SoTL 2013

Is Gamification A Game
Changer ?
Comparing Gamified and n0ngamified aPProaches
Early Returns and Initial
Findin...
SoTL 2013

Outline
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

What am I playing now?
What is Gamification?
An Inadvertent Con?
Formal L...
SoTL 2013

Who Am I?

20/01/2014

20/01/201

Katrin
Becker,
GamificationPhD Changer
Game

3
3
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

What am I Playing?

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

4
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

What is Gamification?

The use of game elements
in non-game contexts.

Deterding, S. (2012). 9.5 Theses on the ...
SoTL 2013

Game Elements?

System

20/01/2014

Elements

Gamification Game Changer

6
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Gaming

(Serious)
Games

Gamification

System

Elements

Playful
Design

(Serious)
Toys

Playing
20/01/2014

Ga...
SoTL 2013

A Con?

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

8
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Is Gamification Evil?

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

9
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Gamification is Not New - PBL

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

10
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

What about School?

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

11
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Formal Learning is
already a game.

course requirements
policies / regulations
assignments
grades
passing cours...
SoTL 2013

What IS New?

Chris Haskell, The Game-Based Curriculum:
Directing Learning with Quests, Badges, Achievements,
&...
SoTL 2013

Flexible Path
1.
2.

Must earn 'N' XP.
Here are 'M' things


3.
4.

totalling >N XP (*important*)

Must do at ...
SoTL 2013

Accumulative Grades
Welcome to COMP 1103….
…..you all have ZERO
Everything the learner does for points ADDS
to ...
SoTL 2013

The 1st 2 Iterations
Background:
 Master's level education course (U of C)
 Proposed, designed, implemented 2...
SoTL 2013

Original DGBL Course

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

17
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Gamified Course, V1


20% Gamified:









470
231

Range:




The DGBL Game

Class Ave:




20%

...
SoTL 2013

Gamified Course, V2


50% Gamified:


25%
Lesson Design
25%
High Concept
Game Design



50%





The DGBL ...
SoTL 2013

Gamified Course, V2


50% Gamified:


25%
25%
Design

Lesson Design
High Concept Game



50%

The DGBL Game
...
SoTL 2013

Player Stats

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

21
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Keeping Score

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

22
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Assessment of Individual Quests

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

23
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Assessment of Individual Quests

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

24
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013
Course Orientation

Typical
Course
Schedule

Introduction to Game
Based Learning
The Current State of
Games and ...
SoTL 2013

My Adaptation


Can’t go completely flexible

courses still progress linearly
 there are practical reasons to...
SoTL 2013

Designing a Game

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

27
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Gamified
Course
Concept
Map

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

28
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Game-Based Course Design


Gives up on the lock-step lessons notion


Was never a reality anyways




Peopl...
SoTL 2013

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

30
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

The Big Challenges
Instructor:
 Up-Front Design
 Ensuring objectives
are addressed.
 CompetencyBased Assessm...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment
COMP 1103: Introduction to Computers
non-majors; 1st year course
required for some progr...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment





"Traditional" Delivery
Lecture from ppts,
Ppts released at the beginning of the...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment





"Gamified" Delivery
Lecture from ppts, inquiry-driven, quest-driven
PPTs releas...
SoTL 2013

The Current
Experiment

Step 1:
Design
Meaningful
Evidence of
Competence
20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer
...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment

Step 1:
Design
Meaningful
Evidence of
Competence

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment

Step 1:
Design
Meaningful
Evidence of
Competence
20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer
...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment
GRADE & GPA Table
(Used to calculate student grades on the Gradebook sheet)
Score

XP

L...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment
Step 3 & 4:
 Assign XP values
to Quests
 Decide on:
options
 flexibility
 achievemen...
SoTL 2013

The Current Experiment

Step 5:
 Set up
Scoring
Mechanism
 Set up
"Gradebook"
20/01/2014

Gamification Game C...
SoTL 2013

Jumping the Gun - Early Conclusions
Traditional


All values were lower *except* how
well expectations matched...
SoTL 2013

Jumping the Gun - Early Conclusions


Support







Motivating for some
Discouraging for others





...
SoTL 2013

Questions?

