6
Life Safety
6
Learning Objectives (1 of 6)
• Explain the relationship between life
safety and extinguishment.
• Discuss the positive a...
6
Learning Objectives (2 of 6)
• Evaluate ventilation options as they
relate to fire location and select the best
option g...
6
Learning Objectives (3 of 6)
• Define a mass-casualty incident.
• Explain the medical (EMS) function at a
large structur...
6
Learning Objectives (4 of 6)
• Evaluate tactics at a fire scenario where
a large number of occupants need to be
rescued....
6
Learning Objectives (5 of 6)
• Use a scenario to select and describe
proper ventilation techniques.
• Use a scenario to ...
6
Learning Objectives (6 of 6)
• Use a scenario to evaluate priorities as
they relate to occupant proximity to the
fire.
•...
6
Overview (1 of 2)
• Life safety: ultimate challenge to the IC
• Assigning initial resources is difficult.
– Control the ...
6
Overview (2 of 2)
• Life safety priority: best tactic is to
suppress the fire
– Ventilation also used
• Fire extinguishm...
6
Probability of Extinguishment
• Major factor in life safety decisions
– Required rate of flow
• Controlling or extinguis...
6
Prioritizing Victims
• Common tactical error
– Prioritizing victims according to visibility
– Occupants inside building ...
6
Defend-In-Place Strategy
• Useful if the fire can be quickly
controlled
• Calculated risk based on:
– Fire conditions
– ...
6
Large-Volume Flows
• Large interior flow requirements
– Greater staffing needs, more time to assemble
resources
• Fire d...
6
Hose Line Placement
• Hose line must get into position to
extinguish the fire.
– Can also protect egress routes
– First-...
6
First-In Crew
• Advancing crew will assist victims they
come upon.
– Can’t be expected to perform a complete
primary sea...
6
Search and Rescue
• Floors above the fire are critical areas.
• Number of crews depends on:
– Number of floors to be sea...
6
High-Rise Buildings
• Floor areas are generally large.
• May need to search several floors
• One company into all areas ...
6
Ventilation
• Relieves the products of combustion
– Allows fire fighters to advance on the fire
– Must be coordinated wi...
6
Venting to Support
Suppression
• Important to coordinate with hose line
placement
• Makes the job of finding fire and vi...
6
Improper Ventilation
• May produce a backdraft
– Fire fighters or occupants could be
seriously injured or killed.
• Vent...
6
Venting to Save Lives
• May be necessary to vent before having
a hose line ready
• Use building features
– Retard fire g...
6
Venting While Searching
• Often necessary
– Better to open windows rather than
breaking
• Reversible venting is preferre...
6
Positive Pressure Ventilation
(PPV)
• Key is controlling outlet openings
– Ineffective if there are too many
• Negative ...
6
Rescue Options
• Interior stairways
– Safest and easiest way to move occupants
• Above or below grade level
– Preferred ...
6
Defend-In-Place
• Occupants are moved away from the
fire area.
– Remain in the structure
– High-rise buildings and healt...
6
Fire Escapes
• Poor substitutes for interior stairs
• Structural integrity questionable
• If structurally sound, preferr...
6
Aerial Devices
• Individual benefits:
– Aerial ladders
– Elevated platforms
– Articulating platforms
6
Ground Ladders (1 of 2)
• Less stable and reach
• Require more personnel
• Preferred over aerial devices
– When building...
6
Ground Ladders (2 of 2)
• People at windows may not need
rescue.
– Reassure them.
– Determine whether they must be moved...
6
Elevator Rescue
• Can be used under fire department’s
control
• Elevators should be located:
– In buildings that are sub...
6
Rope Rescue
• Last resort
– Justifiable only in extreme cases
• Interior rescue should be attempted
first.
• Extremely s...
6
Helicopter Rescue
• IC should ask if occupants are safe
where they’re at.
• Most roofs provide a difficult operating
pla...
6
Occupant Status
• Occupants who escape on their own
• Victims who may not be aware of the
fire or of egress routes
• Imm...
