1 Learning Objectives (1 of 11)• Identify and define the main functions within the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and how they interrelate during an incident.• Given different scenarios, organize an operation using NIMS.
1 Learning Objectives (2 of 11)• Discuss and contrast fire-ground management compared to administrative management.• Discuss the history and evolution of incident management systems including the development of NIMS.
1 Learning Objectives (3 of 11)• Define unified and single command listing the advantages and disadvantages of each.• Compare command modes available to the first arriving officer determining situations where each mode would be appropriate.
1 Learning Objectives (4 of 11)• Develop an initial report.• Explain the importance of and develop a status report.• Analyze the command transfer process discussing when and how command should be transferred.
1 Learning Objectives (5 of 11)• Define and list the problems associated with freelancing.• List the attributes of a good command post.• Define and explain the importance of maintaining a reasonable span of control.
1 Learning Objectives (6 of 11)• Describe and enumerate the importance of staging.• Compare a staged company to a parked apparatus.• Define incident commander (IC).
1 Learning Objectives (7 of 11)• Identify, define, and place command staff positions on a NIMS organization chart.• Identify, define, and place the four sections on a NIMS organization chart.• Describe the position of and function of a chief’s aide.
1 Learning Objectives (8 of 11)• Define and describe the functions of branches, divisions, groups, task forces, and strike teams.• Explain the two-in/two-out rule.• Organize an operation using geographical and functional sectoring and describe when each should be used.
1 Learning Objectives (9 of 11)• Given a fire situation apply an intuitive naming system for various tactical level management units.• Recognize and articulate the importance of fire-ground communications.
1 Learning Objectives (10 of 11)• List general rules for incident scene communications.• Define and explain unity of command.• List and compare various means of communications that could be used at the incident scene.
1 Learning Objectives (11 of 11)• Develop a communications network that supports a NIMS organization.• Explain methods that can be used to reduce radio communications to and from the incident commander (IC).
1National Incident Management System (NIMS)• Ensures fire fighter safety• Addresses three operational priorities: – Life safety – Extinguishment – Property conservation• Incident management system (IMS) is a must.
1 Incident Management System (IMS)• Outlined in NFPA 1561: Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System• Required by – NFPA 1500: Standard for Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations dealing with hazardous materials response
1 Evolution of the IMS• FIRESCOPE – California wildfires of the 1970s – Used to coordinate resources within NIMS• Fireground Command System (FGC) – Developed in Phoenix for structure fires
1 Command• NIMS – Response community must be familiar with and trained in using NIMS. • Police, health, disaster agencies, and mutual aid departments – Common terminology and operational assignments – Established as a national system by HSPD-5 – All-hazard system
1 Unified Command• NIMS – More than one agency or jurisdiction share responsibility for developing the IAP. – One Operations Chief directs field units. – A single IC is preferred.
1 Initial Command (1 of 5)• Initial incident commander (IC) – Must establish command and follow department procedures – Formal Command Post desirable
1 Initial Command (2 of 5)• Command options – Investigation – Fast attack – Command• SOPs will allow the operation to continue.• Strong command presence ensures fire fighter safety.
1 Initial Command (3 of 5)• Announcing command – Reinforces who is in command – Must report conditions: • Confirm address • Confirm command • Command mode (investigation, fast attack, command)
1 Initial Command (4 of 5)• Must report conditions (continued): – Brief description of building – Occupancy – Conditions (heavy smoke) – Actions being taken – Resources needed
1 Initial Command (5 of 5)• Good communications techniques – Take a deep breath – Think, before transmitting – Key the radio, followed by a short delay – Speak slowly and distinctly• Initial reports should be practiced.
1Command by a Chief Officer (1 of 2)• Modes only apply to company-level operations.• Chief Officer must establish a stationary command post.• Chief Officers have the option to assume command. – Formal transfer of command – Can re-assign original IC – Must provide a status report
1Command by a Chief Officer (2 of 2)• Communications used to relay orders – Tactical management units – Individual companies• Once an order is given, companies must report: – Assignment is complete – Unable to complete assignment and why
1 Transfer of Command (1 of 4)• Addressed in department SOPs – Should be formalized – Stationary command post – Multiple transfers can result in confusion. – Unsafe operations require immediate assumption of command.
1 Transfer of Command (2 of 4)• Person assuming command must communicate with previous IC. – The longer it takes, the greater the chance of freelancing. – Strong command presence and efficient transfer • Ensures a smooth transition • Eliminates independent actions
1 Transfer of Command (3 of 4)• IC must evaluate operation. – Safety – Effectiveness• Higher ranking officers who do not assume command: – Are still accountable – You can delegate authority, but you cannot delegate responsibility!