20/01/2014

Gamification Game Changer

43
© K.Becker
SoTL 2013

Abstract of Presentation:
‘Gamification’ - the use of game elements in non-game contexts - has rapidly become o...
SoTL 2013

Resources















Becker, K. (2004). Reconciling a Traditional Syllabus with an Inquiry-Based...
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Is gamification a game changer

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‘Gamification’ - the use of game elements in non-game contexts - has rapidly become one of the current hottest trends. This presentation presents an overview of what gamification is and isn’t, and reports on the author’s experiences using this approach in a graduate level education class as well as the early results of a comparison between gamified and non-gamified sections of a freshman introduction to computers course. In the current course, the non-gamified sections employ a fairly standard structure that includes various assignments spread out throughout the term, various in-class activities, and both a midterm and final exam. The gamified section organizes all student work into various quests worth from 10 to 200 ‘experience points’ (XP), most of which have no set deadlines. While the quests are effectively equivalent in grade weight to the assignments of the more traditional sections, students in the gamified section start off with a score of zero (0) and every quest they submit contributes to their final grade cumulatively. A final score of 1000 is equivalent to 100%, but the total number of possible XP is 1435. All quests were made available to students at the beginning of term; some could be repeated for XP and included a variety of ‘guild’ (group) quests and ‘solo’ quests; and many quests could be repeated to earn additional XP. The presentation will provide some background on gamification, detail the course structure, highlight early successes and failures, and conclude with strategies for incorporating meaningful gamification in other courses.

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  • Is gamification a game changer

