Knowledge Management
The process of taking the abstract
and making it real.
Knowledge Based Systems
KBS = “preserve knowledge for later distribution and application” (page 129, Becerra)
1/29/2015 be...
Users and Developers
“How to represent the knowledge depends basically on its nature” (page 133)
The nature of knowledge i...
1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 4
Knowledge Base
A knowledge base is
built to store
knowledge. The
knowledge in the
knowledge ba...
Frames
1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 5
A frame represents object oriented programming, OOP. A frame consists of structured
kno...
Rules
Rules are a formal way of representing knowledge, otherwise known as “facts” about the knowledge
being represented. ...
Universalistic and Contingency views
Why it is important to identify task characteristics?
Exchange
Combination
Routines
D...
Characteristics that Influence KM
Identify KM solutions:
• Assess contingency factors
• Identify the KM processes based on...
Butterhead’s bunny jammies factory
Mrs. Butterhead loves to wear bunny jammies. In an attempt to spread her love of
bunny ...
1=yes :: 2=maybe :: 3=no
KM
processes
Task
Uncertaint
y
Task
Interdepen
dence
Tacit
Knowledge
Procedural/
Declarative
Know...
Analysis of Butterhead’s company
According to the results from the table of tasks of Mrs Butterhead’s comapny:
Socializati...
Assessment
According to Becerra there are 5 reasons to conduct an assessment:
1. In order to identify key KM contributors
...
Assessment of Impacts & Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative: understanding of human thought through socializat...
Balance Scorecard
A balance scorecard is based of the strategic objectives of the organization or the
organizations subuni...
KM Solutions :: Artificial Intelligence
Knowledge Based systems:
A user driven domain.
Expert Based systems:
A system that...
Artificial Intelligence Technologies
1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 16
Constraint
based systems
Diagrammatic
reasoning
Fuzzy lo...
References
Becerra-Fernandez, I., Gonzalez, A., & Sabherwal, R. (2004). Knowledge management:
Challenges, solutions, and t...
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Knowledge Management

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a basic and simple description of knowledge management

