3 Learning Objectives (1 of 2)• Describe how extinguishment is both an operational priority and tactical objective with an emphasis on the relationship between life safety and extinguishment.• Evaluate conditions leading to an offensive or defensive operation.
3 Learning Objectives (2 of 2)• Compare probability of occupant survival to fire and building conditions.• List situations when a written incident action plan is needed.• Use a case study or actual fire to develop an incident action plan based on a risk-versus-benefit analysis.
3 Overview (1 of 3)• Incident Action Plan (IAP) development – Leads to offensive or defensive tactics – Derived from an analytical approach to information gained through size-up – Should be a simple, concise, straightforward, easy-to-understand – Outlines major tactical objectives – Provides the central focus for operations
3 Overview (2 of 3)• Size-up – Continuous process – IAP must remain flexible – Tactics modified as conditions change• All activities should lead to completion of major objectives identified in the IAP.
3 Overview (3 of 3)• Primary strategic considerations – Life safety – Extinguishment – Property conservation• With sufficient resources, priorities can be handled simultaneously.• Extinguishment is normally the most important life safety tactic.
3Determining Life Safety Needs• Structural firefighting primary objective: saving lives – Life safety is the first consideration.
3 Evaluating Structural Conditions• Structural conditions bear heavily on offensive/defensive decision.• Interior attack should not be conducted in an unsafe building.• Offensive attack is conducted to assist occupants from the building. – Reevaluation is necessary once the building is evacuated.
3Estimating Resource Capability and Requirements (1 of 2)• Comparing resource capability to incident requirements during size-up• The IC must – Apply sound risk management principles to ensure fire fighter safety – When developing a plan, decide what will be needed to conduct an offensive attack
3Estimating Resource Capability and Requirements (2 of 2)
3 Offensive Fire Attack• Lives and property are best saved by conducting an offensive attack.• A lack of resources could lead to a defensive decision.
3 Developing an Offensive/Defensive IAP (1 of 3)• Entire operation is governed by the offensive/defensive decision – Initiate an offensive attack whenever it is safe to do so.
3 Developing an Offensive/Defensive IAP (2 of 3)• Master stream appliances used to: – Support rescue efforts – Push fire away from critical evacuation routes – Cover exposures• During an offensive operation, coordinate through command.
3 Developing an Offensive/Defensive IAP (3 of 3)• Offensive changes to defensive – Actions must be coordinated – Must never be both
3 Formulating an IAP (1 of 3)• IC – Sets the objectives – Decides on tactics necessary to achieve those objectives – Assigns units to complete the tasks associated with each objective and tactic
3 Formulating an IAP (2 of 3)• Focus of the entire operation• Tactics are directed toward completing the objectives.• Objectives are directed toward accomplishing the overall IAP.• Should be simple and understandable
3 Formulating an IAP (3 of 3)• Every incident needs some form of incident action plan. – Small incidents of short duration: unwritten plan. – Larger, more complex incidents: written plan provides a central focus, eliminates confusion, and reduces disputes
3 Written IAP• Written action plan should be used when: – Resources from multiple agencies are being used. – Several jurisdictions are involved. – Incident requires more than initial transfer of command.
3 Developing an IAP (1 of 2)• IC establishes objectives.• Unified command: objectives must reflect the policies and needs of all agencies• IAP becomes more important as the incident grows in size.
3 Deployment• Writing tactical objectives is useless without sufficient resources.• ICs must follow up and request status reports.• Company-level officers must provide status reports.
3 Risk Versus Benefit Analysis• Risk refers to the risk to fire fighters, not the risk to occupants.• Benefit is the expected or potential benefit to occupants or owners. – Rescuing occupants would be a life safety benefit.
3 Scenario 1: Single Family Detached Dwelling (1 of 2)• Majority of fires in the US• SOPs may spell out duties of first alarm assignment. – IC may need to modify operations • When SOPs are not being followed • When the procedures do not fit circumstances
3 Scenario 1: Single Family Detached Dwelling (2 of 2)• No fire should ever be considered routine. – Primary reason for conducting an offensive operation is life safety. – Risk is associated with any offensive operation. • Usually less in a single-family dwelling versus a larger occupancy
3 Structural Stability (1 of 2)• Frame building – Fairly unstable structure and contributes significant fuel to fire. – Will have considerable fire involvement before collapse • Exception of truss roof and floor construction – Combustible characteristics of building provide stability clues.
3 Structural Stability (2 of 2)• Caution should be used when venting roofs of modern residential buildings.• Roof ventilation not normally required if the fire is not in upper floor or attic – Stable platform or a roof ladder for roof access
3 Scenario 2: High-Rise Apartment Building (1 of 5)• Greater risk than single-family detached dwelling due to: – Number and location of occupants beyond the reach of aerial ladders and towers – Difficulty in ventilating building
3 Scenario 2: High-Rise Apartment Building (2 of 5)• Size, complexity and danger increase.• Operations are complicated by: – Extreme temperatures – Strong winds – Blocked stairways – Locked passageways – Other factors• Properly installed, working sprinkler system reduces danger.
3 Scenario 2: High-Rise Apartment Building (3 of 5)• Buildings pose extreme life hazards due to type of occupancy. – Office buildings (thousands of people) – Large residential buildings (hundreds of families, elderly residents)• Evacuation is more labor-intensive.
3 Scenario 2: High-Rise Apartment Building (4 of 5)• Fire conditions could be similar to single family detached dwelling. – Challenges will be more complex. • Occupants on fire floor and floors above can be threatened by the smoke and fire. – Resource needs are much greater.
3 Scenario 2: High-Rise Apartment Building (5 of 5)• Fire could be located several floors above grade level. – More complex and difficult• Many floors above fire could be occupied. – Search and rescue necessary on many different levels
3 Scenario 3: Church Fires (1 of 3)• Large, open area to accommodate the congregation and altar.• Structural collapse is probable if fire reaches roof structure.• Require an unusually high rate of flow• Use 2½″ (64-mm) or 3″ (76-mm) hand lines with solid streams to obtain the necessary reach.
3 Scenario 3: Church Fires (2 of 3)• During times when people congregate, life safety is a key tactical consideration.• Long periods of time when the buildings are unoccupied – Fire can gain considerable headway before it is noticed
3 Scenario 3: Church Fires (3 of 3)• Many are not protected by fire suppression systems or automatic alarms.• Older churches may house priceless valuables.
3 Summary (1 of 2)• An IAP is critical to meeting the three priorities: – Life safety – Extinguishment – Property conservation
3 Summary (2 of 2)• Safety can be addressed while meeting these priorities. – Requires sound application of risk management techniques