Energy Storage | Fuel Security , Presented at Energy Institute, London

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The use of water electrolysis provides a way to convert excess power from intermittent renewables and store it as hydrogen. ITM Power\'s HFuel product can be used as a flexible load which can be operated by power companies to absorb excess power, and to manage the grid so that we would never have to cease renewable energy production. The market for the hydrogen produced from renewable electricity is potentially huge. It is the market for a zero carbon footprint fuel, and provides fuel security.

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Energy Storage | Fuel Security , Presented at Energy Institute, London

  1. 1. Energy Storage | Fuel Security The Energy Institute, 9th June 2011 Dr Graham Cooley, CEO, ITM Power plc “Climate change is an opportunity. It isnt necessarily a burden. …… This way of thinking - of focusing on the costs and not the opportunities has contributed to getting us bogged down.” Joseph StiglitzITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  2. 2. Energy Storage | Fuel Security The Energy Institute, 9th June 2011 Dr Graham Cooley, CEO, ITM Power plc Introduction Fundamental Principles of Energy Storage The Case for Energy Storage A New Low Carbon Power System Solutions for Balancing the Grid Energy Storage and DSM Sector Export The Market for Hydrogen Fuel Deployment for Hydrogen Infrastructure SummaryITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  3. 3. A Perfect Storm The Energy Sector | A Perfect Storm A rare combination of events resulting in a unique situation • Population growth | Load growth • Peak oil | Energy security • Need to decarbonise • Nuclear being reassessed • Intermittent renewablesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  4. 4. A Compelling Business Proposition Global Problem | Global Opportunity Energy is the largest global market and it is being completely overhauled • Demand growth • Production overhaul • Supply chain rethink • Colossal global capital investmentITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  5. 5. The Missing Link Energy Storage | The Missing Link Impossible to decarbonise the energy sector without energy storage • Matching supply and demand with intermittent generation • Electrifying transport • Electrifying heat • Optimising energy systems • Power | Transport | HeatITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  6. 6. Market Size Energy Storage | Market Size The Boston Consulting Group report, Feb 2011 • Growth will track renewable energy deployment • €10 billion annually by 2020 • Strong first mover advantageITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  7. 7. Fundamental Principles Of Energy StorageITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel power to aHLab to HFuel ITM POWERElectrolyser Technology: From transport fuel POWER | From intermittent Security
  8. 8. A Pure Commodity Electricity is undifferentiated at the point of supply: • Little incentive to differentiate • How can competition be introduced • What is the driving force for renewable introduction? • Green supply contracts? “A commodity is some good for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. It is a product that is the same no matter who produces it.” WikipediaITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  9. 9. Dynamic Coupling Production & consumption dynamically coupled • Supply matches demand in sub-second timescale • The system has no energy storage solution • How can we use unpredictable generation? Dynamic Coupling Customer Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution ServicesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  10. 10. The Case for Energy StorageITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  11. 11. UK Electricity Demand Demand varies daily, weekly, seasonally: • Winter peak is 60 GW • Base load plant • Mid merit plant • Peaking plant Data from National GridITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  12. 12. UK Load Duration Curve Plant utilisation over time: • Huge utilisation of inefficient plant • 40% fully utilised Peak Mid-merit Base load Data from National GridITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  13. 13. Bulk Commodity Storage Shifting the peaks to fill the troughs: • Turns mid merit in base load • Reduces the need for peaking • Increases system efficiency • Day night arbitrage! Data from National GridITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  14. 14. Bulk Commodity Storage Shifting the peaks to fill the troughs: • Turns mid merit in base load • Reduces the need for peaking • Increases system efficiency Half Hourly Prices on 24/03/09 • Day night arbitrage! Source: BMRS website 160 140 120 100 80 £/MWhr 60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 The Balancing Mechanism Reporting System (BMRS) The BMRS website provides near real time and historic data about the Balancing Mechanism which is used by the National Grid (System Operator) as a means of balancing power flows on to and off the electricity Transmission System in the UK.ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  15. 15. UK Electricity Demand Adding Intermittent Power: Add wind? • Need take or break decisions • Undermines Base load • Increased need for spinning reserve • Pushes you back down merit order Data from National GridITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  16. 16. A New Low Carbon Power SystemITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel power to aHLab to HFuel ITM POWERElectrolyser Technology: From transport fuel POWER | From intermittent Security
