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Chapter 6






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Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • 6Life Safety
  • 6 Learning Objectives (1 of 6)• Explain the relationship between life safety and extinguishment.• Discuss the positive and negative aspects of ventilation in regard to life safety.
  • 6 Learning Objectives (2 of 6)• Evaluate ventilation options as they relate to fire location and select the best option given a scenario with several vent options.• List and evaluate rescue options.• List rescue priorities in terms of occupant proximity to fire.
  • 6 Learning Objectives (3 of 6)• Define a mass-casualty incident.• Explain the medical (EMS) function at a large structure fire with multiple casualties.• Describe conditions that affect life safety staffing requirements.
  • 6 Learning Objectives (4 of 6)• Evaluate tactics at a fire scenario where a large number of occupants need to be rescued.• Compare and contrast the positive and negative effects of entering an enclosed fire area.
  • 6 Learning Objectives (5 of 6)• Use a scenario to select and describe proper ventilation techniques.• Use a scenario to describe and apply rescue options.
  • 6 Learning Objectives (6 of 6)• Use a scenario to evaluate priorities as they relate to occupant proximity to the fire.• Use a scenario to estimate staffing requirements at a structure fire occupied by a large number of people.
  • 6 Overview (1 of 2)• Life safety: ultimate challenge to the IC• Assigning initial resources is difficult. – Control the fire – Remove the victims – Both – Quick decision
  • 6 Overview (2 of 2)• Life safety priority: best tactic is to suppress the fire – Ventilation also used• Fire extinguishment: second priority – Essential part of most rescue operations• Fire fighter safety is critical.
  • 6 Probability of Extinguishment• Major factor in life safety decisions – Required rate of flow• Controlling or extinguishing the fire often best tactic
  • 6 Prioritizing Victims• Common tactical error – Prioritizing victims according to visibility – Occupants inside building may be in grave danger. – May be best to rescue visible victims via the interior stairs • After the fire is under control or extinguished
  • 6 Defend-In-Place Strategy• Useful if the fire can be quickly controlled• Calculated risk based on: – Fire conditions – Available resources – Extent of danger to victims
  • 6 Large-Volume Flows• Large interior flow requirements – Greater staffing needs, more time to assemble resources• Fire doors and fire walls – Extend available evacuation time – Provide a barrier between the victims and the fire• Sufficient personnel and resources must be available.
  • 6 Hose Line Placement• Hose line must get into position to extinguish the fire. – Can also protect egress routes – First-in engine • Focus on advancing attack line • Control the fire, save lives • Only hope for occupants in the immediate fire area
  • 6 First-In Crew• Advancing crew will assist victims they come upon. – Can’t be expected to perform a complete primary search • Responsibility is extinguishment
  • 6 Search and Rescue• Floors above the fire are critical areas.• Number of crews depends on: – Number of floors to be searched – Size of the building – Fire intensity – Smoke conditions – Occupant status
  • 6 High-Rise Buildings• Floor areas are generally large.• May need to search several floors• One company into all areas on the fire floor and above – Determine fire and smoke conditions and evacuation needs.
  • 6 Ventilation• Relieves the products of combustion – Allows fire fighters to advance on the fire – Must be coordinated with attack lines• Very effective life safety procedure – Pulls the fire, heat, smoke, and toxic gases away from victims, stairs, and other egress routes
  • 6 Venting to Support Suppression• Important to coordinate with hose line placement• Makes the job of finding fire and victims easier
  • 6 Improper Ventilation• May produce a backdraft – Fire fighters or occupants could be seriously injured or killed.• Vent opening in path of egress could prove fatal.
  • 6 Venting to Save Lives• May be necessary to vent before having a hose line ready• Use building features – Retard fire growth – Prevent extension• Position charged hose lines before opening doors and windows
  • 6 Venting While Searching• Often necessary – Better to open windows rather than breaking• Reversible venting is preferred. – Negative consequences can be reversed by closing the window or door.
  • 6 Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV)• Key is controlling outlet openings – Ineffective if there are too many• Negative side – Fire can be directed toward victims, toward their escape routes, or into unburned areas
  • 6 Rescue Options• Interior stairways – Safest and easiest way to move occupants • Above or below grade level – Preferred means from upper floors – Alternative methods
  • 6 Defend-In-Place• Occupants are moved away from the fire area. – Remain in the structure – High-rise buildings and healthcare facilities• Large buildings are built to allow this strategy.
