obedience but Urum(Roman) Khan of the left corner does not. Oghuz declares war on Urum Khan and marchs hisarmy to west. One night, a large male-wolf with grey fur comes to his tent in an aura of light.He says "Oghuz, you want to march against Urum, I want to march before your army". Thegrey sky-wolf marchs before the Turkish army and guides them. Two armies fought near riverİtil (Volga) and Oghuz Khan wins the war. Then Oghuz and has six sons carry out campaignsin Turkistan, India, Iran, Egypt, Syria, with the grey wolf guide. He becomes the khan of fourcorners of the earth.In his old age Oghuz sees a dream. He calls his six sons and sends them to east and west.His elder sons find a golden bow in the east. His younger sons finds three silver arrows in thewest. Oghuz Khan breaks the golden bow in to three pieces and gives to his three older sonsGün, Ay and Yıldız. He says: "My older sons, take this bow and shoot your arrows to the skylike this bow." He gives three silver arrows to his three younger sons Gök, Dağ and Deniz andsays: "My younger sons, take this silver arrows. Bow shoots the arrows and you be like thearrow." Then, he passes his lands on to his sons, Bozoks (elder sons) and Üçoks (youngersons) at a final banquet. (Abū‟l-Ghāzī identifies the lineage symbols, tamga seals and ongonspirit guiding birds, as well as specifying the political hierarchy and seating order at banquetsfor these sons and their 24 sons) Then he says:"My sons, I walked a lot; I saw many battles; I threw so many arrows and lances; I rode manyhorses; I made my enemies cry; I made my friends smile; I paid my debt to Tengri; Now I amgiving my land to you."THE GREY WOLFThe legend runs as follows. After a battle, only an injuredyoung boy survives. A she-wolf with a sky-blue mane namedAsena finds the injured child and nursed him back to health.He subsequently impregnates the wolf which then gives birthto ten half-wolf, half-human boys. Of these, Ashina becomestheir leader and founder of the Ashina clan that ruled theGöktürks and other Turkic nomadic empires. Thelegend has parallels with folktales of other Turkic peoples, forinstance, the Wusun and Kazakhs.An alternate of the legend runs as follows ... a Turkic village is attacked by Chinese soldiersand everyone is massacred, the commander takes pity on a small baby and only cuts his armsand legs, leaving the infant behind, as the army leaves, the general regrets his decision andreturns to kill the baby, but by then the baby had been rescued by a she wolf with a blue manenamed Asena. The she wolf nursed and mated with the baby and resulting in a half human,half wolf breed, predecessors to the Ashina clan of Gokturks.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 22 TURKISH LEGENDSTROĠAN HORSE Once upon a time, a long time ago, there was an ancient city named Troy. Troy was located on the coast of Asia, across the sea from the Greek city-state of Sparta. In those days, people used to build walls around their city to help protect them. Some walls were only a few feet high. Others as much as twenty feet high! The people built gates in the wall. The gates could be opened to let people inside the city. In times of war, the gates could be closed and locked to stop intruders from getting inside. Along the wall, inside of the city, a set of stairs wound up to thetop. Warriors could stand at the top of the stairs and shoot arrows down at intruders who weretrying to get inside the city. There were also holes built high on the wall. Archers could shootarrows though the holes as well. If the wall was high enough and strong enough, it could do apretty good job keeping intruders from coming inside.The walls around Troy were very high and very strong. According to the legend of TrojanHorse, for ten long years, the Greeks had been trying to get over the wall around the city ofTroy. But the Greeks could not get over the wall. And the Trojans could not drive the Greeksaway. Year after year they fought. And year after year, neither side won.One day, a Greek general, Odysseus, had a tricky idea. "Lets pretend to sail away," hesuggested. "Well leave a gift for Troy, a gift to announce the end of the war, a wooden horsewith 30 men hidden inside. At night, these men can sneak out and open the gate of Troy!" Thatwas the way things were done back then. When you admitted defeat, you supplied a gift. Itcould be a gift of money, art, slaves, anything really. It made sense to leave a gift of art. TheGreeks were famous for their art.The Greeks thought it was a brilliant idea. They had their best artists build the horse. It was amagnificent horse. When it was ready, the Greeks brought the huge wooden horse as close toTroys city gates as they could get without being shot full of arrows. The Greeks pretended tosail away.When the Trojan archers at the top of the stairs saw the Greeks leaving, they could not believetheir eyes. Were the Greeks giving up at last? Had the Trojans won the war? It certainlyappeared so! The Trojans dragged the horse inside their city and closed the gates.Some people wanted to burn the horse, which would have been a sad fate for the Greeksoldiers hidden inside. But the Trojan people said, "NO! Its too beautiful! Well keep it foreveras a reminder of our victory!" (The Greeks had counted on that reaction. The Greeks might befamous for their art, but the Trojans were famous for their bragging. The Greeks were sure theTrojans would want to display the magnificent horse. Sure enough, thats exactly whathappened, or so legend says.).That night, while the Trojan people slept soundly, exhausted from their celebrations, the 30Greek men hidden inside the wooden horse climbed out and opened the gates of Troy and letthe Greek army inside. That was the end of Troy.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 23 FOLKLORE III. FOLKLORE- word which defines folk, village, culture –
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 24 FOLKLORE: OTHER LANGUAGES AND SAYINGSGwara” – a native language of certain polish population groupsMirandês - The Mirandese language is a Romance language sparsely spoken in a smallarea of northeastern Portugal, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro andVimioso. The Portuguese Parliament granted it co-official recognition (along with thePortuguese language) for local matters on 17 September 1998. Mirandese has a distinctphonology, morphology and syntax, and has been distinct at least since the formation ofPortugal in the 12th century. It has its roots in the spoken Latin of the north of the IberianPeninsula.Atasözü(Sometimes, it can be used as „DEYĠġ‟)- The sayings of old Turkish ancients.They are said whenever the suitable siuation is present. SAYINGS ENGLISH POLISH PORTUGUESE TURKISHThe appetite grows Quanto mais sewith eating. come, mais fome se tem.No pain, no gain Bez pracy nie ma Sem trabalho não há Cefa çekmezsen sefa kołaczy pão. süremezsinYou can wait till the Czekaj, tatka, latka Podes esperarcows come home sentado.Where theres Gdzie drwa rąbią, Não há fumo sem Ateş olmayan yerdensmoke, theres fire tam wióry lecą fogo. duman çıkmazIn unity, there is Kropla do kropli i A união faz a força. Birlikten kuvvet doğarstrength będzie morzeA bird in the hand is Lepszy wróbel w Mais vale umworth two in the garści niż gołąb na pássaro na mão quebush. dachu. dois a voar.Like talking to the Gadał dziad do Estar a falar para as Sanki duvarawall. obrazu, a obraz do paredes. konuşuyorum niego ani razuWhen the cats Myszy harcują, gdy Patrão fora, dia santoaway, the mice will kota nie czują na loja.play.Rome wasnt built Nie od razu Kraków Roma e Pavia não se Dünya bir gündein a day zbudowano fizeram num dia. kurulmadıThe eyes are the Os olhos são o Gözler, kalbinmirror of the soul. espelho da alma. aynasıdırAlls well that ends Wszystko dobre, co Tudo está bemwell się dobrze kończy quando acaba bem.Make ones bed and Quem faz a cama Ayağını yorganınalie in it deita-se nela. göre uzatBetter late than Lepiej późno niż Mais vale tarde que Geç olsun, güçnever wcale nunca. olmasınOne hand washes Ręka rękę myje Uma mão lava athe other (Rączka rączkę myje) outra.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 25 FOLKLORE: POLISH HANDICRAFTPOLISH HANDICRAFT Paper Cut Embroidery Sculpture
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 29 FOLKLORE: POLISH COSTUMES AND DANCINGSPOLISH COSTUMES AND DANCINGS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 30 FOLKLORE: POLISH COSTUMES AND DANCINGSpolonez krakowiak mazurka
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 31 FOLKLORE: PORTUGUESE COSTUMES AND DANCINGSPORTUGUESE COSTUMES AND DANCINGS Viana (newlyweds) Viana Trás-os-Montes Madeira Mirandas Pauliteiros Ribatejo
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 32 FOLKLORE: TURKISH COSTUMES AND DANCINGSTURKISH COSTUMES AND DANCINGSZeybek Caucasian dance Spoon dance Kolbastı Halay Seymen folk dance Sword-shield dance Horon Hora