    1. 1. SoTL 2013 Is Gamification A Game Changer ? Comparing Gamified and n0ngamified aPProaches Early Returns and Initial Findings of Work in Progress Fri. 10-11 Katrin Becker & Patrick Perri © K.Becker
    2. 2. SoTL 2013 Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What am I playing now? What is Gamification? An Inadvertent Con? Formal Learning is already a Game. What IS New? The 1st 2 Iterations The Current Experiment Jumping the Gun - Early Conclusions Resources 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 2 © K.Becker
    3. 3. SoTL 2013 Who Am I? 20/01/2014 20/01/201 Katrin Becker, GamificationPhD Changer Game 3 3 © K.Becker
    4. 4. SoTL 2013 What am I Playing? 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 4 © K.Becker
    5. 5. SoTL 2013 What is Gamification? The use of game elements in non-game contexts. Deterding, S. (2012). 9.5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification. Microsoft Research. [Microsoft Research Video] Retrieved from http://research.microsoft.com/apps/video/dl.aspx?id=174677&l=i on 12 October 2012. 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 5 © K.Becker
    6. 6. SoTL 2013 Game Elements? System 20/01/2014 Elements Gamification Game Changer 6 © K.Becker
    7. 7. SoTL 2013 Gaming (Serious) Games Gamification System Elements Playful Design (Serious) Toys Playing 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer Deterding, S. (2012). 9.5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification. Microsoft Research. [Microsoft Research Video] Retrieved from http://research.microsoft.com/apps/video/dl.aspx?id= 174677&l=i on 12 October 2012. 7 © K.Becker
    8. 8. SoTL 2013 A Con? 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 8 © K.Becker
    9. 9. SoTL 2013 Is Gamification Evil? 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 9 © K.Becker
    10. 10. SoTL 2013 Gamification is Not New - PBL 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 10 © K.Becker
    11. 11. SoTL 2013 What about School? 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 11 © K.Becker
    12. 12. SoTL 2013 Formal Learning is already a game. course requirements policies / regulations assignments grades passing course 20/01/2014 = = = = = game objectives game rules quests XP winning the game Gamification Game Changer 12 © K.Becker
    13. 13. SoTL 2013 What IS New? Chris Haskell, The Game-Based Curriculum: Directing Learning with Quests, Badges, Achievements, & Truly Personalized Learning, EdWeb Webinar, May 2013 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 13 © K.Becker
    14. 14. SoTL 2013 Flexible Path 1. 2. Must earn 'N' XP. Here are 'M' things  3. 4. totalling >N XP (*important*) Must do at LEAST these: ____ The rest is up to you. 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 14 © K.Becker
    15. 15. SoTL 2013 Accumulative Grades Welcome to COMP 1103…. …..you all have ZERO Everything the learner does for points ADDS to the total.  NOTHING the learner does can lower their grade.  What if they blow an assignment quest?  How to control submissions?  20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 15 © K.Becker
    16. 16. SoTL 2013 The 1st 2 Iterations Background:  Master's level education course (U of C)  Proposed, designed, implemented 2005  Also taught 2006, 2007  All F2F  Previous report on original course (BJET)  Traditional design Readings, discussion  Project (design a game or lesson that uses a game)  Research paper  20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 16 © K.Becker
    17. 17. SoTL 2013 Original DGBL Course 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 17 © K.Becker
    18. 18. SoTL 2013 Gamified Course, V1  20% Gamified:       470 231 Range:   The DGBL Game Class Ave:   20% Total possible XP:   25% Lesson Design 15% Peer Review of Lesson Design 25% High Concept Game Design 15% Peer Review of High Concept Game Design 134 – 333 % over 100%  20/01/2014 32% (7/22, + 3 near 100%) Gamification Game Changer 18 © K.Becker
    19. 19. SoTL 2013 Gamified Course, V2  50% Gamified:  25% Lesson Design 25% High Concept Game Design  50%   The DGBL Game Total XP possible:  20/01/2014 1000 Gamification Game Changer 19 © K.Becker
    20. 20. SoTL 2013 Gamified Course, V2  50% Gamified:  25% 25% Design Lesson Design High Concept Game  50% The DGBL Game      Total XP possible:  Class Ave: Range:  1000  537 380 - 650 % over 100%:  70% (9/13) XP Req'd for Perfect Score: 500 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 20 © K.Becker
    21. 21. SoTL 2013 Player Stats 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 21 © K.Becker
    22. 22. SoTL 2013 Keeping Score 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 22 © K.Becker
    23. 23. SoTL 2013 Assessment of Individual Quests 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 23 © K.Becker
    24. 24. SoTL 2013 Assessment of Individual Quests 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 24 © K.Becker
