The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century
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The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century

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    The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century Presentation Transcript

    • The Clark-Kozma Debate in the 21st Century Katrin Becker
    • Everything old is new again. Students should NOT be taught how to write! Why? Writing diminishes memory!
    • The Debate: Clark (1983): M edia do not influence learning under any circumstances ! Kozma (1991): M edia produce a unique experience ! (1994) Do not! (1994) Do too! (2007) Still not!
    • The Medium is just like a Truck. Learning Objectives Instructional Methods Content Medium Instructional Designer Learner
    • Times Have Changed THEN The Internet!! Behold, WORD!!
        • system "Autovision II" at "Technology 83" trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.)
        • IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy)
    • Times Have Changed NOW
        • video game tournament
        • Alienware Area-51 Desktop
      Cloud computing
    • Times Have Really Changed
    • Where’s the Evidence?
      • Lectures?
      • Books?
      • TV, Film, Games?
      • Other Technology?
      • (on this, Clark is right about there being no evidence)
      • NOTHING works better than a good teacher, unless it’s a good teacher with decent tools.
    • The REAL Problem
      • “ Instructional technology only works for some kids, with some topics, and under some conditions – but that is true of all pedagogy. There is nothing that works for every purpose, for every learner, and all the time.”
      • (Mann, 2001, p. 241)
    • Serious Games
      • Definition:
      • Digital games designed for purposes OTHER than pure entertainment.
      • Designed intent is key.
    • Serious Games ≠ Educational Games But all Games are Simulations Serious Games Simulations Games Games for Change Games for the Military Adver-games Games for Health Exergames Games for Learning Games for Politics
    • The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games
      • It’s just a vehicle. They’re all the same....
    • The Replacibility Test
      • “ Whenever you have found a medium or set of media attributes which you believe will cause learning for some learners on a given task, ask yourself if another (similar) set of attributes would lead to the same learning result” (Clark 1994, p.28).
      • For all learners? For your best learners? Average? Struggling?
      wait.......CAUSE learning?
    • The Medium really IS the Message
      • Have you ever read a book, then watched the movie and thought, “Well, that was EXACTLY the same” ?
      • Which pilot would you rather have?
        • The one who read his flight manuals for 100 hours.
        • The pilot who spent 100 hours in a state-of-the-art flight simulator.
    • Educational Game Debates Games Design is all we need. Instructional Design is all we need. Grim Fandango Virtual Frog
    • The Challenge
      • If you thought designing good instruction was hard, designing good games is just as hard.
      • Designing good educational games is MUCH HARDER!
      • Can’t just wrap game around ID.
        • Games are about the experience.
        • ID is about the content (what).
    • What NOT to do:
      • edutainment
      Mathblaster WTF???? Eat or be Eaten
    • Where Does That Leave Us?
      • The medium matters.
      • Don’t try to copy the commercial model.
      • Don’t try to replace the teacher.
      • An educational game is rarely a stand-alone device.
      • Study instructional design AND game design.
        • One can not teach what one does not practice .
        • O ne cannot design what one does not understand
    • Image Credits
      • Title Slide: Second Life ; Global Conflicts
      • Times have changed [THEN]
        • w:Automatix w:machine vision system "Autovision II" at "Technology 83" trade show in Israel demonstrating blob analysis using backlighting. (Date is within a day or so.)
        • IBM PC XT (128KB memory; 10Mb HD, 5 ¼  floppy)
      • Times Have Changed [NOW]
        • video game tournament
        • Alienware Area-51 Desktop
      • Times Have Really Changed
        • Medical Simulation (1), University of Calgary
        • Medical Simulation (2), Young Chow, Virginia Tech
        • Ayiti : The Cost of Life , Global Kids
        • Air Force Delta Storm , used by USAF
        • Darwars , image: soldiersmediacenter
      • The Vehicular Metaphor Applied to Digital Games
        • Wargames
      All other images: wikimedia commons
    • Credits & References
      • What Not to Do slide:
      • Eat or be Eaten , Larry Green, Lake Tahoe Community College
      • Asian Capitals, SheppardSoftware.com
      • http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/games/
      • Math Mountain
      • Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(1), 21-29.
      • Mann, D. (2001). Documenting the Effects of Instructional Technology, A Fly-Over of Policy Questions. In W. F. Heineke & L. Blasi (Eds.), Research methods for educational technology ; v. 1: Methods of evaluating educational technology (Vol. 1, pp. 239-249). Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.
      • Grim Fandango
      • Virtual Frog