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 33 FOLKLORE: POLISH DISHESPOLISH DISHES “ Borsch” is prepared on the basis of leaven of flour. It characterizes with sour taste. It is usually served with eggs and sausage . Decoction of cooked chicken, served with pasta. Czernina – soup based end broth and blood of ducks or geese. Served with pasta or potatoes. Soup based on barley groats with vegetables and pieces of smoked meat. “Bigos” this is a dish of cabbage and meat. This is traditional dish not only in Polish cuisine but also in the cuisine of Lithuanian and Belorussian.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 34 FOLKLORE: POLISH DISHESWhite sausage served with dill pickles. On Ester breakfast it isserved with “white borsch”.Dill pickles are cucumbers that arise in a barrel made with thestalks. They are fundamental component of cucumber soup. Usedas addition to sandwich, salad, meat dishes, it is also a kind ofsnack.Lard is the animal fat. It is most often served with pork lard.“Oscypek”. It is hard cheese made from sheeps milk characteristicfor mountains. It is characteristic Polish regional product.Chopped pork is a pork cutlet. Usually it is served with potatoesand salad.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 35 FOLKLORE: POLISH DISHES Roast duck with apples. Grilled or baked pieces of sausage prepared of buckwheat and pork blood. Cakes of raw potatoes, fried in oil. Pancakes served with jam, cottage cheese or fruits and whipped cream.Cake based on curd.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 36 FOLKLORE: POLISH DISHES Buds are spongy yeast cake with flour, often stuffed with jam, fruit or pudding. It is powdered with sugar or poured with chocolate. Cake with apples, sometimes served with whipped cream or ice cream. Cake filled with ground poppy seeds.CHRISTMAS FOOD Mushroom soup as the name suggests itself consists of the mushrooms and chopped pieces of greens. Fruit soup consists on dried fruit. There are apples, plums, cherries, strawberries. This is traditional polish Christmas dish.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 37 FOLKLORE: POLISH DISHESCarp is one of twelve dishes on eve table. It should be prepared byhostess. Carp scales fortunes inflow of money throughout the year.Herring, mostly served with onion or cream.To cooked sauerkraut cabbage it is necessary to add cooked peas. Itshould be served with glassy onion. If we want we can add dried fruit toit.It‟s one of the twelve Christmas Eve dishes. This dish consists ofnoodles combined whit poppy seeds with honey and dried fruit.Dumplings do not occur only in Poland, but also like in Russia, Ukraine.They may have a meet filling fruits, mushroom or cabbage.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 38 FOLKLORE: PORTUGUESE DISHES PORTUGUESE DISHES SOUPS CABBAGE AND POTATO SOUP (CALDO VERDE) Ingredients Preparation 5 medium potatoes Peel and cut up potatoes, and boil 1478.68 ml water in salted water, with garlic. 3 clove garlic, peeled 2 When soft, mash and add olive oil 59.16 ml olive oil and cabbage or kale. 113.39 g cabbage or 3 Boil uncovered for about 3 113.39 g kale, kale is minutes. traditional, finely 4 Season to taste. shredded 5 Serve in bowls with a drop of olive salt oil in the bottom of each. MAIN DISHES: FISH BRAZ CODFISH (BACALHAU À BRAZ) Ingredients Preparation 3 piece cod, cooked and Fry chopped onion and garlic in oil. cooled and shredded into bite- 2 When cooked, add shredded, size pieces (make sure to cooled, cod fish. remove bones and skin) 3 Fry for about 5-6 minutes. 1-2 onion, chopped finely 4 Add beaten eggs, salt and pepper 2 garlic cloves, chopped to taste. finely 5 Cook until eggs are cooked. 59.16 ml good quality extra 6 Place on a platter and sprinkle virgin olive oil parsley over top. salt and pepper 7 Use lemon pieces as a garnish. fresh parsley, chopped finely 3 eggs, beaten GOMES DE SÁ COD (BACALHAU À GOMES DE SÁ) Ingredients Preparation: 907.18 g salt cod fish 1. Preheat your oven at 200°C. (1kg, soaked, cooked, 2. Cover the peeled potatoes in water de-boned, flaked) and boil until they are just cooked 59.16 ml olive oil though, then drain the water and cut 2 large onions (diced) them into thin slices and then cut them 4 garlic cloves further into approximately 1 inch x 1 4.92 ml nutmeg inch ( 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm) bits. It doesnt 6 large potatoes have to be really precise, just so that 6 hard-boiled eggs the potato slices are in small bits parsley roughly all the same size.3. Put the olive oil into a fry pan and gently saute the onion and garlic until golden but not browned.4. Peel the hard boiled eggs and roughly chop 5 of them, but carefully slice the last egg into rounds for decoration.5. Mix, but dont mash! the flaked, cooked, salt cod with the potato, onion and garlic mixture, then add the nutmegand parsley. If the mixture is too dry, a very small amount of water can be added to make it only just stick together.6. MAINthe mix into:aMEAT Spoon DISHES baking dish and lay out the decorative egg rounds on the top.Cover with foil and bake for 20 minutes until it is completely warmed though.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 39 FOLKLORE: PORTUGUESE DISHES BEAN STEW (FEIJOADA) Ingredients 2 pounds dried red or white kidney beans, rinsed ½ pound chunk fresh smoked ham 1 pound “linguiça” sausage ½pound “salpicão” sausage 1 pig‟s knuckle ¼ cup olive oi l 1 large onion, chopped ½ cup freshly chopped parsley 1 bay leaf and 2 cloves garlic ½ teaspoon ground white pepper Generous pinch crushed dried chili pepper 1 tablespoon sweet paprika Preparation Day ahead:1 Soak beans overnight in a bowl of coldwater, enough to cover by 2 inches. 2. Place the meats in a separate bowl and cover with water. Keep both bowl in the refrigerator. The Day: 1. Drain the beans, rinse and place in a large pot with enough water to cover by 1- inch. Cover and bring the contents to a boil over medium-high heat. Once it starts to boil, reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer for about 45 to 55 minutes. 2. While the beans are cooking, Transfer the meat into a separate large pot and cover with water. Bring the meat to a boil as well and then reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer until the meats are done, about 45 minutes. As the meats become tender, remove them from the pot and cut into slices or chunks and set aside. 3. In a skillet, heat the oil until it is hot but not smoking. Toss in the onions and sauté them until they are lightly golden. Add the remaining spices and aromatic herbs, stirring to blend well. When the beans are fork tender, mash about a cup and stir in the onion sauce followed by the sliced meat. Stir well, heating the meats through. Serve with cooked rice. TRIPE WITH WHITE BEANS (TRIPAS À MODA DO PORTO ) Ingredients 2 bay leaves 3 cloves of garlic 400g butter bean 200g onions 500g veal‟s tripe Salt and Pepper 1 pig‟s trotter 1 carrot ½ veal‟s trotter 100 ml olive oil 200g fat dry-cured ham 1 tbsp pork‟s lard 200g sausage 1 tbsp paprika ½ fat chiken 2 cloves 1 chouriço 1 tbsp cuminPreparation:1.After carefully washing the tripe, rub it with white salt and marinate for an hour in vinegar, water and lemon‟s juice.2.Wash it repeatedly, put it in a pan with water and boil for an hour3.Drain the water, add the chicken and the veal‟s trotter to the tripe and boil again until the chicken is done4.Remove the chicken and continue boiling the tripe and the veal‟s trotter5.Boil the butter beans and the pig‟s trotter separately6.Brown the minced onions and the cloves of garlic in olive oil and pork‟s lard. Add the sliced carrot, “chouriço” andthe diced dry-cured ham. Stew for a while7.Add the cut, well-done tripe, the chopped pig‟s and veal‟s trotters, stew for a little longer and then add the tripeand the chicken‟s drippings OTHER the beans8.Finally, addDISHES and cook to allow flavors to develop Serve the tripe covered with shredded chicken andsprinkled with cumin. Serve with white rice.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 40 FOLKLORE: PORTUGUESE DISHESPORTUGUESE SALT CODFISH FRITTERS (BOLINHOS DE BACALHAU) Ingredients Preparation: 1. Rinse the cod well, under the tap, to 10 ounces thick salted cod wash away some of the surface salt, 14 ounces floury (starchy) and place it in a roomy bowl, covering it potatoes with cold water. Change the water 4 to 5 1 small onion, very finely times for a period of 12 hours (for very chopped thin cuts) to 24 hours (for thicker cuts). 2 tablespoons finely chopped Before cooking taste a few strands to parsley make sure it‟s not overly salty, although 3 large eggs it should retain some saltiness, or it will be too bland. Preparation: 2. Boil the potatoes (in their skins, for preference, so they do not absorb water); peel them and mash or sieve. Set aside. 3. Meantime, simmer the cod in enough boiling water to cover it, until tender (about 20 minutes). Drain, discard the skin and bones and flake it as much as you can with your fingers, then with a fork, to reduce it to threads. (The proper way of doing this is to place the flaked cod inside a clean cloth, fold it and squeeze and pound the contents of the cloth with your fists. In this way you will have mashed cod.) 4. Mix this mass with the mashed potatoes and add the eggs, one by one, and then the onion and parsley. Taste for salt but you may not need to add any, as the cod itself retains enough saltiness, in spite of being soaked and boiled. (Avoid having cod cakes that are too salty). The mixture should be quite stiff, enabling a spoon to stand up in it. If you find it excessively dry, add one or two tablespoons of milk. Allow this to cool completely before deep frying, as you would deep fry fish or chips. 5. With two tablespoons, shape the fishcakes like large eggs and place in the hot oil (370°F/190°C), turning them three or four times to get nicely browned all over. When cooked, lift them with a big fork or slotted spoon and place them on kitchen paper, to absorb excess fat. Go on molding and frying until you use up the mixture.