  • 6 Fire Escapes• Poor substitutes for interior stairs• Structural integrity questionable• If structurally sound, preferred over other alternative methods
  • 6 Aerial Devices• Individual benefits: – Aerial ladders – Elevated platforms – Articulating platforms
  • 6 Ground Ladders (1 of 2)• Less stable and reach• Require more personnel• Preferred over aerial devices – When buildings are set back from the street – When fire fighters need to quickly access second or third floor
  • 6 Ground Ladders (2 of 2)• People at windows may not need rescue. – Reassure them. – Determine whether they must be moved and if stairways are available.• Use stairways and corridors if they are relatively clear of smoke.
  • 6 Elevator Rescue• Can be used under fire department’s control• Elevators should be located: – In buildings that are subdivided with good, fire-resistive construction – Remote and separate from the fire area• Use in the immediate fire area is hazardous.
  • 6 Rope Rescue• Last resort – Justifiable only in extreme cases• Interior rescue should be attempted first.• Extremely slow and dangerous – Require specialized equipment and expertise
  • 6 Helicopter Rescue• IC should ask if occupants are safe where they’re at.• Most roofs provide a difficult operating platform. – Obstructions – Hot air currents caused by an intense fire
  • 6 Occupant Status• Occupants who escape on their own• Victims who may not be aware of the fire or of egress routes• Immobile or unconscious victims
  • 6 Occupant Information• Occupants not reliable• Staff may not account for visitors in the building.• The only reliable way to verify is to systematically check every room.
  • 6 Rescue Size-Up• The IC should see all sides of the fire building.• Fire crews should view the exterior.• Reports from occupants may be unreliable, but they should not be ignored. – May be able to direct rescuers
  • 6 Flashover• The critical landmark: – Before flashover, rescue is possible. – After flashover, rescue is highly improbable within the flashover compartment.• Recognizing the signs of flashover is important.
  • 6 Fire Conditions• Related to many factors: – Elapsed time before fire was detected – Time it takes to notify the fire department – Response time
  • 6 Threat to Occupants• Directly related to: – Their awareness of the fire – Their ability to escape – Construction of the building – Provisions made for egress• IC has little control over these factors.
  • 6 Critical Time• Time until structure becomes untenable – Varies depending on numerous building factors and fuel load• Fires spread rapidly upward in any construction that allows unimpeded vertical fire spread. – Lessens the critical time
  • 6 Fire Control• Fire control tactics = critical strategy – Implemented whenever possible• Fire fighters and victims have a better chance to evacuate if the fire is extinguished or knocked down.
  • 6 Forcible Entry• Search-and-rescue crews should have forcible entry tools. – Heavy metal doors will extend the time and effort required for the primary search. – It is important to consider the value of the opening being forced. • Fire doors
  • 6 Fire Doors• Designed to: – Resist and contain the fire – Keep fire from extending• Fire doors should be closed after search is complete.• Charged hose lines should be in place before forcing doors to fire areas.
  • 6 Personnel Requirements• Sized-up by considering the: – Physical condition of the occupants – Number of occupants on the fire floor – Travel distance to safety – Estimated fire growth
  • 6 Floor Layout and Size• Organized search effort considers: – Size of the area to be searched and evacuated – Location of stairways, halls, and fire escapes
  • 6 Large Building Search• Assign floors to each search team• May be further subdivided by wing or building side
  • 6 Multi-Story Buildings• Survey uninvolved floor – Layout may be different from floor to floor – Some building features remain constant: stairs, elevators, and standpipes
  • 6 Floor Numbering• Buildings constructed on a grade may have unusual floor numbers. – First floor on one side can actually be a higher or lower floor.• Should be listed in pre-plans
  • 6 Small Buildings• Exterior size-up reveals interior layout – Large windows = common areas – Small windows = bedrooms• Buildings of similar construction typically will have similar floor layouts. – Stairway location – Can be difficult to search
  • 6 Larger Buildings• Reduced visibility• Using small building tactics and procedures could be fatal.
  • 6 Search• Small room search in a right- or left- hand pattern• Larger area requires rope or other guide line and different search techniques• Thermal imaging camera
  • 6 Search and Rescue Priority (1 of 4)• Established after: – Determining the total number of occupants – Developing a strategy for full or partial evacuation• Determined by deciding who is in the greatest danger
  • 6 Search and Rescue Priority (2 of 4)• On the fire floor nearest to the immediate fire area• In proximity to the fire area on the same level• On the floor above the fire, especially immediately over the fire area• On the top floor, unless fire conditions result in smoke stratification
  • 6 Search and Rescue Priority (3 of 4)• On the floors between the floor above the fire and the top floor• On the floors below the fire• In nearby buildings• Outside – In the collapse or falling glass zones
  • 6Search and Rescue Priority (4 of 4)
  • 6 Rescue Priorities• When it is not possible to save everyone – IC must save the largest number of people possible• The key to successful search operations is to be systematic.
