The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century

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  • 1. The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century Katrin Becker
  • 2. Everything old is new again. Students should NOT be taught how to write! Why? Writing diminishes memory!
  • 3. The Debate: Clark (1983): M edia do not influence learning under any circumstances ! Kozma (1991): M edia produce a unique experience ! (1994) Do not! (1994) Do too! (2007) Still not!
  • 4. The Medium is just like a Truck. Learning Objectives Instructional Methods Content Medium Instructional Designer Learner
  • 5. Times Have Changed THEN The Internet!! Behold, WORD!!
      • system "Autovision II" at "Technology 83" trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.)
      • IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy)
  • 6. Times Have Changed NOW
      • video game tournament
      • Alienware Area-51 Desktop
    Cloud computing
  • 7. Times Have Really Changed
  • 8. Where’s the Evidence?
    • Lectures?
    • Books?
    • TV, Film, Games?
    • Other Technology?
    • (on this, Clark is right about there being no evidence)
    • NOTHING works better than a good teacher, unless it’s a good teacher with decent tools.
  • 9. The REAL Problem
    • “ Instructional technology only works for some kids, with some topics, and under some conditions – but that is true of all pedagogy. There is nothing that works for every purpose, for every learner, and all the time.”
    • (Mann, 2001, p. 241)
  • 10. Serious Games
    • Definition:
    • Digital games designed for purposes OTHER than pure entertainment.
    • Designed intent is key.
  • 11. Serious Games ≠ Educational Games But all Games are Simulations Serious Games Simulations Games Games for Change Games for the Military Adver-games Games for Health Exergames Games for Learning Games for Politics
  • 12. The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games
    • It’s just a vehicle. They’re all the same....
  • 13. The Replacibility Test
    • “ Whenever you have found a medium or set of media attributes which you believe will cause learning for some learners on a given task, ask yourself if another (similar) set of attributes would lead to the same learning result” (Clark 1994, p.28).
    • For all learners? For your best learners? Average? Struggling?
    wait.......CAUSE learning?
  • 14. The Medium really IS the Message
    • Have you ever read a book, then watched the movie and thought, “Well, that was EXACTLY the same” ?
    • Which pilot would you rather have?
      • The one who read his flight manuals for 100 hours.
      • The pilot who spent 100 hours in a state-of-the-art flight simulator.
  • 15. Educational Game Debates Games Design is all we need. Instructional Design is all we need. Grim Fandango Virtual Frog
  • 16. The Challenge
    • If you thought designing good instruction was hard, designing good games is just as hard.
    • Designing good educational games is MUCH HARDER!
    • Can’t just wrap game around ID.
      • Games are about the experience.
      • ID is about the content (what).
  • 17. What NOT to do:
    • edutainment
    Mathblaster WTF???? Eat or be Eaten
  • 18. Where Does That Leave Us?
    • The medium matters.
    • Don’t try to copy the commercial model.
    • Don’t try to replace the teacher.
    • An educational game is rarely a stand-alone device.
    • Study instructional design AND game design.
      • One can not teach what one does not practice .
      • O ne cannot design what one does not understand
  • 19. Image Credits
    • Title Slide: Second Life ; Global Conflicts
    • Times have changed [THEN]
      • w:Automatix w:machine vision system "Autovision II" at "Technology 83" trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.)
      • IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy)
    • Times Have Changed [NOW]
      • video game tournament
      • Alienware Area-51 Desktop
    • Times Have Really Changed
      • Medical Simulation (1), University of Calgary
      • Medical Simulation (2), Young Chow, Virginia Tech
      • Ayiti : The Cost of Life , Global Kids
      • Air Force Delta Storm , used by USAF
      • Darwars , image: soldiersmediacenter
    • The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games
      • Wargames
    All other images: wikimedia commons
  • 20. Credits & References
    • What Not to Do slide:
    • Eat or be Eaten , Larry Green, Lake Tahoe Community College
    • Asian Capitals, SheppardSoftware.com
    • http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/games/
    • Math Mountain
    • Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(1), 21-29.
    • Mann, D. (2001). Documenting the Effects of Instructional Technology, A Fly-Over of Policy Questions. In W. F. Heineke & L. Blasi (Eds.), Research methods for educational technology ; v. 1: Methods of evaluating educational technology (Vol. 1, pp. 239-249). Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.
    • Grim Fandango
    • Virtual Frog