“FRANCESINHAS” The Sauce: Ingredients Ingredients for one sandwich: 3 large onions, coarsely chopped 1/2 cup olive oil o 2 slices of sandwich bread 1 cup water o 2 ounces sandwich steak, thinly 2 bay leaves sliced 1 pound ham, cut in pieces o 2 ounces linguica or chourico 7 tablespoons flour sausage 1 beer 3 ounces whisky,or brandy o 4 thin slices of cheese 1 tablespoon tomato paste o 1 poached or scrambed egg Piri piri hot sauce and saltPreparation:Make the sauce ahead.Fry the onions in the olive oil until translucent. Add the water, bay leaves and meats. Sauté the beef, sausageand ham for about 2 minutes each side. When the meats are done, transfer to a dish and remove the bayleaves from the pan. Puree the remaining contents of the pan. Return the pan to the heatUsing the beer, dissolve the flour and tomato paste into a cup, followed by the whisky or brandy, salt, hotsauce. Mix thoroughly, add to the pan and bring to a simmer.Place 1 slice of toasted bread on a plate or small bowl. Top it with the beef slices, sausage, sliced lengthwisefollowed with a scrambled egg if using. Add the top slice of bread followed by placing the slices of cheese ontop and on the sides. If you prefer a poached egg, add it on top of the last slice of bread.Spoon the very hot sauce over the top and sides of the sandwich, melting the cheese. Serve immediately. Youwill need a fork and knife. You can freeze the extra sauce.DESSERTS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 41 FOLKLORE: PORTUGUESE DISHESPORTUGUESE SWEET RICE (ARROZ DOCE) Ingredients Preparation 2 cups water Bring water to a boil in medium saucepan. Add 1 cup white rice rice and cover, simmering for 20 minutes. 2 cups hot milk Add milk, sugar and lemon rind, stirring constantly (whole works until thickened to oatmeal consistency, about 15- best) 20 minutes. 1 cup sugar It will also thicken some while cooling. 1 fresh lemon rind Pour into one large serving plate and remove lemon rind. Spread flat and allow to cool on wire rack. You can be decorative with cinnamon by pinching a bit between your fingers and place while your hand is no more than an inch away from the rice (criss cross patterns are traditional), or you can just dust the entire top with the cinnamon. Serve at room temp, but refrigerate uneaten portion.PORTUGUESE CUSTARDS (PASTÉIS DE NATA)The original recipe for Pasteis de Nata were invented by two Catholic sisters in the convent at theMosteiro dos Jerónimos and called Pasteis de Belem, since then the secret recipe has been heavilyguarded. Around 1837, clerics from the monetary, set up Casa Pastéis de Belém, the first shop to sell the pasteis, in order to raise money for the monastery that took centuries to build and today is an UNESCO heritage site. At the time the monetary and shop were easily accessible by ship, allowing tourists to quickly become familiar with Pasteis de Belem, and the news spread quickly. Today, Pasteis de Belem are more commonly known around the country as Pasteis de Nata, and only the original Pasteis de Belem carry the name. The original shop also remains standing today and the Pasteis de Belem are still said to be the best Pasteis de Nata can be served warm or cold, but highly recommended with a good sprinkle of cinnamon on top and they can accompany anice Port or MadeiraDRINKSPORT WINE Port Wine can be drunk at all times: before a meal (toasted almonds, smoked salmon, dry plums or dates are the perfect company), during a meal (roast meats and steak with rich sauces go beautifully with an LVB), towards the end of a meal (with fruits, sweets and cheeses), after the meal (with your coffee or drunk on their own). Serving temperatures White Port: 6-10ºC Ruby style Port: 12-16ºC Tawny style Port: 10-14ºC Be careful: Verify if the bottle contains the appellation of origin Port (or its translations); - Verify if the bottle contains the guarantee seal issued by IVDP (this seal has security elements); - Verify it the label contains the indication “Produced in Portugal”. - Note: all of these elements are compulsory and, therefore, must be on the labelling of the Port wine bottles.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 42 FOLKLORE: TURKISH DISHESTURKISH DISHESMAIN DISHESTANDIR KEBAB Ingredients: (Servings: 30) Onions 10 large size 1 kg Salt 5 tablespoon 60 grams Black pepper 2 teaspoon 4 grams Thyme 2 tablespoon 3 grams Whole lamb 1 small size 8 kg (meat and bones only) Tomato paste 2 tablespoon 20 grams Yogurt 1 cup 220 gramsPreparation :Peel the onions, chop finely or grate, add salt, black pepper and thyme and rub the lamb inside and outwith this mixture. Spread the lamb well on the outside with a yogurt and tomato paste mixture. Place anuncovered kettle full of water at the bottom of the tandir, which is preheated and has coal embers at thebottom. Suspend the lamb over tandir so that it does not touch the bottom. Close the lid of tandir andseal it with dough, leaving to cook for about 2 hours. As tandir (an underground brick oven) cannot bereadily found everywhere, you can first cook the lamb in a covered large kettle with about 2 cm. wateron the bottom over low heat. Then spread it first with the onion - spice and then yogurt- tomato pastemixture and place in a large baking pan. Bake it in oven, adding the cooking liquid of the meat. Ingredients: Measure AmountTURKISH RAVIOLI (MANTI) Flour 5 cups 550 grams Salt 3 tablespoons 36 grams Eggs 2 100 grams Water 10 2/3 cups 2125 grams Onion 2 small size 100 grams Parsley 1/3 bunch 20 grams Black pepper ½ teaspoon 1 gram Ground meat 1 ½ cups 250 grams Tomato 1 large 200 grams Margarine 6 tablespoons 60 grams Red pepper ½ teaspoon 1 gram Garlic 6 cloves 18 grams Yogurt 3 cups 660 gramsPreparation : (Servings: 6)Sift flour into a large dish and set aside 1/3 cup. Add one tablespoon salt to the remaining flour, mix andmake hole in the center. Blend in the eggs, gradually add 2/3 cup water and make a stiff dough. Kneadfor 7-8 minutes and divide into three balls. Cover with a damp cloth and let stand for 10 minutes. Peelthe onions, wash and chop finely. Wash the parsley, separate the leaves and chop finely. Add theonion, parsley, ½ tablespoon salt and the black pepper to the ground meat and mix. Sprinkle with flourand roll out one of the dough balls until 1 millimeter thick. Cut it into 2 cm squares, place about half ateaspoon of the filling at the center of each square and bring the four corners together at the top, pressand seal. Process the remaining dough balls in the same way. Place the remaining water and the salt ina pan and bring to boil. Add the little dough bundles (manti) and cook for 15-20 minutes, stirringoccasionally. Wash the tomato and grind into another saucepan, add margarine and simmer for about 5minutes, add the red pepper. Pele, wash and crush the garlic and mix into the yogurt. While serving,pour the garlic yogurt over the manti and then sprinkle with the tomato sauce.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 43 FOLKLORE: TURKISH DISHESDESSERTSASURE (WHEAT PUDDING) Ingredients: Measure Amount Ddehusked wheat 1 cup 180 grams (for asure) Chickpeas 1/3 cup 60 grams Dry white beans 1/3 cup 60 grams Rice 2 tablespoons 15 grams Water 12 cups 2,5 kg Dried apricots 10 pieces 60 grams Dried figs 5 pieces 125 grams Raisins (seedless) 1 cup 50 grams Orange 1 small size 120 grams Sugar 1 2/3 cups 300 grams Rose water 2 tablespoons 20 grams Walnuts 2/3 cup 65 grams Pomegranate 1 small size 50 gramsPreparation: :Wash the wheat, chickpeas and dried beans. Soak them separately overnight with beans and chickpeasin 1 cup and the dövme and rice mixture in 2 cups of water. Add 3 cups of water to dövme and 2 cups ofwater each to chickpeas and beans and place them individually on the burner. Cook the dövme until thegrains are dissolved and the starc comes out. If necessary boil the chickpeas in pressure cooker. Washthe dry fruit and soak them for 2 hours in 1 cups of water. Mix the cooked ingredients and the dry fruit ina pan and cook for 15 minutes. Peel the orange and cut the rid, including the white inner part into 3-4cm long and 1 cm wide strips. Divide the orange slices into 4-5 pieces. Add them alltogether to themixture and cook for another 5 minutes. Add the sugar and cook for 1-2 minutes and turn off the heath.Add the rosewater and stir. Pour into dessert cups. Garnish with walnuts and pomegranate pits.SEMOLINA HALVA (IRMIK HELVASI) Ingredients: Measure Amount Margarine 2 cups 150 grams Pine nuts 2 tablespoons 20 grams Semolina 2 cups 300 grams Water 2 cups 500 grams Sugar 1 1/3 cups 240 grams Servings: 6 Preparation: :Melt the margarine, add the nuts and the semolina and brown them for about 15 minutes until theingredients change color slightly, stirring all the time. Boil the water in a separate saucepan, add andmelt the sugar. Add the syrup to the semolina, stir and simmer for 10 minutes. Cover with a napkin andlet rest for 20 minutes. Toss before servingLOKMA Ingredients: 2 eggs 1 glass of oil (to fry) 3/4 tablespoon of baking powder Syrup: 2 tablespoons of yoghurt 2 glasses of water 1/3 dessertspoon of salt 2 glasses of sugar 5 full tablespoons of flour 1 dessertspoon of lemon juice Preparation : First of all prepare the syrup frying in a hot pan and leave it to cool off. Then put other ingredients of the Lokma into a bowl and mix them well. Add frying oil into the pan until its very hot. Take small pieces from thealready mixed ingredients with a tablespoon and trow it into the frying oil. When its fried, take it out ofthe pan and drop it into the syrup. Serve after waited for about an hour. You can also add some grindedwallnut or coconut on it before serving.