6
Occupant Information
• Occupants not reliable
• Staff may not account for visitors in the
building.
• The only reliable ...
6
Rescue Size-Up
• The IC should see all sides of the fire
building.
• Fire crews should view the exterior.
• Reports from...
6
Flashover
• The critical landmark:
– Before flashover, rescue is possible.
– After flashover, rescue is highly improbabl...
6
Fire Conditions
• Related to many factors:
– Elapsed time before fire was detected
– Time it takes to notify the fire de...
6
Threat to Occupants
• Directly related to:
– Their awareness of the fire
– Their ability to escape
– Construction of the...
6
Critical Time
• Time until structure becomes untenable
– Varies depending on numerous building
factors and fuel load
• F...
6
Fire Control
• Fire control tactics = critical strategy
– Implemented whenever possible
• Fire fighters and victims have...
6
Forcible Entry
• Search-and-rescue crews should have
forcible entry tools.
– Heavy metal doors will extend the time and
...
6
Fire Doors
• Designed to:
– Resist and contain the fire
– Keep fire from extending
• Fire doors should be closed after s...
6
Personnel Requirements
• Sized-up by considering the:
– Physical condition of the occupants
– Number of occupants on the...
6
Floor Layout and Size
• Organized search effort considers:
– Size of the area to be searched and
evacuated
– Location of...
6
Large Building Search
• Assign floors to each search team
• May be further subdivided by wing or
building side
6
Multi-Story Buildings
• Survey uninvolved floor
– Layout may be different from floor to floor
– Some building features r...
6
Floor Numbering
• Buildings constructed on a grade may
have unusual floor numbers.
– First floor on one side can actuall...
6
Small Buildings
• Exterior size-up reveals interior layout
– Large windows = common areas
– Small windows = bedrooms
• B...
6
Larger Buildings
• Reduced visibility
• Using small building tactics and
procedures could be fatal.
6
Search
• Small room search in a right- or left-
hand pattern
• Larger area requires rope or other guide
line and differe...
6
Search and Rescue Priority
(1 of 4)
• Established after:
– Determining the total number of occupants
– Developing a stra...
6
Search and Rescue Priority
(2 of 4)
• On the fire floor nearest to the
immediate fire area
• In proximity to the fire ar...
6
Search and Rescue Priority
(3 of 4)
• On the floors between the floor above
the fire and the top floor
• On the floors b...
6
Search and Rescue Priority
(4 of 4)
6
Rescue Priorities
• When it is not possible to save
everyone
– IC must save the largest number of people
possible
• The ...
6
Primary Search
• Quick, thorough
• Mark and record areas that have been
searched
– Assures that areas are checked before...
6
Secondary Search
• Ensures that no one was missed the
first time through
• If conditions allow, should be conducted
as s...
6
Medical Status of Victims
• IC must have wide discretion in calling
medical assistance.
• Need for EMS at an incident sc...
6
Medical Unit Set-up
• Set up within the cold zone or beyond
– Personnel should remain with their
ambulance.
– Near the r...
6
Mass-Casualty Incidents
(MCI) (1 of 2)
• Occurs when:
– Number of victims and nature of injuries
make normal stabilizati...
6
Mass-Casualty Incidents
(MCI) (2 of 2)
• Specific incidents:
– Transportation accidents, hazardous
materials releases, o...
6
Triage, Prioritizing, Transport
• Triage: first medical priority in managing
an MCI
• First-arriving EMS personnel shoul...
6
Medical Teams
• Accustomed to treating one or more
individuals, followed by immediate
transport
• Triaging without treat...
6
Treatment Teams
• First treat those needing immediate
care and arrange for their
transportation.
• If sufficient personn...
6
Medical Transportation Officer
• Manages transportation needs
• Directs incoming EMS vehicles to
staging area
• Determin...
6
Communications with
Hospitals
• Need to know how many patients and
what types of injuries can be treated at
each facilit...
6
Hospital Response
• Hospitals determine their limits based
on:
– Personnel
– Staff expertise
– Space
• Must be prepared ...