  17. 17. A New Low Carbon Power System A System with Unshedulable Plant You can control some of the plant some of the time ….. …..but not all of the plant all of the time! • The old system controlled production • The new system will focus on controlling consumption • Energy storage is key Steam flow 1 Steam flow 2 Light Heat Force etc. production network consumption At any time : Σ P cons = Σ P prodITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  18. 18. Can the Grid Cope? 19 June 2010 A new low carbon power system Can the grid cope with this new system? • Power surging need for energy storage and demand reserve • Intermittency need for energy storage and demand reserve • Diversity increase need for power conditioning • Unit size decrease need for power conditioningITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  19. 19. A New Low Carbon Power System Stranded Wind Energy: Recent UK Event Report from Sunday Times, 1st May • Excess wind energy caused grid instability • A transmission fault prevented the energy being transmitted to England • Wind energy production halted across six Scottish wind farms • £890,000 for a few hours over 5th & 6th April 2011 • 20 times the value of the electricity which would have been generatedITM POWER | |EnergyResults Presentation, 30 July 2010 POWER Final Storage | Fuel Security
  20. 20. UK Generation CO2 targets to be met by power & heavy industry • 16% reduction in GG emissions by 2020 • 31% renewable generation by 2020 • This cannot be achieved without energy storage!ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  21. 21. UK Generation DECC 2050 Pathways Analysis • Analysis document, 252 page PDF • Reference case + six major scenarios • Online access to the analysis tool • No modelling of energy storage or sector export to hydrogen fuel!ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  22. 22. UK Generation DECC 2050 Pathways Analysis • Analysis document, 252 page PDF • Reference case + six major scenarios • Online access to the analysis tool • No modelling of energy storage or sector export to hydrogen fuel!ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  23. 23. Renewable Energy Management Wind Energy: The UK The third largest wind resource in the world • Best Wind resources in Europe • Entering Phase Three of construction in UK • Onshore capacity factor 30%, offshore 40%ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  24. 24. Renewable Energy Management Wind Energy: The Case for Denmark Study by CEPOS Sept 2009 • 20% of its generating capacity is wind • Only 5% of demand is met by wind • Negative electricity prices • 50% is exported • Sweden and Norway used as energy storageITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  25. 25. Solutions for Balancing a Low Carbon Energy SystemITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  26. 26. The Old System Production & consumption dynamically coupled • Supply matches demand in sub-second timescale • The system has no energy storage solution • How can we use unpredictable generation? Dynamic Coupling Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  27. 27. The New System Dynamic Coupling is Undermined Shifting control from production to consumption • Energy storage • Demand side management • Sector Export Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Wind Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  28. 28. The New System Dynamic Coupling is Undermined Shifting control from production to consumption • Energy storage • Demand side management • Sector Export Bulk Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Wind Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  29. 29. The New System Dynamic Coupling is Undermined Shifting control from production to consumption • Energy storage • Demand side management • Sector Export Bulk Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage DSM Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Wind Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  30. 30. The New System Dynamic Coupling is Undermined Shifting control from production to consumption • Energy storage • Demand side management • Sector Export Bulk Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage DSM Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Wind Sector Export Fuel User Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  31. 31. Energy Storage and Demand Side ManagementITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  32. 32. Energy Storage Applications Segmented by size and storage time: • Commodity storage (already discussed) • Renewable energy management • Power Quality • Customer Energy ManagementITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  33. 33. Energy Storage Technologies Segmented by size and storage time: • Supercapacitors • Flywheels • Batteries • Flow cells • Hydrogen Hydrogen • Compressed Air • Pumped hydroITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  34. 34. Energy Storage Technologies Pumped Storage: Dinorwig • On-line in 1984 • 1890MW for 5hrs; 70% efficient • Cost $310m ($164/kW, $33/kWhr) • Frequency regulation services • 8 sites were surveyed by CEGBITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  35. 35. Energy Storage Technologies Flywheel Energy Storage • Instantaneous response • Frequency regulation services • 20MW Beacon Power Aerial view of Beacon Power’s 20MW flywheel energy storage plant in Stephentown, New York, which began operating in January. The facility stores and returns energy on a moment-to- moment basis to provide grid-stabilizing frequency regulation services.ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  36. 36. Energy Storage Technologies Supercapacitors: Short time scale storage • High energy efficiency • Short power boost • Good in combination with batteriesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  37. 37. Energy Storage Technologies Batteries: Mid time lapse (2hrs in discharge) • Early trials using lead acid batteries • Cannot separate power and energy • A123 system uses spent EV batteriesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  38. 38. Energy Storage Technologies Flow Cells: Separates power and energy • Ideal for long term bulk storage • Modular design • Designed and built in UKITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  39. 39. Energy Storage Technologies Flow Cells: Separates power and energy • Little Barford; 100MWhr (10MW x 10hr) • Demonstrated the scalability of electrochemical technologies • Valued by CSFB at £1bnITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  40. 40. Energy Storage Technologies Power/H2O Hydrogen Energy Storage: • Electrolysers produce H2 & O2 from power • Fuel cells produce power from H2 & O2 • Combinations from energy storage systems for backup power O2 Storage H2 Storage Power/H2OITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  41. 41. Summary: Energy storage offers: • Improve operational efficiency • Integrate intermittent renewables • Support base load nuclear • Join the dots between power & energy • Decarbonisation However: • Many technologies are unproven • Cost targets are difficult to define • Engineering scale poses a technology risk Sector Export: • Ready to implement • Addresses the needs of both the power and transport industriesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  42. 42. Sector ExportITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel power to aHLab to HFuel ITM POWERElectrolyser Technology: From transport fuel POWER | From intermittent Security