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 44 FOLKLORE: TURKISH DISHESSOUPSRED LENTILS SOUP Ingredients: 1 glass of Red Lentils 4 glasses of Broth 1 glass of Water 1 tablespoon of Flour 1 Onion -1 Carrot 1 tablespoon Butter 4 slices of White Bread 2 Egg Yolks -1 Glass of Milk SaltPreparation:Chop the onion, put into a saucepan with 1 tablespoon of butter and saute. When onion is almostsauteed add flour and mix well. Wash the lentils, chop the carrot and put them in the saucepan. Pourthe broth and water into the saucepan, add salt to taste and boil the soup for 30 minutes until the lentilsare softened. Strain the soup and pour it back into the same saucepan. Bring to boil. Meanwhile blendegg yolks and milk well in a bowl and add to the soup. Remove saucepan from heat after a couple ofminutes. The soup is now ready to serve.Cut 4 slices of white bread into cubes. Fry bread in a pan with 2 tablespoons of butter. Drain off thebutter and put the bread cubes (croutons) on the soup.FLOUR SOUP Ingredients: 8 cups Meat Stock 2 teaspoons Salt 6 tb Butter 1/3 teaspoons Paprika 3/4 cups Flour Preparation: Melt 4 tbs of butter in a saucepan. Add flour and lightly brown it. Slowly add the meat stock, stirring constantly, to have a smooth cream. Cover and let simmer for 15 minutes.Heat 2 tbs of butter. Add paprika and pour over the soup.YOGHURT SOUP Ingredients: Rice......... 1/3 cup Water...... .4 cups Salt.......... 2 teaspoons Flour......... 3 tablespoons Yogurt.......1 2/3 cups Egg........... 1 ea. Butter........4 tablespoons Mint...........1 ½ tablespoonsPreparation:Wash the rice and place in a saucepan together with water and salt and cook for about 30 minutes, untiltender. Blend the flour into yogurt in a seperate dish, break in the egg, mix and warm the mixture byadding a couple of spoonfulls of the hot soup. Gradually add the yogurt mix to the saucepan, stirringcontinously and keep stirring until it comes to boil and then cook for 10 minutes. Melt butter ormargarine in a pan, add mint, stir a couple of times and remove from heat and slowly sprinkle over thesoup.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 45 FOLKLORE: TURKISH DISHESDRINKSAYRAN Ayran (yoghurt drink) has been one of the most popular drinks of the Turks since the discovery of Yogurt among the Turkish tribes in Central Asia. It is simply made by diluting yogurt with water. Some salt is added to taste. Best served chilled.It not only accompanies any meal but is drunk as a refreshing drink by itself especially during summer months.SALGAM A traditional Turkish drink (pronounced shal-gum) made from dark turnips and violet carrots and sira. Its served cold with pickles and available in Hot and Mild formulas.. Some people drink it with Raki saying that it removes or softens the effects of alcohol. It has a dark red or purple color and a very strong soar taste. Because its a juice full of minerals and vitamin C, its one of the most preferred drinks in the winter time for colder climates. It also contains Thiamin (B1) and Riboflavin (B2) vitamins, and is rich in Calcium, Potassium and iron. Ingredients: Water,violet carrot, turnip, salt, pounded wheat or bulgur flour.Preparation:First, bulgur rice flour is left for lactic acid fermentation for a week until it gets very soar, than put inwooden barrels made of mulberry tree. After well cleaning and boiling violet carrots, its put in thesebarrels together with dark turnips (Brassica Napus in Latin). After another week in these barrels salt isadded. When Salgam gets mature in these barrels like a wine does, at the end the fermentation periodits filtered and ready to drink. For people who prefer it hot and spicy, hot sauce obtained from redpaprika is added in as well. The total processing time to prepare it is between 2-4 weeks.TURKİSH COFFEE 1. Pour in cold water in the coffee pot. You should use one cup of cold water for each cup you are making and then add an extra half cup “for the pot”. Add a teaspoonful of the ground Turkish coffee per cup in the water while the water is cold and stir. The amount of coffee may be varied to taste, but do not forget, there will be a thick layer of coffee grounds left at the bottom of your cup for properly made Turkish coffee. Don‟t fill the pot too much. If you need to add sugar this is the time to do it.2. Heat the pot as slowly as you can. The slower the heat the better it is. Make sure you watch it toprevent overflowing when the coffee boils.3. When the water boils pour some (not all) of the coffee equally between the cups, filling each cupabout a quarter to a third of the way. This will make sure that everybody gets a fair share of the foamforming on top of the pot, without which coffee loses much of its taste. Continue heating until coffeeboils again (which will be very short now that it has already boiled). Then distribute the rest of the coffeebetween the cups.Since there is no filtering of coffee at any time during this process, you should wait for a few minutesbefore drinking your delicious Turkish coffee while the coffee grounds settle at the bottom of the cup.TURKİSH RAKI Rakı (rah-KUH) is clear brandy made from grapes and raisins, flavored with pungent anise. Most is quite potent (80- to 100-proof/40% to 50% alcohol) and thus usually diluted with water and sipped with snacks or meals. Thirsty Turks sip 60 million liters of rakı each year, mostly with meals. (Where a European or North American will sip wine with a meal, most Turks will sip rakı.) When mixed with ice and/or water for drinking, it turns milky white. Because of its color and hefty alcoholic punch, Turks call it lions milk (aslan sütü). Its similar to Greek ouzo and French pastis. If you like licorice and anise, youmay like rakı. If you dont, for sure you wont.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 46 FOLKLORE: TURKISH DISHESOTHER DİSHESSTUFFED VINE LEAVES WITH GROUND MEAT (SARMA) Ingredients: 500 Gr. Ground Meat 1 Tablespoon Margarine 300 Gr. Wine Leaves (grape leaves) 1 Bunch Chopped Parsley 3 Onions 1 Lemon (Juice) 1/3 Glass Rice 1/2 Tablespoon Salt 1/2 Teaspoon Black Pepper 1/2 Teaspoon Black Pepper Preparation: Place wine leaves in boiling salted water. At the same time, place the margarine and chopped onions into another pan and saute until theonions are tender. Add 1 glass of water and washed rice. Cover and cook over moderate heat for about10 minutes. Remove from heat add ground meat, salt, black pepper and chopped parsley, mix togetherfor about 5 minutes. Take a small amount of this and place it on the hairy side of each wine leaf. Foldthe leaf from both right and left, roll it like a cigarette and then place in a deep pan. After having stuffedall leaves, add enough water to cover up to the surface of the leaves. If desired add 1 tablespoonmargarine and lemon juice and cook on moderate heat. When the leaves become tender, remove fromheat and serve.TURKİSH DELİGTH Ingredients: 4 cups granulated sugar 1 tsp cream of tartar 4.5 cups water, divided use 1.5 tbsp rosewater 2 tsp lemon juice 2-3 drops red food coloring 1.25 cups cornstarch 1 cup powdered sugar Preparation: 1. Prepare a 9x9 pan by lining it with aluminum foil and spraying the foil with nonstick cooking spray. Set aside for now.2. Place the sugar, lemon juice, and 1.5 cups of the water in a medium saucepan over medium heat.Stir until the sugar dissolves, and bring the mixture to a boil. Brush down the sides of the pan with a wetpastry brush to prevent sugar crystals from forming, and insert a candy thermometer.3. Allow the sugar mixture to continue boiling, without stirring, until it reaches 240 degrees on the candythermometer.4. When the sugar syrup is around 225 degrees, begin to get the rest of the candy ingredients prepared.Place the remaining 3 cups of water in another, slightly larger, saucepan. Add the cornstarch and creamof tartar and whisk until the starch dissolves and there are no lumps. Place the saucepan over mediumheat and bring the mixture to a boil, stirring or whisking constantly. The mixture will become thick andpasty.5. Once the sugar syrup is at 240 degrees, remove it from the heat. Slowly, carefully, pour it into thecornstarch mixture, whisking until it is fully incorporated.6. Reduce the heat to low and simmer, whisking it every 8-10 minutes, for about an hour, until the candyhas turned a light golden-yellow color and is very thick and gluey.7. After an hour, remove from the heat and stir in the food coloring and the rosewater. Pour the candyinto the prepared pan and allow it to set, uncovered, overnight.8. The next day, remove the candy from the pan using the foil as handles. Dust your work station withthe powdered sugar, and flip the candy onto the powdered sugar. Remove the foil from the back anddust the top with the sugar. Use an oiled chef‟s knife to cut the Turkish Delight into small squares. Dusteach side of the square with powdered sugar to prevent stickiness.9. Turkish Delight is best soon after it is made. It doesn‟t keep very well, but if you want to try keeping it,store it in an airtight container with waxed paper between the layers, and dust the sides with powderedsugar again before serving.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 47 COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESIV. CUSTOMS AND FESTIVITIES
