2 Procedures, Pre-Incident Planning, and Size-Up
Learning Objectives  (1 of 10) <ul><li>List the kinds of operations that should be covered by standard operating procedure...
Learning Objectives  (2 of 10) <ul><li>Discuss the relationship between standard operating procedures, pre-incident plans,...
Learning Objectives  (3 of 10) <ul><li>Compare standard operating procedures to standard operating guidelines, explaining ...
Learning Objectives  (4 of 10) <ul><li>Recall major steps taken during size-up and identify the order in which they will t...
Learning Objectives  (5 of 10) <ul><li>Analyze construction methods during everyday responses and while surveying building...
Learning Objectives  (6 of 10) <ul><li>Examine compatibility issues and usefulness of computer programs in pre-incident pl...
Learning Objectives  (7 of 10) <ul><li>List factors to be considered during size-up and briefly define and explain the sig...
Learning Objectives  (8 of 10) <ul><li>Recall the basics of building construction and how they interrelate to pre-fire pla...
Learning Objectives  (9 of 10) <ul><li>Explain the size-up process in the chronological order in which information is rece...
Learning Objectives  (10 of 10) <ul><li>Create a pre-incident plan drawing and narrative.  </li></ul><ul><li>Perform an in...
Overview  (1 of 3) <ul><li>Fire-ground operations should be outlined in SOPs. </li></ul><ul><li>The better the SOPs, the f...
Overview  (2 of 3) <ul><li>Incident Action Plans (IAPs) require SOPs and a good size-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific buildi...
Overview  (3 of 3) <ul><li>The IC has time to reevaluate as more information becomes available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size...
Developing Standard Operating Procedures  (1 of 4) <ul><li>General guidelines used at structure fires or fires in similar ...
Developing Standard Operating Procedures  (2 of 4) <ul><li>There is a need for regional planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Take t...
Developing Standard Operating Procedures  (3 of 4) <ul><li>Influenced by:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of property to be p...
Developing Standard Operating Procedures  (4 of 4) <ul><li>Provide a structure for the decision-making process </li></ul><...
National Incident Management System (NIMS) <ul><li>Establishes a command structure </li></ul><ul><li>Describes the roles a...
SOPs, Equipment, and Training Are Interrelated
SOPs: Naming Controversy  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Standard operating procedures, standard operating guidelines, general operating...
SOPs: Naming Controversy  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reasonable person” clause in the procedures ma...
Procedures or Guidelines <ul><li>Write them down. </li></ul><ul><li>Train to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use them consistently...
Evaluating a Specific Property <ul><li>There should be a procedure describing the pre-planning system. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Pre-Plans <ul><li>Second step of the size-up process </li></ul><ul><li>Can take several forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal...
Recommended Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><...
Recommended Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mercantile </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul...
Types of Pre-Plans  (1 of 4) <ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show...
Types of Pre-Plans  (2 of 4) <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property with substantial risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Types of Pre-Plans  (3 of 4) <ul><li>Notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple notation about a building </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Types of Pre-Plans  (4 of 4) <ul><li>Training Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could include buildings under construction or de...
Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings  (1 of 4) <ul><li>Includes planning for special occupancies or type of buildings ...
Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings  (2 of 4) <ul><li>Detailed format and intuitive drawing symbols are recommended. ...
Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings  (3 of 4) <ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building name </li></ul></ul><ul...
Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings  (4 of 4) <ul><li>Include a tactical consideration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide...
Pre-Planning Preparation and Time <ul><li>Keeping current is as important as creating. </li></ul><ul><li>Revision process ...
What Structures Are  Pre-Planned <ul><li>Decision depends on jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational priority list pro...
Modifying SOPs <ul><li>Standard method for addressing predictable operational circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-plans ad...
Estimating Life Safety Needs <ul><li>Buildings with unusual high risk to fire fighters or occupants should be pre-planned....
Estimating Extinguishment Needs <ul><li>Buildings with high fuel load should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More th...
Estimating Property Conservation Needs <ul><li>High value contents could justify  pre-planning effort. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Relationship of Pre-Planning to Size-up <ul><li>Size-up is a continuous process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural extension o...