6
Medical Planning Officer
• Functions similar to planning section
• Can be assigned to medical branch or
group
• Document...
6
Evaluating the Need for
Shelter
• Weather extremes
– Need to rehab fire fighters
– Provide shelter for occupants
• Nearb...
6
Outside Assistance
• Red Cross
– Response times may be fairly long.
– Makes it necessary to assign crews to this
task un...
6
Estimating Staffing
Requirements
• Staffing must be sufficient to:
– Extinguish or contain the fire
– Conduct search-and...
6
Staffing Needs (1 of 2)
• Depends on several factors:
– Number of victims
– Rescue methods used
– Condition of victims
–...
6
Staffing Needs (2 of 2)
• Depends on several factors (continued)
– Smoke conditions
– Victim mobility
– Weather conditio...
6
Additional Staffing
• Needed in the following situations:
– Victims close to the fire area
– Victims have physical impai...
6
Evacuation Status
• Determined by:
– Pre-incident planning information
– Occupant information
– Visual observation
– Rec...
6
Fire-Ground Tasks
• Division-of-labor approach
• Actions can be delayed and/or
duplicated without pre-assignment of
duti...
6
Fire-Ground Duties (1 of 2)
• Water supply and application (engine
company duties)
• Ventilation, entry, search and resc...
6
Fire-Ground Duties (2 of 2)
• Triage, treatment, transportation, and
rehabilitation (emergency medical
duties)
• Plannin...
6
Summary (1 of 2)
• The most important fire-ground activity
is saving lives.
• Sound risk-management principles must
be a...
6
Summary (2 of 2)
• IC considerations:
– Department SOPs
– Pre-incident plans
– Size-up factors
– Number and location of ...
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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

  1. 1. 6 Life Safety
  2. 2. 6 Learning Objectives (1 of 6) • Explain the relationship between life safety and extinguishment. • Discuss the positive and negative aspects of ventilation in regard to life safety.
  3. 3. 6 Learning Objectives (2 of 6) • Evaluate ventilation options as they relate to fire location and select the best option given a scenario with several vent options. • List and evaluate rescue options. • List rescue priorities in terms of occupant proximity to fire.
  4. 4. 6 Learning Objectives (3 of 6) • Define a mass-casualty incident. • Explain the medical (EMS) function at a large structure fire with multiple casualties. • Describe conditions that affect life safety staffing requirements.
  5. 5. 6 Learning Objectives (4 of 6) • Evaluate tactics at a fire scenario where a large number of occupants need to be rescued. • Compare and contrast the positive and negative effects of entering an enclosed fire area.
  6. 6. 6 Learning Objectives (5 of 6) • Use a scenario to select and describe proper ventilation techniques. • Use a scenario to describe and apply rescue options.
  7. 7. 6 Learning Objectives (6 of 6) • Use a scenario to evaluate priorities as they relate to occupant proximity to the fire. • Use a scenario to estimate staffing requirements at a structure fire occupied by a large number of people.
  8. 8. 6 Overview (1 of 2) • Life safety: ultimate challenge to the IC • Assigning initial resources is difficult. – Control the fire – Remove the victims – Both – Quick decision
  9. 9. 6 Overview (2 of 2) • Life safety priority: best tactic is to suppress the fire – Ventilation also used • Fire extinguishment: second priority – Essential part of most rescue operations • Fire fighter safety is critical.
  10. 10. 6 Probability of Extinguishment • Major factor in life safety decisions – Required rate of flow • Controlling or extinguishing the fire often best tactic
  11. 11. 6 Prioritizing Victims • Common tactical error – Prioritizing victims according to visibility – Occupants inside building may be in grave danger. – May be best to rescue visible victims via the interior stairs • After the fire is under control or extinguished
  12. 12. 6 Defend-In-Place Strategy • Useful if the fire can be quickly controlled • Calculated risk based on: – Fire conditions – Available resources – Extent of danger to victims
  13. 13. 6 Large-Volume Flows • Large interior flow requirements – Greater staffing needs, more time to assemble resources • Fire doors and fire walls – Extend available evacuation time – Provide a barrier between the victims and the fire • Sufficient personnel and resources must be available.
