Rebecca Chapman How does Hollywood produce, market and exhibit its films to ensure success? Hollywood is set up as a large studio system which is split into 6 major companies; these areWalt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, Columbia, Warner Bros, Universal and Paramount Pictures.These all produce, distribute and exhibit films on a regular basis, Hollywood release around 120 filmseach year which is a massive amount compared to British films which only release around a smallhandful of films. Most of these Hollywood films are major blockbusters of high production values.High production values mean that the film has a higher budget and higher costs that need to bespent on things like effects, actors, locations, sets, specialist equipment and more.Production Hollywood have to constantly put so much thought and different ideas into their productiontechniques to bring in a range of audience and to make sure they receive a high profit on their filmsthat they are hoping to receive. Toy Story 3 was produced by Pixar and released in July 2010. Itmainly relied on the audience’s knowledge of the previous films as this is now the last in the sequel,in order to make this work they needed to make it look and feel as similar as possible to the othersto reinforce those memories and the much love and publicity to the prequels. Their main focus wasto create a new and more impressive look for the movie that allowed them to use their much moreadvanced CGI technology and at the same time keep the feel and classic look from the other films.The new characters such as Lotso, Buttercup and Stretch were made from plush or jelly materialswere created with appearances, qualities and movements that had not been previously used, oreven possible, in the other films. This allowed Pixar to experiment with the new technology andchange aspects of the film without having to change and main characters. The use of 3D in this filmalso gave the option to add something new to the Toy Story experience that hadn’t been availablefor the previous films. As 3D was very popular at the time of the film’s release, this encouraged anew audience of people who are 3D film fans, as well as adding something to make the film have amore impressive impact. The latest 3D technology though is going downhill, many claim that it isbecause they are too expensive and the glasses are uncomfortable, others put it down to the overusing of 3D for the past 6 months, making the hype just seem normal now. Many people fear that 3Dhas had its time and will disappear now for a considerable amount of time. Inception uses minimal amounts of CGI in the production of the film because the directorwanted to keep the film as real as possible. The casting of the film was a very important part of thefilm, they needed the exact right characters to play the part and the characters rose the highproduction value. The film needed to appeal to many different audiences, mainly the targetaudience of science fiction lovers as they are drawn to these kind of films. The production costs ofthe film were considered as average, compared to many other films, this shows that the film makerscould do a lot with a little because the film had spectacular scenes which you would assume takehigh quantities of money to produce. Special effects are used a lot in Hollywood because they canadd a lot of action to a film and make the film look more realistic. This adds interest to the film andreally shows off what the film producers are capable of. Hollywood is very talented when it comes tomaking films for specific target audiences. They do this by focuses very closely on primary research,approaching the specific target group and asking them carefully educated questions to find outexactly what they need to know to have great success with the film.
Rebecca ChapmanMarketing The main marketing of the Hangover 2 had already been done by the massive success of thefirst Hangover release. Sequels are becoming more and more common in the Hollywood filmindustry due to the ease of already having a strong fan base for films. However, sequels can bedifficult to get right as the audience often wants to see something new and exciting and yet, at thesame time, have the well-known feel of the film and the characters that they have come to knowand love. The Hangover 2 defiantly was a massive hit though and was a fantastic sequel, the samecharacters and humour was used but just in a different setting with a few new changes so the feelwas still there. The first poster was all about making sure the audience realized we were going backto very familiar ground to what happened in the first movie. In the first main poster it just shows thethree main characters and a monkey recovering after a night of hard living. With the writing at thetop saying “The Wolf Pack is back” and at the bottom changing the scene with "Bangkok has themnow.” A set of character posters was then created and released that featured a different quote fromeach character in each one, so the audience wants to know more about what happens to each. Thefirst trailer was a teaser trailer which doesn’t give the audience a whole lot of information, it wenton for 1.15 minutes just to give the fans a short clip of what was coming up to get them excited andwanting to see more. The full-length trailer was then released on the 1st April on YouTube to give afuller story of what will be happening in the movie. This showed some of the settings and the effectsof what happened the next morning, to make the audience want to watch to see what actuallyhappens and see if it’s a match to the prequel. The official website was then released after the fulltrailer of the film. On the website you can watch the trailer and a whole range of things fromwatching videos, reading cast information, downloading the soundtrack and more to keep a track ofupdates for fans. Clover field was a film which ran on mostly the amazing marketing techniques of the film. Tostart there was a small teaser trailer only viewable in cinemas, this trailer showed no informationabout the film at all, not the title or anything, the only information it shown was the release date,this was to get people hooked and wondering straight away. The producers decided to drip feedinformation to the viewers, rather than give it all away in one go. They instead got them all talkingabout the film over the internet on a “buzz” and “chatter” site, this is because the internet is amassive place to market for free. The characters of the film produced their own blogs and Facebookpages so they could actually chat to the fans releasing background information on the film andmaking them want to see what happens next. The full trailer was soon released which at the endshown the head of the statue of liberty rolling through the town, this was a massive cliff hangerbound to make people want to view it. IPhone apps were then released to promote the film and alsothe basic things like posters etc. Synergy is the coming together of different products to promote the films. An example ofthis is when Columbia Pictures uses its lateral integration where the film studio differs into separatecompanies to produce another product. Columbia Pictures is a part of the larger conglomerate SonyCorporation of America who also own Sony Music Entertainment. This would make it very simple forthe company to produce a new product.
Rebecca ChapmanExhibit Audiences can consume films in ways. Firstly, going to the actual cinema to see the film whenit is released, this way you get to see the film with your friends and view it all as soon as it is out, itcan create a fun day out and it is brilliant atmosphere. Some films though are better in the cinemathan others, for example Avatar was an amazing film to view in the cinema in 3D, but if you watchedit or the first time at home you wouldn’t get the same effect and love for it as you would have in theactual screenings. Now less and less people are now going to the cinema, meaning that filmcompanies are going to have to start spending more on marketing of merchandise such as the DVDof the film, so they still create the same amount of money from the film. Many people will wait tillthe film is released on DVD. The pros of this are that the buyers can share the film with their friendsand watch it many times, it is also much cheaper than going to the actual cinema and less hassle tojust wait for the DVD. A bad side of this though is that the box office price will not be as high asnormal, also with watching a DVD at home you don’t get the same effect as when in the cinema, inthe cinema you have a massive screen that makes you feel like you’re involved and the atmosphereis great, but at home you wouldn’t get the same vibe. I don’t think that British films will ever be able to compete with the American market asHollywood films are massively producted and go out worldwide and globally to all, whereas Britishfilms just only usually stay in the British market. American films also have larger budgets and higherproduction values where as British films would never have this much money to be able to spend onthe stages of making a film and then be able to market it to an audience outside Great Britain.My viewing habits consist of only going to the actual cinema if it’s a movie I actually really want towatch, as it can be effort to get there and then also costs about £10 each time with ticket and food,whenever I do go though I usually try and go on an orange Wednesday just so the price is cheaper. Ifthere’s a film that I wanted to see that I’ve missed the viewing of at the cinema I will just wait for theDVD to come out and not be too bothered at all. With 3D films I will only see them normally if it’s acartoon as they seems to benefit better with 3D depending on what it is, saying this I seen the finaldestination and Harry Potter in 3D as these are more action films and as I really wanted to see themI thought I’d pay the extra for the 3D version. The 3D effects stood out more in final destinationthan in Harry Potter as there was more gory action in final destination, whilst in Harry Potter Isometimes forgot that the 3D effects were even meant to be there.