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Knowledge Management

  1. 1. Knowledge Management The process of taking the abstract and making it real.
  2. 2. Knowledge Based Systems KBS = “preserve knowledge for later distribution and application” (page 129, Becerra) 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 2 Knowledge Base Intelligent agents Knowledge acquisition Inference engine Development shell Test case Developers USERS INTERFACE
  3. 3. Users and Developers “How to represent the knowledge depends basically on its nature” (page 133) The nature of knowledge is defined by the developer for the users knowledge needs. Knowledge can be represented as: • Functional • Heuristic = rules (if the jammies go on one foot than they will go on the other foot) • Structured = frames (if the jammies are pink and fuzzy with a tail than they are the bunny jammies) 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 3
  4. 4. 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 4 Knowledge Base A knowledge base is built to store knowledge. The knowledge in the knowledge base can than be interpreted by the inference engine. The inference engine can represent the knowledge in the knowledge base with either frame or rule reasoning Knowledge Base and Inference Engine
  5. 5. Frames 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 5 A frame represents object oriented programming, OOP. A frame consists of structured knowledge. Frame reasoning uses metadata categorization or a taxonomy of terms to represent the knowledge. Frames consist of: • Slots • Facets – Value • Range • Legal-values • Default • If-needed • If-added • If-changed (page 141, Becerra) Bunny Jammies Color: Pink Manufacturer: Mrs. Butterhead Date: 2009 Fabric: organic cotton Texture: fluffy Tail: short Ears: long and floppy Length : 35 cm Weight: 1lbDaemons
  6. 6. Rules Rules are a formal way of representing knowledge, otherwise known as “facts” about the knowledge being represented. A developer will tag knowledge as a rule when the objective is to “derive a value for a conclusion.” (page 147) A rule can be: backward reasoning or forward reasoning For example: Forward reasoning: 1. Match all rules that are true “mark them as applicable” 2. Resolve conflicts – if rules conflict resolve 3. Take action of conflict 4. Reset and start from step 1 again If the pajamas are being worn by Sadie on a Tuesday and they are pink then they are her bunny jammies. Backward reasoning: 1. Form a list of goals 2. Gather rules that pertain to the goals 3. Examine each rule 4. Reset if all goals are acceptable If Sadie is wearing her pink bunny jammies than it is Tuesday. 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 6
  7. 7. Universalistic and Contingency views Why it is important to identify task characteristics? Exchange Combination Routines Direction Socialization Internalization Externalization Routines Direction 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 7 Universalistic: only one method is needed to manage knowledge Contingency: one method is not the best methodology Task characteristics: define the best process for knowledge management which in turn defines the best practice and technology. All of this enters into the KBS equation of defining the user needs of knowledge management. Tasks characteristics are typically defined in the subunits of an organization. Identifying all the tasks capabilities within each subunit equals the workflow process of the organization as a whole. uncertaintylow high low high i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e Page 69, Becerra)
  8. 8. Characteristics that Influence KM Identify KM solutions: • Assess contingency factors • Identify the KM processes based on contingency factor • Prioritize the needed KM processes • Identify the existing KM processes • Identify additional KM processes • Assess the KM infrastructure • Develop additional KM systems, mechanisms & technologies (Page 74, Becerra) 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 8 To better understand the influencing factors of a characteristics and how it effects the overall KM processes we are going to create a case scenario and identify the underlying tasks. The company Mrs. Butterhead’s jammies making factory will be assessed using a 1-3 scale. Once the numbers are added we can prioritize the tasks according to importance. The lowest number is the highest priority for Mrs. Butterhead’s company.
  9. 9. Butterhead’s bunny jammies factory Mrs. Butterhead loves to wear bunny jammies. In an attempt to spread her love of bunny jammies she created a small company. She has 15 employees all very specialized: • Administrators • Accountants • Art designers • Web managers – e-commerce & social networking specialists • Laborers – seamstresses & packers Mrs. Butterhead wants to retire soon which means all her expertise on making bunny jammies needs to be transferred to little Miss Butterhead. The knowledge that needs to be communicated can be identified as domain expertise pertaining to owning and operating a small company along with customer satisfaction and value proposition. The following chart will help Mrs. Butterhead identify the priority of tasks within her company. The tasks that score lowest on the scale will be addressed first during the knowledge transfer process. 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 9
  10. 10. 1=yes :: 2=maybe :: 3=no KM processes Task Uncertaint y Task Interdepen dence Tacit Knowledge Procedural/ Declarative Knowledge Organizatio nal Size = small Business strategy low cost Environmen tal uncertainty TOTAL Combination 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 13 Socialization = discovery 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 10 Socialization = sharing 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 11 Exchange 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 14 Externalizatio n 2 3 2 2 1 2 3 15 Internalizatio n 2 3 2 2 1 2 3 15 Direction 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 13 Routines 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 12 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 10
  11. 11. Analysis of Butterhead’s company According to the results from the table of tasks of Mrs Butterhead’s comapny: Socialization sharing and discovery seem to be the highest priority. What this means than is that Mrs. Butterhead should align her strategic objects within the company to compliment the socialization aspects of knowledge sharing and discovery. The highest score indicates the weaknesses within the company. Externalization and internalization of knowledge within Mrs. Butterhead’s company are weak. Mrs Butterhead needs to focus on finding the conflicts within the organization that cause this to be a weak process. In identifying the strength and weaknesses of theKM processes in the company Mrs. Butterhead will be able to effectively transfer knowledge to her daughter. In order to define the weakness it may be necessary for Mrs. Butterhead to conduct a full assessment of the knowledge management within her organization. The benefits can impact the employees and the market value. Increasing knowledge management will only increase the human capital and intellectual capital of making bunny jaammies. 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 11
  12. 12. Assessment According to Becerra there are 5 reasons to conduct an assessment: 1. In order to identify key KM contributors 2. Awareness of KM efforts and acknowledge those key contributors 3. Justification of KM efforts measure the ROI 4. Identify areas where KM is needed 5. Develop argument for KM initiatives to executive leadership KM needs to be assessed on a regular basis. KM is organic and constantly changing. What one may have identified one month may be different from the KM needs today. KM can be assessed using different methodologies: • Likert scale • Balance scorecard • Surveys • Asking questions – communication KM can assess both qualitative and quantitative knowledge 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 12
  13. 13. Assessment of Impacts & Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis Qualitative: understanding of human thought through socialization Quantitative: specific numerical data derived from concrete analysis 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 13 Employees Processes Products Organizational performance VALUE IMPACTS One can measure the impacts and KM through analyzing the qualitative and quantitative knowledge. The balance scorecard is one method that analyzes the different types of knowledge along with the impacts.
  14. 14. Balance Scorecard A balance scorecard is based of the strategic objectives of the organization or the organizations subunits. Each subunit can maintain a balance scorecard to reflect the impacts and alignment to the organizations mission. A scorecard is typically an excel spreadsheet. Here is an example of a corporate scorecard: 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 14 Measures the perspective of : Customers or users Financial stakeholders Internal operations Growth and education – comparative analysis Retrieved July 3, 2009 http://www.balancedscorec ard.org/Portals/0/PDF/Vinfe n_FY06_Scorecard.pdf
  15. 15. KM Solutions :: Artificial Intelligence Knowledge Based systems: A user driven domain. Expert Based systems: A system that employees a domain that is governed by the users or domain experts. A expert system is limited to what the user has inputted into the domain, thus limiting the thought scope of the system. An expert system is a facet of a knowledge based system. Artificial Neural Networks: A system that mimics the biological nervous system. The system processes knowledge and information to solve problems like a human would solve a problem. There is no restricted domain for the system to pull data from it relies on learning through values called “weights.” Intelligent Agents: Agents are systems that use the autonomous action to achieve an objective or conclusion. This can be done by implementing an exhaustive taxonomy into the system in which a conclusion can be achieved through searching. 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 15
  16. 16. Artificial Intelligence Technologies 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 16 Constraint based systems Diagrammatic reasoning Fuzzy logic Evolutionary algorithms Model-based reasoning Defined by what can not be done A “target system can be used to recognized and diagnose its abnormal operation “ (page 123, Becerra) Concepts and ideas are represented in diagrams Vague and inacurate thinking Process that mimics nature
  17. 17. References Becerra-Fernandez, I., Gonzalez, A., & Sabherwal, R. (2004). Knowledge management: Challenges, solutions, and technologies. (1st Ed.). UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Balance Scorecard http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/ta bid/55/Default.aspx Robot Illustration. Retrieved on July 10, 2009 http://vi.sualize.us/popular/robot 1/29/2015 becky.a.bristol 17
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