Creating An Ideal Image Library Website And Database

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general description on how to optimize an image library for user experience

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Creating An Ideal Image Library Website And Database

  1. 1. Creating an Ideal Image Library Website and Database Becky Bristol
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>We know that pictures provoke reaction, stimulate ideas, rekindle memories. They are powerful instruments in story telling, teaching, propaganda, and numerous other fields. Therefore, it is important that libraries provide access to images which illustrate ideas, even abstract ones like hunger, or the experience of hunger...if we can index this aspect of the picture, we make it easily available to users requiring such an image: we make our collection more accessible. Krause 1998 </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is an Image Library? <ul><li>Collection of images that have a schematic classification system. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically a non-profit institution such as public library, academic and museum libraries, or special collection libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Image libraries are committed to developing standards and providing educational tools for research and teaching. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are some of the problems? <ul><li>Image Libraries have no standards for cataloguing images. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no controlled vocabulary or thesauri. </li></ul><ul><li>Images are difficult to translate to text. </li></ul><ul><li>Users knowledge of images and technology is extremely varied. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to solve these problems: <ul><li>Establish standards for image descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an indexing scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the user of the image library. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the user will search . </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what images a user will need. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what services a user will want. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Image Libraries <ul><li>Three areas of consideration when developing a usable image library database: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User image needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Management of an Image Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Image Libraries <ul><li>Evaluate and consider the set up of the following four sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://diglib.princeton.edu/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nypl.org/digital/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ksa.wmc.ohio-state.edu/ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What needs to be considered: <ul><li>Understand how the user will search for images. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptions or depictions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand how images will be catalogued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept or content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand and explore search tools. </li></ul>
  9. 9. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Fidel (1997) states specific fundamental issues have been ignored: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the differences between image and text retrieval? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What image attributes are important for retrieval? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of users queries for images? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Fidel proposed the Data Pole and Object Pole as a source for defining the descriptions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. User image needs and retrieval needs: Browsing can be done quickly Browsing is time consuming Requires browsing results Does not require browsing results One image is sufficient in satisfying a request In order to satisfy a request one or more image is required Biographical attributes are important for relevance assessment Biographical attributes are not likely to play a role Ofness is likely to be different from aboutness Ofness often equals aboutness Two different images may satisfy the same need Images must include the same subject headings to satisfy the same need Color, shape and texture are not important in retrieving an image Color, shape, and texture are important information in retrieving images It may be difficult to find text or subject heading to retrieve an image Images can be retrieved using text, and subject headings Users may find explaining the relevance of an image difficult It is possible for a user to explain why an image is relevant Relevance criteria are latent, and are invoked when viewing images Relevance criteria are specifications of which the user is aware User will recognize relevance criteria “when they see it” Relevance criteria can be determined ahead of time Images are objects Images provide information OBJECT POLE DATA POLE
  12. 12. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Princeton http:// diglib.princeton.edu / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ digitized research information for the purpose of preservation and to enhance access.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patron select books to be digitized for the image library collection, establishing a user based collection development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides images with research supported data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not separate the cataloguing differences between books and images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools are limited. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Princeton: http:// diglib.princeton.edu / </li></ul>
  14. 14. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Princeton: http:// diglib.princeton.edu / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boolean search operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search materials, collections, images or text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genre </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Princeton: http://diglib.princeton.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>Search for images with the word italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for images with italian and manuscripts and 1500 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 results </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Yale: http:// beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitization of rare books and manuscripts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides images with research supported data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not separate the cataloguing differences between books and images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools seem broader than Princeton. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Yale: http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/ </li></ul>
  18. 18. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Yale: http:// beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All keywords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keywords or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exact phrase or name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image ID search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection search </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Yale: http:// beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex / </li></ul><ul><li>Search for images with the word italian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 pages of results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for images with italian manuscripts painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>77 pages of results </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>NYPL: http:// www.nypl.org/digital/index.htm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides images with research supported data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare and unique books, primary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does separate the cataloguing differences between books and images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools are broad. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>NYPL: http:// www.nypl.org/digital/index.htm </li></ul>
  22. 22. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>NYPL: http://www.nypl.org/digital/index.htm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image ID, Standard Reference or NYPL Call Numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source title </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date Range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field Search </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center or Division Search </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>NYPL: http://www.nypl.org/digital/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Search for images with the word italian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62 pages of results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for images with italian painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,339 results </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Ohio State School of Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>http://ksa.wmc.ohio-state.edu/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images of architecture, provided by users and vendors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides images with research supported data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does separate the cataloguing differences between books and images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools are broad. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Ohio State School of Architecture: </li></ul><ul><li>http://ksa.wmc.ohio-state.edu / </li></ul>
  26. 26. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Ohio State School of Architecture: </li></ul><ul><li>http://ksa.wmc.ohio-state.edu / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boolean Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Search/browse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject headings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-categories </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. User image needs and retrieval needs: <ul><li>Ohio State School of Architecture: </li></ul><ul><li>http://ksa.wmc.ohio-state.edu / </li></ul><ul><li>Search for images with the word italian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>267 results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for images with italian churches 1500 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 results </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. User uses to identify images? <ul><li>Basic image query is based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time period </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. User uses to identify images? <ul><li>Enser and McGregor (1992) analyzed 2,722 queries from an image library, and concluded all queries could be placed into four categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique with refiners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non unique with refiners </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Content management systems: <ul><li>Standards for image libraries have been created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getty Research Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Resource Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Committee for Documentation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Content Management <ul><li>Indexing schemes have been created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art and Architecture Thesaurus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union List of Artists Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICONCLASS </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Content Management <ul><li>Things to consider when developing a content management system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand who the user is and the method in which the user will search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image data classification and representation: content, or concept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction and interaction among images and search tools. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Content Management <ul><li>Concept cataloguing is based on controlled vocabulary and thesauri </li></ul><ul><li>Content cataloguing is based on classification attributes; color, shape, pixel size, or text descriptors </li></ul>
  34. 34. Content Management <ul><li>Fields to consider that a user may want to search: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>description of the art piece, is this the exterior facade, detail of a painting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>location of the art piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subject heading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vendor of image or photographer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>notes/or comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who scanned the image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>original source (slide, transparency, book) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>size of the art work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image id number </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Content Management <ul><li>Create a usability survey, in order to prioritize what is important. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey will not determine if the the data has been entered correctly but it will assist in management and organization. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Services <ul><li>How can an image library provide services to assist a user? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tutorial about how to search the collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tutorial on how to download into power point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tutorial on how to do basic color correction and cropping of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explanations on appropriate image sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>768 on the greatest side for power point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publication of an image should be done from a high resolution tiff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digital images can be printed onto slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thumbnails can not be used for power point or publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classes on how to give good power point presentations </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Services: <ul><li>Image library website should contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>light box – to store the images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>editing site- edit data that is already attributed to the image, or create personal notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct down load into power point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct download into html format perhaps a photo album concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>full size images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>zoom and navigate image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rotate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select and crop a part of an image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general and basic color correcting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shopping cart for mass download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form and shopping cart for purchasing images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form for digital image rights and reproductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form for translating digital image into slide/color photocopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image size re-format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form for tiff request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form for book stand or copy stand photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form for burning cd/dvd </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusion: <ul><li>“ Research in this area will extend the general understanding of image intermediation so that we can develop effective and appropriate tools and processes to aid in the provision of visual resources reference to inform the creation of image meta data and to design interfaces to support image seeking and use” (Goodrum 2002) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion: <ul><li>Images can provide visual affirmation and data that is unique and essential, it is important that images be respected. </li></ul>

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