Analyzing the Situation Through Size-Up  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Size-up factors are difficult to categorize. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Analyzing the Situation  Through Size-Up  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Upon arrival, IC adds what is known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pers...
Life Safety/Fire Fighter Safety  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Smoke and fire conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly related to occu...
Life Safety/Fire Fighter Safety  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Experienced ICs learn to evaluate pressure, smoke characteristics, and o...
Fire Location <ul><li>Necessary to successfully combat the fire </li></ul><ul><li>Usually determined on arrival </li></ul>...
Direction of Travel <ul><li>Life safety/fire fighter safety </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kn...
Ventilation Status <ul><li>Key factor in all phases of operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venting for life </li></ul></ul><ul...
Occupancy Type <ul><li>Major occupancies should be  pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Building use will determine: </li></ul>...
Estimated Number of Occupants <ul><li>Difficult at best </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 101: Life Safety Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Evacuation Status <ul><li>Estimating number of people still in building is next logical step </li></ul><ul><li>Most buildi...
Occupant Concerns  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Proximity to fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-plans should show locations of occupied ar...
Occupant Concerns  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy of building can help determine whether occupa...
Primary and Alternative Egress Routes  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Most will escape unassisted if there is sufficient egress. </li></...
Primary and Alternative Egress Routes  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Many public buildings have areas of safe refuge. </li></ul><ul><ul...
Medical Status of Occupants <ul><li>EMS should be requested whenever occupants are still in building. </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Operational Status  (1 of 2) <ul><li>SOPs provide a standard way of going to work. </li></ul><ul><li>IC must continually e...
Operational Status  (2 of 2) <ul><li>IC must ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the search being conducted in a systematic mann...
Fire Zones/Perimeters <ul><li>Area where a specific level of protective clothing is required </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly a ...
Accountability <ul><li>Only accounts for fire fighters, not occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Primary accountability system is N...
Rapid Intervention <ul><li>RIC (Rapid Intervention Crew) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team of fire fighters immediately available...
Organization and Control <ul><li>NIMS is the acceptable method of organizing an incident.  </li></ul><ul><li>All units mus...
Rescue Options <ul><li>IC first evaluates ways occupants can be removed from the building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safest an...
Staffing Concerns  (1 of 3) <ul><li>Primary search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by the following factors: </li></ul></...
Staffing Concerns  (2 of 3) <ul><li>Interior rescue/evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be the same required for primar...
Staffing Concerns  (3 of 3) <ul><li>Exterior rescue/evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional staffing will be needed if...
Access to Building Exterior <ul><li>Pre-plans should note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Access to Building Interior <ul><li>Forcible entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can significantly delay search and rescue and ini...
Signs of Collapse <ul><li>Failure of a supporting structure </li></ul><ul><li>May occur without warning </li></ul>
Construction Type <ul><li>All members should be familiar with building types and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings sho...
Roof Construction <ul><li>Killing mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to catastrophic collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roo...
Condition <ul><li>Previously damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-fire damage should be considered wh...
Live and Dead Loads <ul><li>Dead load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building and permanent attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Fire Suppression Water Load <ul><li>Weight of the water discharged into the bldg. during suppression operations </li></ul>...
Enclosures and Fire Separations <ul><li>Type of construction and occupancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major clues in determinin...
Extension Probability <ul><li>Directly related to presence of enclosures/fire separations </li></ul>
Concealed Spaces <ul><li>Most buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common attics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separations often d...
Age of Building <ul><li>Positive effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older buildings have heavier, more fire-resistive construct...
Height and Area  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Size can partially dictate total volume of fire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of flow form...
Height and Area  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Height of the building affects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of aerial apparatus ...
Complexity and Layout <ul><li>Pre-plan should include a general floor layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel should orient th...
Probability of Extinguishment <ul><li>Important to life safety </li></ul><ul><li>Death and injury are greatly diminished w...
Offensive/Defensive/ Non-Attack <ul><li>Deciding an attack strategy is critically important. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical fa...