  43. 43. The New System Dynamic Coupling is Undermined Shifting control from production to consumption • Energy storage • Demand side management • Sector Export Bulk Energy Storage Distributed Energy Storage DSM Fuel Generation Transmission Distribution Electricity User Wind Sector Export Fuel User Supply Side Demand SideITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  44. 44. Energy Management: Customers are the most extreme peaks: • Local peak management • Energy storage • Embedded generation • Demand side managementITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  45. 45. Hydrogen Refuelling | Green Hydrogen Whats the Solution? Hydrogen made from renewable power • Replaces a revenue cost with a capital item • Reduces the need for fossil fuels • Decarbonises transport • Improves air quality • A demand side managed loadITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  46. 46. System Cost Analysis HFuel System Costs Based on 50Kg/day target • Strongly dependent on the electricity price • Electricity prices may be negative, reflecting demand side services HFuelITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  47. 47. The Market for Hydrogen Global Fuel Markets Fuel demand curve is log/log • $1000/gallon for diesel by helicopter • 2.3 cents/gallon heavily subsidised fuel in Venezuela 1000 Fuel price (USD / lit petrol equiv.) Military Fuel 100 Remote Industrial 10 Automotive 1 0.1 Islands Subsidised Automotive 0.01 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Market size (TWh / yr)ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  48. 48. The Market for Hydrogen Global Fuel Markets Fuel demand curve is log/log • $1000/gallon for diesel by helicopter • 2.3 cents/gallon heavily subsidised fuel in Venezuela 1000 Fuel price (USD / lit petrol equiv.) Military Fuel 100 Remote Industrial 10 15 kg/day (Current) Automotive 1 50 kg/day (Target) 0.1 Islands Subsidised Automotive 0.01 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Market size (TWh / yr)ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  49. 49. Global Petrol Prices (Nov 2010) Global Fuel Markets Four major country categories • Cat 1: Highly Subsidised • Cat 2: Subsidised • Cat 3: Fuel Tax • Cat 4: High Fuel Tax • Access markets above $1.26/LITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From Source: German Technical Corporation
  50. 50. The Market for Hydrogen FuelITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  51. 51. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Nov 2010 EV and Hydrogen Cars Hydrogen vehicles are EV’s but with some significant advantages: • Refuelling time (3mins) • Range of over 400 miles • Well to wheel efficiency • Grid demand side managementITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  52. 52. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric VehiclesITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  53. 53. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Well to Wheel Emissions DoE analysis agrees with the major car companies • Hydrogen from centralised wind • On site hydrogen even better • “A triple zero fuel”ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  54. 54. Hydrogen Refuelling | Market Developments Japan, US & Germany Adopt Hydrogen Toyota, Honda and Nissan join forces to promote hydrogen • Total of 100 hydrogen refuelling stations planned in Japan • 1000 refuelling stations in Germany in 4yrs ($2.6bn) • 150 planned in California (30 already built)ITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  55. 55. Hydrogen Refuelling | Market DevelopmentsITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  56. 56. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Hydrogen Vehicles Serious traction envisaged around 2015 • Air quality may drive early adoption 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2018 2020 • Commercial fleet early adoption Daimler 200 1000/yr 10,000/yr 100,000/yr • Return to base refuelling GM 100 10,000/yr 100,000/yr 250,000/yr Honda 200 1000 Commercialisation • Perfect for embedded electrolysis Hyundai 1000/yr >100,000/yr 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2018 2020 Ramp up Purpose design FC hybrid vehicles Trials, conversion design cars and niche vehicles 10,000/yr per Potential trickle to London manufacturerITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  57. 57. HOST | Partners Hydrogen on Site Trials Trials to establish commercial benefits and environmental impact modelsITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  58. 58. Energy Storage | Clean Fuel Connect with ITM Power: www.itm-power.com Join the mailing list: rlm@itm-power.comITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  59. 59. Summary • Renewable power needs energy storage • Sector export a great solution • Transport is a large enough sector • Green hydrogen is a zero carbon footprint fuel • Early adoption is from commercial fleet operators • HOST trials to establish economics and business modelsITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From
  60. 60. Thank you for listeningITM POWER | |Energy Storage | Fuel Security HLab to HFuel POWER Electrolyser Technology: From

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