  14. 14. 6 Hose Line Placement • Hose line must get into position to extinguish the fire. – Can also protect egress routes – First-in engine • Focus on advancing attack line • Control the fire, save lives • Only hope for occupants in the immediate fire area
  15. 15. 6 First-In Crew • Advancing crew will assist victims they come upon. – Can’t be expected to perform a complete primary search • Responsibility is extinguishment
  16. 16. 6 Search and Rescue • Floors above the fire are critical areas. • Number of crews depends on: – Number of floors to be searched – Size of the building – Fire intensity – Smoke conditions – Occupant status
  17. 17. 6 High-Rise Buildings • Floor areas are generally large. • May need to search several floors • One company into all areas on the fire floor and above – Determine fire and smoke conditions and evacuation needs.
  18. 18. 6 Ventilation • Relieves the products of combustion – Allows fire fighters to advance on the fire – Must be coordinated with attack lines • Very effective life safety procedure – Pulls the fire, heat, smoke, and toxic gases away from victims, stairs, and other egress routes
  19. 19. 6 Venting to Support Suppression • Important to coordinate with hose line placement • Makes the job of finding fire and victims easier
  20. 20. 6 Improper Ventilation • May produce a backdraft – Fire fighters or occupants could be seriously injured or killed. • Vent opening in path of egress could prove fatal.
  21. 21. 6 Venting to Save Lives • May be necessary to vent before having a hose line ready • Use building features – Retard fire growth – Prevent extension • Position charged hose lines before opening doors and windows
  22. 22. 6 Venting While Searching • Often necessary – Better to open windows rather than breaking • Reversible venting is preferred. – Negative consequences can be reversed by closing the window or door.
  23. 23. 6 Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) • Key is controlling outlet openings – Ineffective if there are too many • Negative side – Fire can be directed toward victims, toward their escape routes, or into unburned areas
  24. 24. 6 Rescue Options • Interior stairways – Safest and easiest way to move occupants • Above or below grade level – Preferred means from upper floors – Alternative methods
  25. 25. 6 Defend-In-Place • Occupants are moved away from the fire area. – Remain in the structure – High-rise buildings and healthcare facilities • Large buildings are built to allow this strategy.
  26. 26. 6 Fire Escapes • Poor substitutes for interior stairs • Structural integrity questionable • If structurally sound, preferred over other alternative methods
  27. 27. 6 Aerial Devices • Individual benefits: – Aerial ladders – Elevated platforms – Articulating platforms
  28. 28. 6 Ground Ladders (1 of 2) • Less stable and reach • Require more personnel • Preferred over aerial devices – When buildings are set back from the street – When fire fighters need to quickly access second or third floor
  29. 29. 6 Ground Ladders (2 of 2) • People at windows may not need rescue. – Reassure them. – Determine whether they must be moved and if stairways are available. • Use stairways and corridors if they are relatively clear of smoke.
  30. 30. 6 Elevator Rescue • Can be used under fire department’s control • Elevators should be located: – In buildings that are subdivided with good, fire-resistive construction – Remote and separate from the fire area • Use in the immediate fire area is hazardous.
  31. 31. 6 Rope Rescue • Last resort – Justifiable only in extreme cases • Interior rescue should be attempted first. • Extremely slow and dangerous – Require specialized equipment and expertise
  32. 32. 6 Helicopter Rescue • IC should ask if occupants are safe where they’re at. • Most roofs provide a difficult operating platform. – Obstructions – Hot air currents caused by an intense fire
  33. 33. 6 Occupant Status • Occupants who escape on their own • Victims who may not be aware of the fire or of egress routes • Immobile or unconscious victims
  34. 34. 6 Occupant Information • Occupants not reliable • Staff may not account for visitors in the building. • The only reliable way to verify is to systematically check every room.