    25. 25. SoTL 2013 Course Orientation Typical Course Schedule Introduction to Game Based Learning The Current State of Games and Gamers Game Studies Reading Response 1 Games and Pedagogy What Can Games Do? Games are Simulations Reading Response 2 Reading Response 3 Examining Games ID for Games Making Games Discussion Paper 20/01/2014 Prototype Lesson Design Reading Response 4 Assessing Games for Learning Gamification Game Changer 25 © K.Becker
    26. 26. SoTL 2013 My Adaptation  Can’t go completely flexible courses still progress linearly  there are practical reasons to try and have all students in more or less the same place at the same time W.R.T. Topics   Could think of the topic outline as the narrative   Course schedule vs game-based    if it were a story; how would it best be told? various topics & quests some are tied to various topics and others are not Just like in a game P learn new things and skills as time progresses  some things have pre-reqs  others can be attempted at any time   Game-based course is mapped out like a storyboard or concept map rather than linearly as most typical courses are 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 26 © K.Becker
    27. 27. SoTL 2013 Designing a Game 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 27 © K.Becker
    28. 28. SoTL 2013 Gamified Course Concept Map 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 28 © K.Becker
    29. 29. SoTL 2013 Game-Based Course Design  Gives up on the lock-step lessons notion  Was never a reality anyways   People are at different stages PROBLEM Cannot go completely over to individualized learning  Simply impractical in many situations   Each node is like a gamescreen or location   Relationships (paths) between nodes are determined by content rather than time There are quests, items, associated with each node 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 29 © K.Becker
    30. 30. SoTL 2013 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 30 © K.Becker
    31. 31. SoTL 2013 The Big Challenges Instructor:  Up-Front Design  Ensuring objectives are addressed.  CompetencyBased Assessment*  Scoring  Records keeping  Marking Load 20/01/2014 Learner:  Taking Ownership of Learning  Motivation  Time Management  Strategizing  Taking Ownership of Learning Gamification Game Changer 31 © K.Becker
    32. 32. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment COMP 1103: Introduction to Computers non-majors; 1st year course required for some programs science option broad range of backgrounds "Traditional"  student experience:      55% first year 25% second year 13% third year 7% fourth student interest:     20/01/2014 "Gamified"  student experience:      55% open studies 15% business 10% science rest is various arts programs or diplomas 55% first year 25% second year 15% third year 5% fourth student interest:     Gamification Game Changer 30% open studies 30% business 20% science rest is various arts programs or diplomas 32 © K.Becker
    33. 33. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment     "Traditional" Delivery Lecture from ppts, Ppts released at the beginning of the week, One chapter per week expected reading, Every two week's there is an activity for marks  (Usually in class: quiz, answer a question, group impromptu research or Consensus writing, OR a blog based on lecture/reading question)  Midterm     (multiple choice, short answer, long answer) Final exam 4 assignments  20/01/2014 (one a group project) Gamification Game Changer 33 © K.Becker
    34. 34. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment     "Gamified" Delivery Lecture from ppts, inquiry-driven, quest-driven PPTs released at the beginning of the week or sooner All instructor materials made available to students Read chapters as relevant    Final exam (Boss Battle, 250 XP) Quests:       1 Epic Quest (200 XP, Guild) 4 Achievement Quests (50 XP, Small Guild or Solo) 13 classes of Mini-Quests (10-25 XP, repeatable, Solo) Most Quests released on 1st day of class Most Quests have no deadline   plus news items, articles shared on class forum guidelines provided for order and schedule of completion 1000 XP = 100% (follows MRU letter grade mapping) Total XP possible = 1450 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 34 © K.Becker
    35. 35. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment Step 1: Design Meaningful Evidence of Competence 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 35 © K.Becker
    36. 36. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment Step 1: Design Meaningful Evidence of Competence 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 36 © K.Becker
    37. 37. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment Step 1: Design Meaningful Evidence of Competence 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 37 © K.Becker
    38. 38. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment GRADE & GPA Table (Used to calculate student grades on the Gradebook sheet) Score XP Level 0 - 19 F 0.00 0 - 199 0 20 - 39 F 0.00 200 - 399 1 40 - 49 F 0.00 400 - 499 2 50 - 54 D 1.00 500 - 549 3 55 - 59 D+ 1.70 550 - 599 4 60 - 62 C- 1.70 600 - 629 5 63 - 66 C 2.00 630 - 669 6 67 - 69 C+ 2.30 670 - 699 7 70 - 72 B- 2.70 700 - 729 8 73 - 76 B 3.00 730 - 769 9 B+ 3.30 770 - 799 10 80 - 84 A- 3.70 800 - 849 11 85 - 94 A 4.00 850 - 949 12 95 - 100 A+ 4.00 950 - 1000 13 101+ 20/01/2014 GPA 77 - 79 Step 2: Map Scores  XP Grades  Levels Letter Grade A+ 4.00 1001+ 14 Gamification Game Changer 38 © K.Becker
