The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century


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The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century

  1. 1. The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century Katrin Becker
  2. 2. Everything old is new again. Students should NOT be taught how to write! Why? Writing diminishes memory!
  3. 3. The Debate: Clark (1983): M edia do not influence learning under any circumstances ! Kozma (1991): M edia produce a unique experience ! (1994) Do not! (1994) Do too! (2007) Still not!
  4. 4. The Medium is just like a Truck. Learning Objectives Instructional Methods Content Medium Instructional Designer Learner
  5. 5. Times Have Changed THEN The Internet!! Behold, WORD!! <ul><ul><li>system &quot;Autovision II&quot; at &quot;Technology 83&quot; trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Times Have Changed NOW <ul><ul><li>video game tournament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alienware Area-51 Desktop </li></ul></ul>Cloud computing
  7. 7. Times Have Really Changed
  8. 8. Where’s the Evidence? <ul><li>Lectures? </li></ul><ul><li>Books? </li></ul><ul><li>TV, Film, Games? </li></ul><ul><li>Other Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>(on this, Clark is right about there being no evidence) </li></ul><ul><li>NOTHING works better than a good teacher, unless it’s a good teacher with decent tools. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The REAL Problem <ul><li>“ Instructional technology only works for some kids, with some topics, and under some conditions – but that is true of all pedagogy. There is nothing that works for every purpose, for every learner, and all the time.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Mann, 2001, p. 241) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Serious Games <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital games designed for purposes OTHER than pure entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed intent is key. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Serious Games ≠ Educational Games But all Games are Simulations Serious Games Simulations Games Games for Change Games for the Military Adver-games Games for Health Exergames Games for Learning Games for Politics
  12. 12. The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games <ul><li>It’s just a vehicle. They’re all the same.... </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Replacibility Test <ul><li>“ Whenever you have found a medium or set of media attributes which you believe will cause learning for some learners on a given task, ask yourself if another (similar) set of attributes would lead to the same learning result” (Clark 1994, p.28). </li></ul><ul><li>For all learners? For your best learners? Average? Struggling? </li></ul>wait.......CAUSE learning?
  14. 14. The Medium really IS the Message <ul><li>Have you ever read a book, then watched the movie and thought, “Well, that was EXACTLY the same” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which pilot would you rather have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The one who read his flight manuals for 100 hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pilot who spent 100 hours in a state-of-the-art flight simulator. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Educational Game Debates Games Design is all we need. Instructional Design is all we need. Grim Fandango Virtual Frog
  16. 16. The Challenge <ul><li>If you thought designing good instruction was hard, designing good games is just as hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Designing good educational games is MUCH HARDER! </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t just wrap game around ID. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games are about the experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID is about the content (what). </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What NOT to do: <ul><li>edutainment </li></ul>Mathblaster WTF???? Eat or be Eaten
  18. 18. Where Does That Leave Us? <ul><li>The medium matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to copy the commercial model. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to replace the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>An educational game is rarely a stand-alone device. </li></ul><ul><li>Study instructional design AND game design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One can not teach what one does not practice . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O ne cannot design what one does not understand </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Image Credits <ul><li>Title Slide: Second Life ; Global Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Times have changed [THEN] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w:Automatix w:machine vision system &quot;Autovision II&quot; at &quot;Technology 83&quot; trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Times Have Changed [NOW] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video game tournament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alienware Area-51 Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Times Have Really Changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Simulation (1), University of Calgary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Simulation (2), Young Chow, Virginia Tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ayiti : The Cost of Life , Global Kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Force Delta Storm , used by USAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwars , image: soldiersmediacenter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wargames </li></ul></ul>All other images: wikimedia commons
  20. 20. Credits & References <ul><li>What Not to Do slide: </li></ul><ul><li>Eat or be Eaten , Larry Green, Lake Tahoe Community College </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Capitals, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Math Mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(1), 21-29. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann, D. (2001). Documenting the Effects of Instructional Technology, A Fly-Over of Policy Questions. In W. F. Heineke & L. Blasi (Eds.), Research methods for educational technology ; v. 1: Methods of evaluating educational technology (Vol. 1, pp. 239-249). Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub. </li></ul><ul><li>Grim Fandango </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Frog </li></ul>