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 48 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESPOLISH CUSTOMS AND FESTIVITIES Shrove Tuesday is the last day of carnival from “fat” Thursday always ending on Tuesday. We visit our friends and eat donuts. Grandmother and Grandfather Day this is holiday dedicated to grandmothers and grandfathers. It is celebrated on 21st and 22nd of January. Meeting family and friends at their homes on their name days. “Marzanna” it is the name of puppet, which is burned or fused, to say goodbye to winter and hello to spring. st April Fool‟s Day is April 1 . It is a day when people cheat, saying untruth, but after a while they yell April Fool.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 49 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES Palm Sunday is a festival symbolizing Christs entry into Jerusalem and the start of Holy Week. Easter custom of painting eggs. Mystery of Lent - the presentation showing the passion and crucifixion of Jesus Christ.Easter - a holiday celebrated by Christians. On this day we celebrate theresurrection of Jesus.Resurrection in the Catholic Church- the first mass celebration ofResurrection joined with the procession.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 50 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES„Święconka‟‟ it is beautifully decorated basket in which are: ham, eggs, salt,pepper, bread. This basket is hollowed on Holy Saturday. Cast Monday “Śmingus Dyngus”. This is a Slavic custom, in Poland this day is non- working day Picnic is a spring trip. It is called “majówka”. Poles spend Sundays at may like this. Mother‟s Day/ Father‟s Day. It is celebrated on 26th May and 23rd of June. Corpus Christi is a holiday celebrated in the Catholic Church. It is a celebration in honor of the Blessed Sacrament.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 51 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES Houses are decorated with green branches at day who calls “ Zielone świątki”.Pilgrimage is a journey taken with religious motives to holy places.The pilgrimage motif may be the desire to redress the crimescommitted, or wishing to submit requests, such as health, the well-being. ”Dożynki” this is harvest holiday. This custom is derived from popular Slavic tribe. Litkup it is still alive custom . It is toast of important life decisions or important purchases.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 52 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES„Gościniec” – a gift given during social visit. An “odpust” is a feast in the parish (village, city)-related to entertainments, and exhibitions. All Saints Day – the holiday that is celebrated in Poland on November 1st to honor all the dead know and unknown. All Souls‟ Day - celebrated on November 2nd the day we remember all who have left this world. “Katarzynki” is a male counterpart of “Andrzejki”. In “Katarzynki” young men predict on marriage and finding partner.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 53 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES ‟‟Andrzejki‟‟- it is celebrated on 30th November. This is a special night, night of fortune- telling. During this magical night people predict their future. Nativity play is a play presented by children. It symbols and shows Mary, Joseph and baby, it is show before Christmas. Nativity shed it is often a model depicting the interior of the stable at Bethlehem, where Christ was born.When the lights first star, a sign, it can be sit down to ChristmasEve. Christmas dinner is a Polish custom sanctified a very long time ago. At the table the whole family sits, leaving a free space for the weary wanderer. On the table there should be 12 dishes which should be all tried.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 54 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESWafer is a white flake of bread baked from flour and waterwithout the addition of yeast, which people share at ChristiansPolish custom is dealing presents after the Christmas dinner.Carol initially is a happy New Year‟s song, which contemporaryis the form of a Christmas song.Carol singers are called “przebierańcy”, in Christmas time theygo from house to house with the wishes of prosperity in NewYearMidnight Mass is a ceremonial mass celebrated at midnight onDecember 25. Midnight Mass commemorates the shepherdsand the expectation of prayers moving towards Bethlehem.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 55 POLISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES Christmas cards are the cards who people are sending to each other to make a wish.“Podłaźniczka” is tip of fir, spruce or pine branch hung on the ceilingat Christmas time.At present, in Poland, Christmas tree replaced “podłaźniczkę”.Fair is a type of the medieval market, being a center of trade ingoods.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 56 PORTUGUESE COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES PORTUGUESE CUSTOMS AND FESTIVITIES CHRISTMAS IN PORTUGALTHE CHRISTMAS EVEIn Portugal Christmas is observed on December 25 and is preceded by Christmas Eve that happensat 24th. Houses are decorated with paper ribbons, candles, flowers, and other cool stuff. On this day,families join and organize a great party.During afternoon begins the preparations of this special dinner which will take place around 8:30 pm. The main dish of Christmas Eve is In some regions is also usual to have cod fish cooked with potatoes, boiled octopus vegetables, eggs and onions, all drizzled with a good Portuguese olive oil and the best red wineDuring dinner is served boiled codfish, with potatoes and cabbage (in pure Portuguese olive oil). Insome regions instead of codfish it‟s served octopus.After the meal, people eat traditional fried desserts: "filhoses or filhós" made of fried pumpkin dough;"rabanadas" (similar to french toast); "azevias" round cakes made of a crust filled with a mixture ofchick peas, sugar, and orange peel); "aletria" (a vermicelli sweet with eggs). Another traditionaldessert is "Bolo Rei"(Kings cake). This is a fruitcake that is typically a New Years cake, but isbecoming popular during Christmas Holidays. In the cake there are two surprises: one is a littlepresent like a fake ring, or a little doll, or a medal. The other is not as welcomed. There is a raw broadbean. Whoever gets this bean has to buy the "Bolo Rei" in the coming year.After dinner everyone has fun with games, jokes and conversations.Sometimes families sing Christmas songs like "Happy Christmas", "Silent Night" and "WhiteChristmas".Children, are a constant presence and noisy lend a festive air, with their jokes and raids. Men helpwomen in the heavier tasks and deal with the drinks and appetizers.At midnight it‟s time to open presents. In Portugal children are told that it‟s Jesus or Father Christmasthat arrive with gifts for all. THE CHRISTMAS DAYDuring the Christmas day, Portuguese people visit friends and family and have a big lunch with atraditional roast beef or turkey and stuffing. During the holiday season towns are decorated with lights. The festivities end on January 6, "Dia de Reis” (The Kings Day)
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 57 PORTUGUESE COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESCARNIVALThe Carnival of Lazarim Lazarim is a village in the north of Portugal. Here happens one of the most genuine Portuguese carnivals. Frightening masks made with alder wood, carved by artisans in the village, are used by boys (called “Caretos” – ugly face) and girls (called “Senhorinhas” - young ladies). One of the highlights of the celebration is the reading on the village square of the Testament of the Compadre and Comadre, made successively by a girl and a boy of the locality.With these readings are made assessments in the form of verses (written in secret) of all theyouth of the village. Jokes and conspiracies, revealed, often, the rivalry that exists between the two sexes. Rules dictate that only the unmarried can criticized be criticized. The crowd never loses this moment and has fun with the criticisms that are made.SAINT MARTIN’S MAGUSTO On November 11 - Saint Martins day – takes place a traditional festival known as Saint Martin‟s Magusto. In this day it is usual to roast chestnuts and drink wine, “água-pé” (a traditional Portuguese alcoholic beverage, withalow alcohol content, resulting from the addition of water to seedsand stem of grapes.) or “jeropiga” (a traditional Portuguese alcoholicbeverage prepared by adding brandy to the grape to stopfermentation, leaving a sweeter and more alcoholic drink than wine). In villages, people start by spreading the nuts on the ground, on land previously cleared. The nuts are covered with grass and wood used to make a bonfire. When the chestnuts are roasted, to prevent them cool, green branches of pine are placed over them. In this form of baking the shells of the nuts are practically reduced to charcoal and it is traditional that people get their hands dirty with ash and then rub the face of all participants. Everyone have fun!
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 58 PORTUGUESE COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESEASTER IN PORTUGALHoly Week is the week before Easter and begins on Palm Sunday (7 days before Easter) andincludes Holy Thursday and Good Friday.On Palm Sunday many people who go to church get olive branches or palm leaves. On Easter Sunday, early morning, a group composed by at least a priest, who carries the Cross, a person with the holy water and another with a bag of offerings makes the Paschal visit. They go door to door, with the sound of the bells announcing the Resurrection, the same way that Mary Magdalene said that Jesus had left the tomb. Families indicate whether they wish to receive this visit signaling the entrance of the gate with a carpet of flowers. The group comes in and people kiss the cross, putting money in the bag of offerings. The house and the people are blessed. In the table of the dining room are placed traditional Easter sweets such as “Folar”, Pão-de-ló, Almonds and Port Wine, so that everyone can eat and drink in order to restore strength to the rest of the walk. In villages people follow this group from house to house andeverywhere always with the sound of bells and fireworks announcing that it is a holiday.EASTER CUSTOMS In Portugal there are different kinds of bread that is eatened in this period. In South, the best known is a round sweet cake(1). In Trás-os-Montes, is typical a big round brad, stuffed with meat(2).. On Easter day, at lunch, it is also usual to eat roasted lamb.Easter eggs mostly in chocolate and the Easter bunnies are symbols of this period.The egg symbolizes a new life and bunny is the symbol of fertility. (1) (2) . .