  35. 35. 6 Rescue Size-Up • The IC should see all sides of the fire building. • Fire crews should view the exterior. • Reports from occupants may be unreliable, but they should not be ignored. – May be able to direct rescuers
  36. 36. 6 Flashover • The critical landmark: – Before flashover, rescue is possible. – After flashover, rescue is highly improbable within the flashover compartment. • Recognizing the signs of flashover is important.
  37. 37. 6 Fire Conditions • Related to many factors: – Elapsed time before fire was detected – Time it takes to notify the fire department – Response time
  38. 38. 6 Threat to Occupants • Directly related to: – Their awareness of the fire – Their ability to escape – Construction of the building – Provisions made for egress • IC has little control over these factors.
  39. 39. 6 Critical Time • Time until structure becomes untenable – Varies depending on numerous building factors and fuel load • Fires spread rapidly upward in any construction that allows unimpeded vertical fire spread. – Lessens the critical time
  40. 40. 6 Fire Control • Fire control tactics = critical strategy – Implemented whenever possible • Fire fighters and victims have a better chance to evacuate if the fire is extinguished or knocked down.
  41. 41. 6 Forcible Entry • Search-and-rescue crews should have forcible entry tools. – Heavy metal doors will extend the time and effort required for the primary search. – It is important to consider the value of the opening being forced. • Fire doors
  42. 42. 6 Fire Doors • Designed to: – Resist and contain the fire – Keep fire from extending • Fire doors should be closed after search is complete. • Charged hose lines should be in place before forcing doors to fire areas.
  43. 43. 6 Personnel Requirements • Sized-up by considering the: – Physical condition of the occupants – Number of occupants on the fire floor – Travel distance to safety – Estimated fire growth
  44. 44. 6 Floor Layout and Size • Organized search effort considers: – Size of the area to be searched and evacuated – Location of stairways, halls, and fire escapes
  45. 45. 6 Large Building Search • Assign floors to each search team • May be further subdivided by wing or building side
  46. 46. 6 Multi-Story Buildings • Survey uninvolved floor – Layout may be different from floor to floor – Some building features remain constant: stairs, elevators, and standpipes
  47. 47. 6 Floor Numbering • Buildings constructed on a grade may have unusual floor numbers. – First floor on one side can actually be a higher or lower floor. • Should be listed in pre-plans
  48. 48. 6 Small Buildings • Exterior size-up reveals interior layout – Large windows = common areas – Small windows = bedrooms • Buildings of similar construction typically will have similar floor layouts. – Stairway location – Can be difficult to search
  49. 49. 6 Larger Buildings • Reduced visibility • Using small building tactics and procedures could be fatal.
  50. 50. 6 Search • Small room search in a right- or left- hand pattern • Larger area requires rope or other guide line and different search techniques • Thermal imaging camera
  51. 51. 6 Search and Rescue Priority (1 of 4) • Established after: – Determining the total number of occupants – Developing a strategy for full or partial evacuation • Determined by deciding who is in the greatest danger
  52. 52. 6 Search and Rescue Priority (2 of 4) • On the fire floor nearest to the immediate fire area • In proximity to the fire area on the same level • On the floor above the fire, especially immediately over the fire area • On the top floor, unless fire conditions result in smoke stratification
  53. 53. 6 Search and Rescue Priority (3 of 4) • On the floors between the floor above the fire and the top floor • On the floors below the fire • In nearby buildings • Outside – In the collapse or falling glass zones
  54. 54. 6 Search and Rescue Priority (4 of 4)
  55. 55. 6 Rescue Priorities • When it is not possible to save everyone – IC must save the largest number of people possible • The key to successful search operations is to be systematic.
  56. 56. 6 Primary Search • Quick, thorough • Mark and record areas that have been searched – Assures that areas are checked before the secondary search begins
  57. 57. 6 Secondary Search • Ensures that no one was missed the first time through • If conditions allow, should be conducted as soon as the primary search is complete • Use a different crew.
  58. 58. 6 Medical Status of Victims • IC must have wide discretion in calling medical assistance. • Need for EMS at an incident scene is dictated by: – Relative hazard – Number of potential victims – Type of incident • If you think you need help, you do.