    39. 39. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment Step 3 & 4:  Assign XP values to Quests  Decide on: options  flexibility  achievement path  20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 39 © K.Becker
    40. 40. SoTL 2013 The Current Experiment Step 5:  Set up Scoring Mechanism  Set up "Gradebook" 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 40 © K.Becker
    41. 41. SoTL 2013 Jumping the Gun - Early Conclusions Traditional  All values were lower *except* how well expectations matched requirements (?). Gamified      20/01/2014 Confident of success in spite of average ability (self-assessed) Comfortable w/ requirements. ~ 25% commented on lack of deadlines (positive) 1 felt it was easier to understand 1 felt it was too unstructured Gamification Game Changer Scale: 1-7 41 © K.Becker
    42. 42. SoTL 2013 Jumping the Gun - Early Conclusions  Support      Motivating for some Discouraging for others    Too little structure for some Learners have greater control over their own learning Learners felt ownership of their own learning    Requires considerable "on-boarding" Fast grading turn-around essential Tendency to grade quantitatively Structure Competition Assessment   20/01/2014 Simple grading schemes Practical mechanisms for meaningful feedback Gamification Game Changer 42 © K.Becker
    43. 43. SoTL 2013 Questions? 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 43 © K.Becker
    44. 44. SoTL 2013 Abstract of Presentation: ‘Gamification’ - the use of game elements in non-game contexts - has rapidly become one of the current hottest trends. This presentation presents an overview of what gamification is and isn’t, and reports on the author’s experiences using this approach in a graduate level education class as well as the early results of a comparison between gamified and nongamified sections of a freshman introduction to computers course. In the current course, the non-gamified sections employ a fairly standard structure that includes various assignments spread out throughout the term, various in-class activities, and both a midterm and final exam. The gamified section organizes all student work into various quests worth from 10 to 200 ‘experience points’ (XP), most of which have no set deadlines. While the quests are effectively equivalent in grade weight to the assignments of the more traditional sections, students in the gamified section start off with a score of zero (0) and every quest they submit contributes to their final grade cumulatively. A final score of 1000 is equivalent to 100%, but the total number of possible XP is 1435. All quests were made available to students at the beginning of term; some could be repeated for XP and included a variety of ‘guild’ (group) quests and ‘solo’ quests; and many quests could be repeated to earn additional XP. The presentation will provide some background on gamification, detail the course structure, highlight early successes and failures, and conclude with strategies for incorporating meaningful gamification in other courses. 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 44 © K.Becker
    45. 45. SoTL 2013 Resources            Becker, K. (2004). Reconciling a Traditional Syllabus with an Inquiry-Based Introductory Course. The Journal of Computing Science in Colleges, 20(2), 28-37. Becker, K. (2006). How much choice is too much? SIGCSE Bull., 38(4), 78-82. doi: 10.1145/1189136.1189176. Becker, K. (2007). Digital Game Based Learning, Once Removed: Teaching Teachers BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, SIG-GLUE Special Issue on Game-Based Learning 2007, 38(3), 478-488. Bogost, I. (2012). Persuasive Games: Exploitationware. Gamasutra. Retrieved from http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/6366/persuasive_games_exploitationware.php Charles, D., Charles, T., McNeill, M., Bustard, D., & Black, M. (2011). Game-based feedback for educational multi-user virtual environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), 638-654. doi: 10.1111/j.14678535.2010.01068.x. Deci, E. and Ryan, R. (2004). Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Deterding, S. (2012). 9.5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification. Microsoft Research. [Microsoft Research Video] Retrieved from http://research.microsoft.com/apps/video/dl.aspx?id=174677&l=i on 12 October 2012. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining "gamification". Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, Tampere, Finland Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction : game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Nicholson, S. (2012). A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification. Paper presented at the Games + Learning + Society 8.0, Madison, WI. on June 13 Sheldon, L. (2012). The Multiplayer Classroom : Designing Coursework as a Game. Boston, Mass.: Course Technology/Cengage Learning. 20/01/2014 Gamification Game Changer 45 © K.Becker
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