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 59 PORTUGUESE COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESST JOHN FESTIVAL (S. JOÃO) This is the biggest festival on the Porto calendar, attracting Thousands of people from all over the country to the historic city centre and to the most traditional neighborhoods for a huge party and to pay a tribute to Saint John the Baptist. Every year, on the 24th June, the city of Porto, in the north of Portugal, becomes lively and seemingly crazy with people banging each other on the head with plastic hammers… The festivities have been held in the city for more than six centuries, yet it was during the 19th century that Saint Johns day became impregnated in the citys culture and assumed the status of the citys most important festival. The party starts early in the evening of 23 June and usually lasts until the morning of 24 June. The traditional attractions of the night include street concerts, popular dancing parties, jumping over flames, eating barbecued sardines and meat, drinking wine and releasing illuminated flame-propelled balloons over Portos summer sky. At midnight the partygoers make a short break to look at the sky at Saint Johns firework spectacle. The show is increasingly sophisticated with the fireworks being associated with themes and multimedia shows. The party has sacred roots but is also mixed with pagan traditions, with the fireworks embodying the spirit of tribute to the Sun. Firework is the climax but not the end of the festivities. It‟s common for citizens of Porto, with all ages, to keep celebrating until 3 or 4 in the morning. Younger people take it even a step further. They walk from Portos riverside core - Ribeira (for instance the parish of São Nicolau (Porto) - up to the seaside in Foz (parishes of Foz do Douro and Nevogilde (Porto)) or in the nearby suburb Of Matosinhos where they wait for the sunrise near the sea.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 60 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESTURKISH CUSTOMS AND FESTIVITIESCİRCUMCİSİON: Circumcision is a universal practice which is greatly influenced by cultural and religious traditions, especially of the Moslems and Jews. Circumcision means removal of the foreskin of the penis. Circumcision is kind of a big deal here, where a ceremony is held. Boys wear special costumes, a party is thrown like a wedding party, gifts are given to the boy. A friend of the family becomes "kirve" which is like the "godfather" concept in Christianity.FUNERALS IN ISLAM Funerals in Islam-When a Muslim dies, the whole body, beginning with the expose parts of ablution must be washed a few times with soap or some other detergent or disinfectant, and cleansed of all visible impurities; this is called "Ghusul".When the body is thoroughly clean, it is warped in one or more white cotton sheets (Kafan or Kefen) covering all the parts of the body..The dead body is then placed in a coffin and carried to the place of prayer, a mosque (outside in the courtyard) or any other clean premises. The body is put in a position with the face towardthe direction of Kaba in Mecca.. After completing the prayer, the coffin will be taken to thecemetary; mourners should walk in front or beside the bier, those who are riding or drivingshould follow itTHE SACRİFİCE FEAST THE SACRİFİCE FEAST :This festival is well known with its story. In the past, the prophet Ibrahim hadn‟t had a child for many years. Then he promised God „if God gave him a son, he would sacrifice him for God‟. After he had got a son, he told Ismail that he had to sacrifice him for God. When he intended to sacrifice Ismail for God, a ram fell from the sky. God told Ibrahim to sacrifice a ram instead of Ismail. After that day it became a tradation. On the first day of the Feast of the Sacrifice, Muslum sacrifice rams. In some parts of Turkey rams are washed, painted withhenna. Rams, camels or oxen may be sacrificed. The sacrificed animal must be healty. If it isfemale, it mustn‟t be pregnant. Before sacrificing, rams‟ eyes should be covered whit a whitetowel or hankerchief. Two-third of the meat from sacrificed animals is given to relatives,neighbor and the poor. One –third of the meat should be left in the house.During the Feast of the Sacrifice we usually wear our clean clothes and visit neighbour,relatives and friends to see each other. Young people kiss their parents hands and receivebest whishes and also get a little money in the handkerchief. The main idea of the Feast of theSacrifice is helping the poors and having a good relationship whit everyone.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 61 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESTHE RAMADAN FEAST The Ramadan Feast has an alternative name in Turkey, the Sugar Feast, because people treat their guests to sweets and traditional desserts during the festival. It is customary to visit ones relatives, especially older ones, and kiss their hand as a sign of respect. Children may go door-to-door, kissing hands of the grown-ups and receiving sweets and small amounts of money in return. Turkish shadow plays, such as Karagöz and Hacivat, are popular during the Ramadan Feast, and children can watch these plays at fairs free of charge. In a more recenttradition, some people use the official holiday to travel abroad or go to Turkish resorts.HENNA NİGHT (KİNA GECESİ) The ceremony held one day before the wedding in the home of bride and groom is called the henna night. It generally takes place at the girl‟s home and among women, although either side can elect to host it. Usually dry henna brought by the bridegroom‟s family is broken to pieces in a silver or copper vessel by a woman whose father and mother alive, not experienced any separation. After preparing the bride, veil ornamented with red flake is placed over her head, and she is brought into the middle with hymn and folk songs about henna.Henna that has earlier kneaded with water is brought in on a tray surrounded by candles andplaced in the middle of the room. In some places, the henna is first put on the hands of thebride and then distributed to the guests; in other areas the henna is first distributed to theguests, and only after everybody has left is it placed on the bride‟s hands. If the woman sowishes, henna can also be placed on her feet and hair. Considerable attention is paid tocharging a woman with a happy marriage, called the “basi bütün” (meaning “whose head iscomplete”, in a sense, this describes her as someone who has a complete family with husbandand children and whose marriage is whole, not separated by divorce) to knead and distributethe henna and apply it to the girl‟s hand. The woman places the henna on one of the bride‟shands, and a young girl places it on the other. Before the henna is applied, coins or gold arealso placed in her hands. After woman who came together for dying henna leave, close friendof the bride remain with her and enjoy themselves till morning.Dying ceremony of henna is different according to regions. The henna so dyed has suchnames and types as “iplik kinasi” (henna for yarn), “sivama” (smearing), “kusgözü” (bird eye)..
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 62 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESKISSING ONE’S HAND A younger person kisses an older person‟s hand and puts it to his/her brow. This is for showing respect to the old.GIVING CANDIES AND MONEY TO CHILDREN In religious festivals, children visit the neighbours and relatives and celebrate their festivals. They give the children candies or money due to this visit. SAYING FAREWELL TO SOLDIERS When there is an elder man, it is time to go to army. Farewell ceremony is very important for this young man. It must be very nice so that the young man will be happy to be a soldier.MEVLEVILIK It is a religious custom. This custom is based on the principles of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi. He is an important religious and life philosopher. What you see in the picture is the ceremony (we call it „sema‟ but not „dance‟) of Mevlevilik. Semazen,the person who presents the ceremony,holds his right hand up to the sky and the left hand down to the ground. This shows that we take abundance from the heavens and give it to the ground.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 63 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESGENCER It is a type of bazaar that is organised on the last days of Sacrifice Festival and Ramadan Festival.DAMAL FESTIVAL This custom is present in Ardahan,the city in the east of Anatolia. Between June,15 and July,15, the silhouette of Atatürk,the great leader is seen on the mountain and people meet, sing songs and have picnic.KARAGÖZ AND HACIVAT (LIGHT COMEDY) These characters are the figures of light comedy. This play is performed behind a curtain with light.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 64 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES23TH OF APRIL The 23rd April Children‟s Festival a children‟s festival which was gifted to Turkish children by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, to mark the opening of the Assembly. The festival has been celebrated internationally since 1979. The Children‟s Festival was first celebrated in Turkey on 23 April 1920, when the Turkish Grand National Assembly was opened. The Festival intends to contribute creation of a world where children can live peacefully by developing sentiments of fraternity, love and friendship.The greatest aspiration of Atatürk, who saved his country from occupations and introducedreforms in all fields hence changing the viewpoint of the nation it was modernization, in otherwords, an industrialized country that the industry of the Republic which it was founded on wasout of date and poorly equipped, Ataturk endeavored to achieve modernization througheducational reform, and thus entrusted Turkey to the children and the youth. Atatürk knew thatmodernization could not be achieved in a rapid way; therefore, he presumed that the Turkishchildren educated at schools resting upon positive sciences could attain his goals. He believedhis nation and lived for what he believed. This is the main philosophy of the 23rd April. As canbe seen,the educated children and youth have made great contributions to the creation ofmodern Turkey. Present-day Turkey has evolved over the years and has attained a level of amodern state.As UNESCO proclaimed 1979 as the International Year of the Child, director of children‟sprogrammes of TRT Ankara Television Tekin Özertem and his assistant Canan Arısoydeveloped a project aimed at embracing all the children in the world. Upon approval of theproject by top executives of the TRT Corporation, preparations for the organizationcommenced. Thus, the first celebration of TRT International 23 April Children‟s festival tookplace on 23 April 1979 in Turkey, with participation of five countries, namely the USSR, Iraq,Italy, Romania and Bulgaria. Today, TRT International 23 April Children‟s festival is celebratedevery year with participation of approximately 50 countries. From 1979 to 2000, celebrationswere performed in the capital city Ankara. In the following years, celebrations took place inTurkey‟s various major cities such as İzmir, İstanbul and Antalya. Nane Annan, spouse of theformer United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, became the honorary guest of thecelebrations on 23 April 2000. In her speech at the gala, Mrs Annan expressed her pleasure atparticipating in the celebrations and passed greetings from her spouse Kofi Annan. Mrs.Annan also called on the entire world to say “Yes” to the aspiration of children. After herspeech, “the common declaration of the children from 40 countries”, which was approved bythe children at the International Children‟s Congress on 18 April, was read in English andTurkish. The declaration was presented to Mrs. Annan to hand it over to Kofi Annan. Childrenaged between 8 and 14 attend the international 23 April children‟s festival. The programapproximately covers a period from 16 to 26 April. The invited groups are made up of nearly20 children and 6 executive leaders. By 15 April, guests arrive in the city where thecelebrations will take place. TRT appoints a guide for each group and the guides enablecoordination with group leaders. Through primary schools in the festival city, each group isentertained by families of their Turkish peers in a warm and affectionate environment. In thisway, children of the world recount positive traits of the Turkish nation to their own families andfriends when they return to home countries. Doubtlessly, this makes Turkish people gratified.Festival Week begins with a Festival Parade. During the parade, guests wear their traditionaloutfits, perform their traditional music and dance on the largest street of the city. In thefollowing days, guest countries perform outdoor shows in large parks and embrace withTurkish people. Festival week continues with the children‟s visit to the mausoleum of Atatürk,