  • 6 Primary Search• Quick, thorough• Mark and record areas that have been searched – Assures that areas are checked before the secondary search begins
  • 6 Secondary Search• Ensures that no one was missed the first time through• If conditions allow, should be conducted as soon as the primary search is complete• Use a different crew.
  • 6 Medical Status of Victims• IC must have wide discretion in calling medical assistance.• Need for EMS at an incident scene is dictated by: – Relative hazard – Number of potential victims – Type of incident• If you think you need help, you do.
  • 6 Medical Unit Set-up• Set up within the cold zone or beyond – Personnel should remain with their ambulance. – Near the rehab area
  • 6 Mass-Casualty Incidents (MCI) (1 of 2)• Occurs when: – Number of victims and nature of injuries make normal stabilization and care unattainable. – Available trained personnel and transportation vehicles are insufficient. – Hospital capabilities are insufficient.
  • 6 Mass-Casualty Incidents (MCI) (2 of 2)• Specific incidents: – Transportation accidents, hazardous materials releases, or natural disasters• Fires in buildings with large numbers of occupants have the potential to become MCIs.
  • 6 Triage, Prioritizing, Transport• Triage: first medical priority in managing an MCI• First-arriving EMS personnel should not leave the scene until relieved of triage responsibilities.
  • 6 Medical Teams• Accustomed to treating one or more individuals, followed by immediate transport• Triaging without treatment and transportation runs contrary to normal role• Once triage teams have prioritized the victims, treatment teams will follow.
  • 6 Treatment Teams• First treat those needing immediate care and arrange for their transportation.• If sufficient personnel are on the scene, multiple teams can be formed. – Treat as many patients as possible.
  • 6Medical Transportation Officer• Manages transportation needs• Directs incoming EMS vehicles to staging area• Determines mode of transportation – May be possible to transport in vehicles other than ambulances
  • 6 Communications with Hospitals• Need to know how many patients and what types of injuries can be treated at each facility.• Patients directed to hospitals and trauma centers according to their capabilities.
  • 6 Hospital Response• Hospitals determine their limits based on: – Personnel – Staff expertise – Space• Must be prepared to exceed their normal patient capacity
  • 6 Medical Planning Officer• Functions similar to planning section• Can be assigned to medical branch or group• Documents where and when each patient is transported
  • 6 Evaluating the Need for Shelter• Weather extremes – Need to rehab fire fighters – Provide shelter for occupants• Nearby building could be used as shelter. – Outside the fire zone
  • 6 Outside Assistance• Red Cross – Response times may be fairly long. – Makes it necessary to assign crews to this task until they arrive
  • 6 Estimating Staffing Requirements• Staffing must be sufficient to: – Extinguish or contain the fire – Conduct search-and-rescue operations – Treat and transport the injured – Remove victims to a place of safety – Prevent re-entry
  • 6 Staffing Needs (1 of 2)• Depends on several factors: – Number of victims – Rescue methods used – Condition of victims – Fire conditions
  • 6 Staffing Needs (2 of 2)• Depends on several factors (continued) – Smoke conditions – Victim mobility – Weather conditions – Accessibility
  • 6 Additional Staffing• Needed in the following situations: – Victims close to the fire area – Victims have physical impairments – Fire occurs during weather extremes – Evacuation routes other than the interior stairs must be used – Forcible entry required
  • 6 Evacuation Status• Determined by: – Pre-incident planning information – Occupant information – Visual observation – Reconnaissance – Alarm information
  • 6 Fire-Ground Tasks• Division-of-labor approach• Actions can be delayed and/or duplicated without pre-assignment of duties.
  • 6 Fire-Ground Duties (1 of 2)• Water supply and application (engine company duties)• Ventilation, entry, search and rescue, and property conservation (ladder company duties)• Search, rescue, and rapid intervention (rescue company duties)
  • 6 Fire-Ground Duties (2 of 2)• Triage, treatment, transportation, and rehabilitation (emergency medical duties)• Planning, organizing, coordinating, and establishing command (IC duties)
  • 6 Summary (1 of 2)• The most important fire-ground activity is saving lives.• Sound risk-management principles must be applied.
  • 6 Summary (2 of 2)• IC considerations: – Department SOPs – Pre-incident plans – Size-up factors – Number and location of victims