1 Transfer of Command (4 of 4)• Disrupt continuity of operations• Sometimes required – Fires involving hazardous materials
1 Delegation• Establishing control over available resources• IC develops the strategy.• Branch, division, and group supervisors develop tactics within strategy.
1 Command Post (1 of 7)• First-arriving company officer will be in command. – Inside a building during offensive attack – Stationary command post for defensive attack
1 Command Post (2 of 7)• Good command post will: – Be in a location that is known and easily found – Be outside the hot zone – Provide a view of the two most important sides of the building – Never hinder apparatus movement
1 Command Post (3 of 7)• The IC should communicate the location. – Street name for an exterior command post – Building name when within building• Companies will report for instructions and information.• Can be assigned directly to group/division supervisors or branch directors
1 Command Post (4 of 7)• Positioned so two sides of the building are visible – Good practice – Can be distracting – Isolation from distractions important
1 Command Post (5 of 7)• Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) – City/county governments• Should support incident: – Command – Control – Coordination• Good communications are critical to command function.
1 Command Post (6 of 7)• Most fires are managed by the IC with few additional management units. – Command Staff – Sections – Tactical level
1 Command Post (7 of 7)• Some ICs prefer command in outside position.• Some departments require IC to be in vehicle.• Working in vehicle – Affords measure of security and safety – Provides climate control – Improves communications
1 Span of Control (1 of 2)• Number of people reporting to a supervisor• Ranges from three to seven – Five is rule-of-thumb average• Influenced and dictated by safety factors and sound management planning
1 Span of Control (2 of 2)• Anticipate change rather than react to it.• Exceeding span of control becomes chaotic and unsafe.• Larger and more complex NIMS organizations are more difficult to control.
1 Calling for Additional Resources• It is best to call for help before it is needed.• Need must be anticipated.• Calls made after the need is obvious arrive too late.
1 Staging (1 of 4)• Established to locate resources not immediately assigned a task• Can be located anywhere – Far enough away to avoid freelancing – Safe area – Avoid obstructing or slowing access
1 Staging (2 of 4)• Locations should be identified during pre-incident planning.• Allows IC to: – Better manage on-scene units – Establish a tactical reserve – Eliminate freelancing
1 Staging (3 of 4)• Can be used as a parking area for all units – Staged unit: fully staffed – Out of service unit: without adequate staffing• Outlined in SOPs – Staging Officer – Responsible for managing and dispatching incoming resources
1 Staging (4 of 4)• Equipment must be ready for immediate response.• Crews should remain intact and available.
1 NIMS Organization and Positions• NIMS – Not a tactical objective – Means to command and control an incident• Organization should be as simple as possible.
1 Modular Organization (1 of 2)• Structure develops based on type and size of incident.• There must always be an IC.• Line and staff positions are assigned according to priorities.
1 Modular Organization (2 of 2)• Structure based on management needs of the incident• If IC can manage all functional areas – No further organization required• If areas require independent management – Necessary areas can be assigned• IC retains responsibility for areas not delegated.
1 Command Staff (1 of 7)• Report directly to IC• Establish to assume responsibility for key activities• NIMS identifies three command staff positions: – Incident Safety Officer – Liaison Officer – Public Information Officer
1 Command Staff (2 of 7)• Command staff positions
1 Command Staff (3 of 7)• Incident Safety Officer – Key position on the fire-ground – Should be staffed most often – Plays critical role in ensuring fire fighter safety – Should be an experienced officer – Meets the requirements outlined in NFPA 1521:Standard for Fire Department Safety Officer
1 Command Staff (4 of 7)• Incident Safety Officer – Monitors all areas where fire fighters are operating – Some incidents may require assistant safety officers. – Must focus on overall operation and major risks
1 Command Staff (5 of 7)• Liaison Officer – Point of contact – Police department usually reports to Liaison. – If not staffed, responding agencies will report to IC. – Most structure fires do not require a Liaison Officer assignment.
1 Command Staff (6 of 7)• Public Information Officer – Disseminates information to the public – Provides both critical and general interest information to the community
1 Command Staff (7 of 7)• Some departments pre-assign command staff positions. – May cause delay in staffing positions – Those assigned must be thoroughly trained and qualified. – It may be possible to combine command staff assignments.
1Pyramid-Structured Hierarchy• Capable of coordinating and controlling the incident• IC is at the top.• Five possible organizational layers between IC and responders• Rarely would all five layers be used at a structure fire.