Ventilation Status <ul><li>Finding/extinguishing the fire is easier when fire has self-vented. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be...
External Exposures <ul><li>Should be shown on pre-plans </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative should show nearby structures (not con...
Internal Exposures <ul><li>Parts of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Fire pathways should be identified in pre-plans. </li><...
Extinguishment Factors  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Fuel load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies as to quantity, type, geometric orientatio...
Extinguishment Factors  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some systems have limited supply. </li></ul></...
Manual Fire Suppression Systems  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Standpipe systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to use on upper floors </li...
Manual Fire Suppression Systems  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Standpipe systems, continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of this equipmen...
Automatic Fire Suppression Systems <ul><li>Sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary tactic involves letting the sys...
Property Conservation <ul><li>Third operational priority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom takes on urgency of life safety and ...
Salvageable Property <ul><li>Nearly every property has some salvageable property. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be included in pre...
Location of Salvageable Property <ul><li>Residential settings: throughout the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Other settings: ...
Water Damage  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Water used a primary extinguishing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Some quantity of water will be i...
Water Damage  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Prefer to use built-in features to evacuate water </li></ul><ul><li>If property can not be ...
Smoke Damage <ul><li>Can infiltrate entire building </li></ul><ul><li>Common pathway is upward </li></ul><ul><li>Most dama...
Ventilation <ul><li>Best way to reduce damage </li></ul><ul><li>Materials that absorb smoke more susceptible to damage </l...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (1 of 6) <ul><li>IAP will require resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Exact number may not be know...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (2 of 6) <ul><li>11 to 13 fire fighters for safe fire attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working ...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (3 of 6) <ul><li>More staffing necessary if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and complexity of p...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (4 of 6) <ul><li>NFPA Fire Protection Handbook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests guidelines fo...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (5 of 6) <ul><li>Additional staffing needed for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching large area...
Staffing: Total Versus Needed  (6 of 6) <ul><li>IC must match incident requirements with available resources. </li></ul><u...
Apparatus: Total Versus Needed <ul><li>Total apparatus versus apparatus needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive operations ...
Staging/Tactical Reserve <ul><li>SOPs should address staging. </li></ul><ul><li>Small incidents = one engine company/one t...
Utilities <ul><li>Water, gas, electricity, other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential gas or fuel supplies can be shut down i...
Time of Incident <ul><li>Time of day (likelihood of occupants being present) </li></ul><ul><li>Day of week (occupancy vari...
Weather <ul><li>IC should consider extremes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme heat/cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could requ...
Size-Up Chronology  (1 of 5) <ul><li>SOPs and pre-incident plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Done well in advance </li></ul></ul>...
Size-Up Chronology  (2 of 5) <ul><li>Alarm Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-of-day factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Size-Up Chronology  (3 of 5) <ul><li>En route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies arrivi...
Size-Up Chronology  (4 of 5) <ul><li>Visual observations at the scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial IAP based on visual in...
Size-Up Chronology  (5 of 5) <ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be planned and deliberate </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Summary  (1 of 2) <ul><li>The IC’s job is simplified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing procedures in advance of an in...
Summary  (2 of 2) <ul><li>A safe and effective IAP can be developed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having this information avai...