  59. 59. 6 Medical Unit Set-up • Set up within the cold zone or beyond – Personnel should remain with their ambulance. – Near the rehab area
  60. 60. 6 Mass-Casualty Incidents (MCI) (1 of 2) • Occurs when: – Number of victims and nature of injuries make normal stabilization and care unattainable. – Available trained personnel and transportation vehicles are insufficient. – Hospital capabilities are insufficient.
  61. 61. 6 Mass-Casualty Incidents (MCI) (2 of 2) • Specific incidents: – Transportation accidents, hazardous materials releases, or natural disasters • Fires in buildings with large numbers of occupants have the potential to become MCIs.
  62. 62. 6 Triage, Prioritizing, Transport • Triage: first medical priority in managing an MCI • First-arriving EMS personnel should not leave the scene until relieved of triage responsibilities.
  63. 63. 6 Medical Teams • Accustomed to treating one or more individuals, followed by immediate transport • Triaging without treatment and transportation runs contrary to normal role • Once triage teams have prioritized the victims, treatment teams will follow.
  64. 64. 6 Treatment Teams • First treat those needing immediate care and arrange for their transportation. • If sufficient personnel are on the scene, multiple teams can be formed. – Treat as many patients as possible.
  65. 65. 6 Medical Transportation Officer • Manages transportation needs • Directs incoming EMS vehicles to staging area • Determines mode of transportation – May be possible to transport in vehicles other than ambulances
  66. 66. 6 Communications with Hospitals • Need to know how many patients and what types of injuries can be treated at each facility. • Patients directed to hospitals and trauma centers according to their capabilities.
  67. 67. 6 Hospital Response • Hospitals determine their limits based on: – Personnel – Staff expertise – Space • Must be prepared to exceed their normal patient capacity
  68. 68. 6 Medical Planning Officer • Functions similar to planning section • Can be assigned to medical branch or group • Documents where and when each patient is transported
  69. 69. 6 Evaluating the Need for Shelter • Weather extremes – Need to rehab fire fighters – Provide shelter for occupants • Nearby building could be used as shelter. – Outside the fire zone
  70. 70. 6 Outside Assistance • Red Cross – Response times may be fairly long. – Makes it necessary to assign crews to this task until they arrive
  71. 71. 6 Estimating Staffing Requirements • Staffing must be sufficient to: – Extinguish or contain the fire – Conduct search-and-rescue operations – Treat and transport the injured – Remove victims to a place of safety – Prevent re-entry
  72. 72. 6 Staffing Needs (1 of 2) • Depends on several factors: – Number of victims – Rescue methods used – Condition of victims – Fire conditions
  73. 73. 6 Staffing Needs (2 of 2) • Depends on several factors (continued) – Smoke conditions – Victim mobility – Weather conditions – Accessibility
  74. 74. 6 Additional Staffing • Needed in the following situations: – Victims close to the fire area – Victims have physical impairments – Fire occurs during weather extremes – Evacuation routes other than the interior stairs must be used – Forcible entry required
  75. 75. 6 Evacuation Status • Determined by: – Pre-incident planning information – Occupant information – Visual observation – Reconnaissance – Alarm information
  76. 76. 6 Fire-Ground Tasks • Division-of-labor approach • Actions can be delayed and/or duplicated without pre-assignment of duties.
  77. 77. 6 Fire-Ground Duties (1 of 2) • Water supply and application (engine company duties) • Ventilation, entry, search and rescue, and property conservation (ladder company duties) • Search, rescue, and rapid intervention (rescue company duties)
  78. 78. 6 Fire-Ground Duties (2 of 2) • Triage, treatment, transportation, and rehabilitation (emergency medical duties) • Planning, organizing, coordinating, and establishing command (IC duties)
  79. 79. 6 Summary (1 of 2) • The most important fire-ground activity is saving lives. • Sound risk-management principles must be applied.
  80. 80. 6 Summary (2 of 2) • IC considerations: – Department SOPs – Pre-incident plans – Size-up factors – Number and location of victims

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