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 65 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIESthe great leader who gifted this festival to Turkish children. Then, the children are welcomedby The President of the Turkish Republic, President of the Turkish National Grand Assembly,and Director General of TRT.On 22 April, all the children gather to rehearse the gala. When the big day comes, the gala ofthe TRT 23 April Children‟s Festival takes place. In the gala, which lasts nearly four hours andis broadcast live, all the groups wear their national costume‟s and present three-minuteperformances accompanied with their traditional music.The gala continues with the children convey the greetings that they have brought from theirhome countries, and ends with a hand-in-hand dance of all the flowers of the world embracedin sentiments of peace and friendship. Through picnics and excursions on 24 and 25 April, theunison and fraternity of the world and Turkish children reach the peak. These activitiescontribute to the promotion of Turkey and the hospitable Turkish people. When the last dayarrives 26 April, sad hours for children have come. Bursting into tears, they begin to return totheir home countries; leaving behind their Turkish brothers and sisters, but taking along peaceand friendship with them. In a flood of emotions, the festival week comes to an end.19TH OF MAY The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day, or simply Atatürk Commemoration and Youth and Sports Day is an annual Turkish national holiday celebrated on May 19 to commemorate the start of the Turkish War of Independence.30TH OF AUGUST Victory day- Commemoration of the victory at the final battle in Dumlupınar ending the Turkish Independence War in 1922, dedicated to the armed forces.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 66 TURKISH COSTUMS AND FESTIVITIES29TH OF OCTOBER Republic day- Commemoration of the proclamation of the republic in 1923.HIDIRELLEZ "Hıdrellez", is one of the seasonal festivals of all Turkish world which is celebrated as the first day of the "early summer". It is also "day of Hızır", the day on which prophets Hızır and Ilyas met with each other on earth. The words Hızır and İlyas have since fused together pronounced as Hıdrellez. Hıdrellez Day falls on May 5-6. It is said that whatever you wish for on that night, will come true! One widespread belief suggests that Hızır is a prophetwho has attained immortality by drinking the water of life, and who has reached God, andwanders around among people from time to time, especially in the spring, and helps people indifficulty and distributes plenty and health. The identity of Hızır, the place and the time he livedin are not certain. Hızır is the symbol of spring and the new life witch emerges with it. Hıdrellez Festival, which is still celebrated with grand ceremonies in Anatolia, has been celebrated since ancient times. Although it is celebrated under different names and in different times, it is possible to see the motifs of Hıdrellez in many places. The arrival of spring and awakening of nature have been perceived by mankind as a phenomenon to be celebrated. People burn fires on the streets and jump over them, Hıdrellez celebrations are always performed in green,wooded places, near sources of water, or near a tomb or shrine. Eating fresh spring plants,lamb‟s meat or lamb‟s liver is another custom in Hıdrellez. It is believed that eating the firstlamb of spring will bring health and cure the sick. It is also believed that picking flowers orplants in the countryside, boiling them and drinking the water will cure all illnesses, and thatthe water thus obtained rejuvenates and beautifies anyone who washes with it for forty days.Various practices are performed on Hıdrellez night in the belief that Hızır will bring blessingand abundance to the places he visits and the things he touches. Food bowls, pantries andpurses are left open. Those who want a house, vineyard or garden believe that Hızır will helpthem obtain such things if they make a small model of what they want.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 67 PLAYS AND FUNSV. PLAYS AND FUNS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 68 PLAYS AND FUNSHIDE-AND-SEEK POLISH: W CHOWANEGO PORTUGUESE: ESCONDIDINHAS TURKISH: SAKLAMBAÇ This is play where one person count from 1 to 10. Others hide, then person which count search others.BLIND MAN’S BYUFF POLISH: CIUCIUBABKA PORTUGUESE: CABRA CEGA TURKISH: KÖREBE This is a play where one person close eyes and others revolve around. Next others flee and one person chase.CIRCLE DANCES POLISH: DO DZIURY MYSZKA PORTUGUESE: JOGO DE RODA TURKISH: TAVġAN KAÇ TAZI TUT When people sing a song, one person flees and a second person chase.JUMPSIES POLISH: GUMA PORTUGUESE: SALTAR AO ELÁSTICO TURKISH: LASTIK ATLAMA Two persons hold an elastic rope for jump. Next a third person jumps it.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 69 PLAYS AND FUNSSKIPPING ROPE POLISH: SKAKANKA PORTUGUESE: SALTAR À CORDA TURKISH: ĠP ATLAMA One person holds a jumping rope and jumping it.SNOW GAMES POLISH: ZABAWY NA ŚNIEGU PORTUGUESE: BRINCAR NA NEVE TURKISH: KARDANADAM YAPMAK, PATENLE KAYMAK, KIZAKLA KAYMAK These are snowy play. This is making a showman, ice skating, skiing, downhill on a sled.HANDKERCHIEF GAME (one) POLISH: MAM CHUSTECZKĘ HAFTOWANĄ PORTUGUESE: O LENCINHO TURKISH: YAĞ SATARIM BAL SATARIM This is a play in which people sit in round and one person with handkerchief walking around them.HANDKERCHIEF GAME (two) Two teams must stand in front of each one and each player chooses a number. When the person who is holding the handkerchief says a number the two players that have that number from each team must run until the person who is in the middle holding the handkerchief to get it. If the player who has the handkerchief manages to go back to his/her team without being touched by the player from the other team, that team scores a point. The person in the middle can also out several numbers at the same time. He/shecan also say “fire” meaning that everyone must go and to try grab the handkerchief and “water” meaningthat no one can move.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 70 PLAYS AND FUNS SPIN TOP GAME POLISH: PORTUGUESE: JOGO DO PIÃO TURKISH: TOPAÇ ÇEVIRMECE It may be a competition with a time limited, or an encounter in which a top touch the tops of the remaining players and project them out of a circle drawn on the ground game and continue to spin by itself. We consider off the tops that leave the circle. The string is wrapped around the top and is held by one hand. When unfolds with force, the spinning top begins to spin. THE SACK RACE POLISH: PORTUGUESE: O JOGO DO SACO TURKISH: ÇUVAL YARIġI Players get into a sack and run until the finish line as fast as possible. Wins the first to cross the line of the winning post.THE CHAIR GAME POLISH: PORTUGUESE: JOGO DA CADEIRA TURKISH: SANDALYE KAPMACA The chairs put into a circle with the backs towards the center. The aim is to walk around them while the music is playing. There is one chair less than the number of players. When the music stops the players must sit down on a chair very quickly. The player who doesn‟t have the chair stops playing. We remove a chair and the game continues. The winner is one that manages to sit down faster.THE ROPE GAME POLISH: PORTUGUESE: O JOGO DA CORDA TUKISH: ĠP ÇEKMECE To play this game you need two teams with an equal number of players. A rope and an handkerchief is needed as well. The handkerchief is tied onto the rope in the middle. The two teams must stand in front of each other grabbing the rope that has a handkerchief in the middle of it. The team who make the bow pass to the other side wins.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 71 PLAYS AND FUNSNINE TILES This game is played with 2 groups. There is nine tiles put together and a member of one group hits the tiles,that group runs and tries to put the tiles together again. By the time, second group tries to hit the members of the first group. If they do, they will beat the other group.LONG DONKEY This game is especially popular among the boys. There is a boy standing on the wall, we call him ‟the pillow‟. There are two groups and members of the first group bend. The members of the second group jump on them. One member from the second group shows „one‟ or „two‟ and asks „single‟ or „double‟. If the first group answers correctly, they win.TOMBALA It is played especially in New Year Festival. There are cards and playing pieces. One takes pieces one by one. Everybody gets a card and tries to close the numbers on the card. When one closes all the numbers, he/she says „çinko‟ and wins the game.İSTOP In this game, children constitute a circle. One player throws the ball up to sky and says name. That child tries to hold the ball. If yes,he calls name again; if not he says colour and the players try to find that colour. By the time he tries to hit the players who don‟t find the colour. If he hits, the player who has been hit is the guilty player.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 72
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 73 MONUMENTSVI. MONUMENTS
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 74 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS Settlement in Biskupin.„Biskupin” is a small town in west Poland, which is a Old Slavic settlement. Door gnieźnieńskie- GnieznoGniezno Doors is a universal monument of Roman art.There are scenes from the live of St. Wojciech. It is located in Gniezno.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 75 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS Wawel in Cracow“Wawel” is a hill in Cracow and on in there is a castle which was former place of king family. GdańskGdańsk is port city near the Baltic Sea with almost 600 years old historic mobile.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 76 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS Teutonic Castle in MalborkMalbork Castle this is tripartite stronghold defensive style Gothic.From 14 september 1309 to 1457 castle in Malbork was seat grand Master of the Teutonic,and the capital city Monastic State. Royal Castle in WarsawRoyal castle is second seat kings in Warsaw at Castle Square.. It is Baroque and classicalcastle, which in 1980 year was inscribed into the list of global monuments UNESCO
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 77 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS Town hall- PoznańCity hall in Poznań is a Renaissance building standing in the Old Market., which he was oncea function hall. Every day a 12.00 hour won its Bugle call Poznań. Zamość Zamość is city World Heritage UNESCO.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 78 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS ToruńThe beautiful city where borned Mikołaj Kopernik Oporów – castle Around the castle is a moat, located Mazovia.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 79 MONUMENTS: POLISH MONUMENTS CzęstochowaCzęstochowa the most famous in Poland Marian sanktiarium. Oświęcim – cncentration camp, has become for the world a symbol of terror and genocide.