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Chapter 2 pp

  1. 1. 2 Procedures, Pre-Incident Planning, and Size-Up
  2. 2. Learning Objectives (1 of 10) <ul><li>List the kinds of operations that should be covered by standard operating procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of standard operating procedures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (2 of 10) <ul><li>Discuss the relationship between standard operating procedures, pre-incident plans, and size-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the relationship between standard operating procedures, equipment, and training. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (3 of 10) <ul><li>Compare standard operating procedures to standard operating guidelines, explaining the role of a “reasonable person” clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate the main components of pre-fire planning and identify steps during a pre-fire plan review. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning Objectives (4 of 10) <ul><li>Recall major steps taken during size-up and identify the order in which they will take place at an incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the relationship between pre-incident planning and construction characteristics common to a community. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Objectives (5 of 10) <ul><li>Analyze construction methods during everyday responses and while surveying buildings under construction and demolition. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how pre-incident plan information is gathered using pre-formatted forms, as well as methods for storing and retrieving pre-plan information. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Objectives (6 of 10) <ul><li>Examine compatibility issues and usefulness of computer programs in pre-incident planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a priority chart of buildings to be preplanned by occupancy type. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Objectives (7 of 10) <ul><li>List factors to be considered during size-up and briefly define and explain the significance of each factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate (verbally and in writing) knowledge of fire behavior and the chemistry of fire. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Objectives (8 of 10) <ul><li>Recall the basics of building construction and how they interrelate to pre-fire planning and size-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Define and explain the difference between occupancy, occupant, and occupied. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning Objectives (9 of 10) <ul><li>Explain the size-up process in the chronological order in which information is received. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate a specific fire department’s standard operating procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize occupancies to be pre-incident planned in a specific jurisdiction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Objectives (10 of 10) <ul><li>Create a pre-incident plan drawing and narrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform an initial size-up based on limited information. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply size-up factors to a fire situation and categorize factors as primary or secondary. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overview (1 of 3) <ul><li>Fire-ground operations should be outlined in SOPs. </li></ul><ul><li>The better the SOPs, the fewer decisions that will need to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>SOPs, pre-plans, and incident-specific information are important size-up components. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Overview (2 of 3) <ul><li>Incident Action Plans (IAPs) require SOPs and a good size-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific building information can be obtained through pre-planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating an incident and developing an IAP must take place rapidly. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Overview (3 of 3) <ul><li>The IC has time to reevaluate as more information becomes available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size-up information and the IAP should improve. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Developing Standard Operating Procedures (1 of 4) <ul><li>General guidelines used at structure fires or fires in similar occupancies </li></ul><ul><li>Address any operation using a standard approach </li></ul><ul><li>Written specifically for an individual department </li></ul>
  16. 16. Developing Standard Operating Procedures (2 of 4) <ul><li>There is a need for regional planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the guesswork out of the fire-ground </li></ul><ul><li>Are necessary for the first-arriving engine company </li></ul>
  17. 17. Developing Standard Operating Procedures (3 of 4) <ul><li>Influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of property to be protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Developing Standard Operating Procedures (4 of 4) <ul><li>Provide a structure for the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>Answers questions of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who makes what decisions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At what level of command? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From where? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. National Incident Management System (NIMS) <ul><li>Establishes a command structure </li></ul><ul><li>Describes the roles at incident scene </li></ul><ul><li>Training must be commensurate with SOPs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1500 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SOPs, Equipment, and Training Are Interrelated
  21. 21. SOPs: Naming Controversy (1 of 2) <ul><li>Standard operating procedures, standard operating guidelines, general operating guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>More important to have written procedures or guidelines than naming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures are guidelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines become procedures through practice. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SOPs: Naming Controversy (2 of 2) <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reasonable person” clause in the procedures manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel should act reasonably if modification of the procedure is appropriate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Procedures or Guidelines <ul><li>Write them down. </li></ul><ul><li>Train to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use them consistently. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Evaluating a Specific Property <ul><li>There should be a procedure describing the pre-planning system. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes sense to gather information about a facility while visiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title III: Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) requirement </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Pre-Plans <ul><li>Second step of the size-up process </li></ul><ul><li>Can take several forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal: include narrative and drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple: notations of particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA 1620: Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlines development, maintenance and use </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Recommended Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul><ul><li>Detention and correctional </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Residential board and care </li></ul>