1 Finance/Administration Section (1 of 2)• Manages financial matters• Provides administrative services• Least likely at a structure fire
1Finance/Administration Section (2 of 2) Subordinate Units
1 Logistics Section (1 of 2)• Supply Sergeant or Quartermaster• Locates and provides materials, equipment, supplies, and facilities• Communications unit – One of the most important units – Assists in setting up communications network – Provides and maintains communications equipment
1 Planning Section (1 of 3)• Information manager• One of the first sections to be staffed during a major incident• Gathers information, tracks resources, assists IC in developing the IAP• Previous IC should be considered for this position after the transfer takes place.
1 Planning Section (2 of 3)• Major role is tracking/documenting incident status and on-scene resources – SITSTAT (Situation Status) – RESTAT (Resource Status)• Demobilization Unit – Prepares and implements a plan to return personnel and resources to service• Documentation unit – Collects incident information
1 Chief’s Aide• Planning section subordinate unit• Can manage command tasks for IC• IC can concentrate on IAP and deployment• Can assist IC in organizing and coordinating a safe and effective operation
1 Operations Section (1 of 2)• Makes and manages all tactical assignments – Search and rescue, extinguishment, EMS• Controls all resources• May include a complex hierarchy in order to maintain span of control
1 Operations Section (2 of 2)Subordinate Units
1Incident Management Teams (IMTs)• Comprises command staff and section leaders• Provide staff and line functions• Encouraged by FEMA on a regional/local level• Much like the “Red Card” system used by the Forest Service
1 Branches, Divisions, and Groups (1 of 3)• First management assignments – Geographic areas: Divisions – Functional areas: Groups• Branches may be used in place of Division/Groups – Not recommended
1 Branches, Divisions, and Groups (2 of 3)• Branches – Operations beyond span of control of a single division/group – Units from another agency working together • Police Branch, Medical Branch – Individual companies/task forces can also report to a branch.
1 Branches, Divisions, and Groups (3 of 3)• Sectors – Very common prior to NIMS – Used for both geographic and functional – Not recognized in NIMS – Removed from NFPA 1561: Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System
1 Task Force and Strike Team• Additional way to reduce span of control• Reduces communications load at incident• Task Force: any combination of resources• Strike Team: resources of same type
1 Intuitive Naming Systems• Area of responsibility designated by intuitive naming – Alphanumeric system—geographic assignments (e.g., Division 21—21st Floor) – Street names combined with directions for buildings (e.g., Walnut Street)• System must be used consistently
1 Communications (1 of 9)• The lifeblood of any command system• General rules: – Use face-to-face whenever possible – Provide mobile communication to units that are remote from the command post – Ensure that all operating units can relay information to the command post
1 Communications (2 of 9)• General rules (continued): – Place representatives of agencies on different frequencies at the command post – Follow the command organization structure, facilitating unity of command – Keep the number of radio channels used by any supervisor to no more than two
1 Communications (3 of 9)• General rules (continued): – Don’t clutter radio channels with unnecessary transmissions. – Use standard terminology. – Use clear English; don’t use ten-codes.
1 Communications (4 of 9)• Communications unit – Critical at large-scale incidents – Responsible for: • Establishing communications plan • Installing, procuring, and maintaining the communications equipment
1 Communications (5 of 9)• In addition to radios, these methods of communications can be used: – Face-to-face communication – Messengers – Telephones (cellular, satellite, and hard wire) – Public address systems – Computers/Mobile Data Terminals/Mobile – Data Computers
1 Communications (6 of 9)• Face-to-face communications is the most effective means. – Not effective at large-scale incidents• Cellular telephones have gained popularity. – System can be easily overwhelmed. – System can be damaged during a major disaster.
1 Communications (7 of 9)• Command – IC is referred to as “command.” – Use of multiple command designations should be avoided. – The IC is “command” independent of rank. – SOPs must define “command.” – Confusion can be eliminated with well- defined terminology.
1 Communications (8 of 9)• Interoperability – Concern when multiple agencies or jurisdictions are at the same incident – Not every department has ability to communicate with everyone else
1 Communications (9 of 9)• Interoperability Solutions – Place a representative from each agency at the command post – Assign a liaison officer – Assign logistics section to communicate with outside agencies – Direct technicians to re-transmit critical messages to the IC – Consider alternate methods
1 Summary (1 of 2)• The fire ground can present complex challenges.• A tremendous amount of information must be processed rapidly and accurately.• NIMS is the only safe and effective way to manage this information.• NIMS should be used from the beginning to the conclusion of the incident.
1 Summary (2 of 2)• Using NIMS allows the IC to: – Maintain proper span of control – Ensure accountability – Efficiently accomplish the objectives in the IAP