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 80 MONUMENTS: PORTUGUESE MONUMENTSLISBON MONUMENTSOn the right hand bank of the river Tagus, Lisbon is a city whose legendary history stretchesback over twenty centuries.The maritime Voyages of Discovery turned Lisbon into one of the world‟s great ports and thecentre of an empire that stretched from Brazil in the West to India in the East. On the banks ofthe river, great monuments testify to that history.After the earthquake of 1755, the Baixa Pombalina downtown was rebuilt in the classical stylewhile many of its adjoining medieval neighbourhoods survived and are now home to anamazing array of stores, restaurants and cafés.Lisbon‟s exceptional and highly individualistic light has charmed writers, photographers andfilmmakers with the polychrome façade tiles serving to create a particular atmosphere.On foot, by tram, boat or walking the banks of the Tagus, and even on the metro - an openunderground museum of contemporary Portuguese art, any means serves to reveal thecultural diversity of the Portuguese capital of Lisbon. S George Castle Lisbons Lower Town (Baixa) Coaches Museum Discoveries Monument Triumph Arch at Augusta Street Jerónimos Cristo Rei Palácio da Pena, Sintra Belém Tower
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 81 MONUMENTS: PORTUGUESE MONUMENTSCOIMBRA MONUMENTSCoimbra is the third most important city in Portugal.Its ancient buildings cling to the side of the hill that rises above the curves of the riverMondego, the ornate buildings of the famous University of Coimbra are its crowning glory.The city of Coimbra is since 1290 one of the oldest university cities in whole Europe withabout 19.000 students. Actually the city of Coimbra is the intellectual and spiritual centre ofPortugal a monument. Coimbra was created with its different faculties, the Biblioteca Joanina(library of Joanina) and the Jardim Botanico (botanical garden).Indeed the university is still the lifeblood of the town and the change in atmosphere is notablewhen the summer holidays come and the thousands of students head back to theirhometowns. Coimbra, which was the capital of Portugal from 1139 to about 1260, has a largearcheological site with extensive ruins dating from the time it was a Roman city calledAeminium.Coimbra called the old town ("cidade alta" or "upper town") are fine old churches and narrowstreets standing up on a hill overlooking the Modego River. University Mosteiro de Santa Cruz The Lower Town The Sé Velha (Old Cathedral) One of the countrys most beautiful and oldest Romanesque monuments
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 82 MONUMENTS: PORTUGUESE MONUMENTSPORTO MONUMENTSThe city was built along the hills overlooking the Douro river estuary, and its historical centerwas awarded World Heritage status by UNESCO in 1996. It has been continuously inhabitedsince at least the 4th Century, when the Romans referred to it as Portus CallePorto has always been a mercantile city, and this is evident in the style of buildings that frontonto the Avenida dos Aliados, the core of the downtown area. The center of town, unlike othermajor Portuguese cities, which tend towards the baroque, is granite and monumentalThe city is officially styled "a muito nobre, sempre leal e invicta cidade do Porto" (the verynoble, always faithful, and invincible city of Porto). This is usually shortened to "a CidadeInvicta" (the invincible city) a title won because of Portos unparalleled resistance againstNapoleonic troops during the Peninsular war.The city is quite variegated architecturally, with medieval as well as modern living side by side.Portos geography is hard on the feet, but pleasant to the eye. The city is extremely hilly, withmany buildings built into a cliff face that overlooks the river. Stairs cut into the stone run upand down the cliff face and offer a laborious but rewarding walking tour. Across the river fromPorto proper, in the suburb of Gaia, are located the warehouses of notable companies dealingwith Port Wine, such as Cálem, Fonseca, Sandemans, Kopke, and others.And, as the saying goes, "Porto works, Braga Prays, Coimbra studies, and Lisbon gets themoney." Carmo Church Oporto‟s Cathedral Clergymen Church Close to the Clergymen Tower and Church Built in the 12th century and Tower, the emblem of Oporto S. Bento Station Built in 1916 on the site of an ancient convent. The quarter of Ribeira ("River-bank") Right by the river
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 83 MONUMENTS: PORTUGUESE MONUMENTSLuís I Bridge and the Rabelo‟s Boats Douro river Foz (rivermouth) São Francisco Church The River and Oporto old town One of the few remaining medieval buildings in Porto Oporto‟s City Hall Serra do Pilar, Vila Nova de Gaia Douro‟s river
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 84 MONUMENTS: PORTUGUESE MONUMENTSNEAR PORTO Sta Maria da Feira Castle Braga‟s Cathedral Porta Nova‟s Arch, Braga Braga (down town) Sameiro‟s Church, Braga Bom Jesus Church, Braga Guimarães Castle Duke‟s Palace, Guimarães
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 85 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTSISTANBUL MONUMENTSİstanbul is the most crowded and economically the most important city of Turkey.Also, it is the citythat has the highest population in Europe according to the borders of municipality.Geographically, İstanbul is settled on two continents,Asia and Europe. Furthermore, it is the citythat Marmara Sea passes through.İstanbul,one of the oldest cities of the world,was the capital of Empire of Rome (330-395AD),Empire of Eastern Rome (395-1204 and 1261-1453), Latin Empire (1204-1261) and lastlyOttoman Empire (1453-1922).In addition to this, The city was the centre of Islam between 1571when caliphate passed to Ottoman Empire and 1924 when it was abolished.İstanbul has been called differently during the centuries. These city names are related to differentperiods of the city. The names are chronologically Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma,Konstantinopolis, Konstantiniyye and İstanbul. Topkapı Palace Hagia Sophia (one of the biggest churchs in the past) (settlement of Ottoman Empire) Dolmabahçe Palace Maiden Tower Basilican Sistern Blue Mosque
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 86 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTSGalata Tower Grand Bazaar Çırağan Palace Egyptian Obelisk Yedikule Dungeons Spice Bazaar
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 87 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTS St. Antoine Cathedral German FountainFlower Passage(Cite de Pera) The Great Mecidiye Mosque(Ortaköy Mosque) Bozdoğan Valens HaydarpaĢa Train Station
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 88 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTSİZMİR MONUMENTSİzmir,city of fairies, is the third metropol after İstanbul and the capital Ankara. It is a moderncity known with trade. İzmir is the most developed city of Turkey due to specialities of culture,earth and level of living.İzmir International Fair, the most rooted and famous fair of Turkey, starts at the end of Augustand continues for 10 days including the date September,9 (Independence of İzmir).Different people from all over the world meet,present their products and introduce theircountries. Ephesus Antique Theatre Kadifekale ġirince Houses Kızlarağası Hanı (an old Greek village)
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 89 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTS Akropol (in Bergama) Efes Metropol (one of the biggest cities in the past)Bird Paradise National Park Alsancak
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 90 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTSBURSA MONUMENTSBursa is the fourth most crowded city of Turkey. Bursa, economically one of the mostdeveloped cities, has natural and historical beauties,too.The reason why there are a lot of historical monuments especially the monuments of firstperiod of Ottoman State in Bursa is that Bursa was the first capital of Ottoman State.Additionally, Uludağ National Park is the most important skiing centre of Turkey Tophane Clock Tower Uludağ National Park Kozahan Green Tomb
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 91 MONUMENTS: TURKISH MONUMENTSThe Great Mosque (Ulu Camii) Cumalıkızık (old Ottoman village) Ġnkaya Plane Tree Irgandı Bridge (600-year-old plane tree)
THE CULTURE DICTIONARY 92 PRODUCED BY ESCOLA BÁSICA SOARES DOS REIS – VILA NOVA DE GAIA – PORTUGAL 23 NİSAN İLKÖĞRETİM OKULU – ISTANBUL – TURKEYSZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA IM. JANUSZA KUSOCIŃSKIEGO W ZESPOLE SZKÓŁ OGÓLNOKSZTAŁCĄCYCH W PACYNIE – PACYNA – POLAND ORGANIZED BY ESCOLA BÁSICA SOARES DOS REIS – VILA NOVA DE GAIA – PORTUGAL JUNE 2011