  27. 27. Recommended Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mercantile </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Special outdoor locations, such as transformer sub-stations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Pre-Plans (1 of 4) <ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows overview of complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to identify: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building and fire protection features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building numbering </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Types of Pre-Plans (2 of 4) <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property with substantial risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing of property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific floor layouts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could include several plans </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Pre-Plans (3 of 4) <ul><li>Notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple notation about a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previous fire damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notations in CAD systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior marking systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of New Jersey Truss Marking System </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Types of Pre-Plans (4 of 4) <ul><li>Training Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could include buildings under construction or demolition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior framework (skeleton) exposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reveal construction methods/materials </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings (1 of 4) <ul><li>Includes planning for special occupancies or type of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Standard pre-incident plan form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: Predictable location of specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: Large amounts of “not applicable” space </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings (2 of 4) <ul><li>Detailed format and intuitive drawing symbols are recommended. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols should not require legend. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawings are extremely useful. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings (3 of 4) <ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner/manager/agent name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency contact information </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Pre-Plan Incident Checklist and Drawings (4 of 4) <ul><li>Include a tactical consideration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not pre-assign companies. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pre-Planning Preparation and Time <ul><li>Keeping current is as important as creating. </li></ul><ul><li>Revision process is also time-intensive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers help save time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad information can be worse than no information. </li></ul>
  37. 37. What Structures Are Pre-Planned <ul><li>Decision depends on jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational priority list provides direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenging buildings should be pre-planned. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Modifying SOPs <ul><li>Standard method for addressing predictable operational circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-plans address what is different or unusual. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-plans are specific, SOPs general. </li></ul><ul><li>SOPs are not always the most effective way. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Estimating Life Safety Needs <ul><li>Buildings with unusual high risk to fire fighters or occupants should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places of assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Estimating Extinguishment Needs <ul><li>Buildings with high fuel load should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than two standard pre-connects necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of fire compartment divided by 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buildings with special or hazardous materials present in quantity should be pre-planned. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Estimating Property Conservation Needs <ul><li>High value contents could justify pre-planning effort. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furs, jewelry, electronic equipment </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Relationship of Pre-Planning to Size-up <ul><li>Size-up is a continuous process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural extension of SOP/pre-planning process </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Analyzing the Situation Through Size-Up (1 of 2) <ul><li>Size-up factors are difficult to categorize. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident conditions dictate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life safety most critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins before incident: SOP development and pre-planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IC considers what is already known at time of alarm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatcher relays other information. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Analyzing the Situation Through Size-Up (2 of 2) <ul><li>Upon arrival, IC adds what is known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications with companies/building personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconnaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size-up continues throughout the incident into overhaul. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Life Safety/Fire Fighter Safety (1 of 2) <ul><li>Smoke and fire conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly related to occupant survival and fire fighter safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary factors at a structure fire </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Life Safety/Fire Fighter Safety (2 of 2) <ul><li>Experienced ICs learn to evaluate pressure, smoke characteristics, and other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Interior reconnaissance best way to determine fire intensity </li></ul>
  47. 47. Fire Location <ul><li>Necessary to successfully combat the fire </li></ul><ul><li>Usually determined on arrival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from Dispatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual clues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoke flowing rapidly from an opening may indicate fire is nearby. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Direction of Travel <ul><li>Life safety/fire fighter safety </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing where fire may spread is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire, heat, smoke travel upward via path of least resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to know the probability of fire travel (construction methods, alterations) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Ventilation Status <ul><li>Key factor in all phases of operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venting for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vent should pull fire away from occupants and fire fighters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibilities can be known through pre-planning. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Occupancy Type <ul><li>Major occupancies should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Building use will determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel load and type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other essential facts </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Estimated Number of Occupants <ul><li>Difficult at best </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 101: Life Safety Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes maximum occupant load per square foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Places of public assembly may have maximum number of occupants posted. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Evacuation Status <ul><li>Estimating number of people still in building is next logical step </li></ul><ul><li>Most buildings do not have occupant accountability system. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary search: only way to assure building has been evacuated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be verified with secondary search </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Occupant Concerns (1 of 2) <ul><li>Proximity to fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-plans should show locations of occupied areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awake and alert are more likely to hear alarm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness is directly related to type of occupancy. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Occupant Concerns (2 of 2) <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy of building can help determine whether occupants can escape fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People inside a public building are not always familiar with building layout or alternate exits. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Primary and Alternative Egress Routes (1 of 2) <ul><li>Most will escape unassisted if there is sufficient egress. </li></ul><ul><li>Codes specify egress facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-plan drawings should show location of all exits. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Primary and Alternative Egress Routes (2 of 2) <ul><li>Many public buildings have areas of safe refuge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be addressed in pre-plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be checked by fire department in an emergency </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Medical Status of Occupants <ul><li>EMS should be requested whenever occupants are still in building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Branch should be considered. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Operational Status (1 of 2) <ul><li>SOPs provide a standard way of going to work. </li></ul><ul><li>IC must continually evaluate safety and effectiveness of operation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether a nonstandard attack would be more effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety is the most important consideration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IC must continually reevaluate for risk management. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Operational Status (2 of 2) <ul><li>IC must ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the search being conducted in a systematic manner? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the occupants who are in the most danger being rescued? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the fire been properly vented to control the fire spread? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is progress being made in controlling the fire? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are rate-of-flow requirements being met? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has salvage been considered? </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Fire Zones/Perimeters <ul><li>Area where a specific level of protective clothing is required </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly a safe area where no protective clothing is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps non-response people out of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Should be part of SOPs </li></ul>
  61. 61. Accountability <ul><li>Only accounts for fire fighters, not occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Primary accountability system is NIMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Freelancing must be avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>Required by NFPA 1500: Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Programs. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Rapid Intervention <ul><li>RIC (Rapid Intervention Crew) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team of fire fighters immediately available to rescue fire fighters who need assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Required by NFPA 1500: Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Programs </li></ul>
  63. 63. Organization and Control <ul><li>NIMS is the acceptable method of organizing an incident. </li></ul><ul><li>All units must be included. </li></ul><ul><li>Must work towards common tactical objectives within strategy </li></ul>
  64. 64. Rescue Options <ul><li>IC first evaluates ways occupants can be removed from the building. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safest and most efficient option </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Staffing Concerns (1 of 3) <ul><li>Primary search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by the following factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the area to be searched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue methods available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of the occupants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not involve increased staffing </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Staffing Concerns (2 of 3) <ul><li>Interior rescue/evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be the same required for primary search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional teams may be assigned to remove victims. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Staffing Concerns (3 of 3) <ul><li>Exterior rescue/evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional staffing will be needed if ladders are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most exterior rescues require more staffing. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Access to Building Exterior <ul><li>Pre-plans should note: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street or road access around structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsafe/inaccessible roadways </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Access to Building Interior <ul><li>Forcible entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can significantly delay search and rescue and initial attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs should be noted on pre-plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions always should be considered in size-up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk-versus-benefit analysis </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Signs of Collapse <ul><li>Failure of a supporting structure </li></ul><ul><li>May occur without warning </li></ul>
  71. 71. Construction Type <ul><li>All members should be familiar with building types and problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings should be classified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 220: Standard on Types of Building Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type I construction: Fire-resistive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type II construction: Non-combustible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type III construction: Ordinary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type IV construction: Heavy timber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type V construction: Frame </li></ul></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Roof Construction <ul><li>Killing mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to catastrophic collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof is tied to the walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls damaged by fire fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof collapses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truss roofs should be pre-planned. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Condition <ul><li>Previously damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-fire damage should be considered when determining attack mode. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Live and Dead Loads <ul><li>Dead load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building and permanent attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy roof loads should be noted on pre-plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important when determining incident-specific tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be noted on pre-plans </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Fire Suppression Water Load <ul><li>Weight of the water discharged into the bldg. during suppression operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One gallon of water = 8.33 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 GPM = 8,330 pounds/minute </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Enclosures and Fire Separations <ul><li>Type of construction and occupancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major clues in determining extension probability </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Extension Probability <ul><li>Directly related to presence of enclosures/fire separations </li></ul>
  78. 78. Concealed Spaces <ul><li>Most buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common attics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separations often damaged or removed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suspended ceilings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire can travel through false space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If space involved in fire, expect rapid collapse of truss roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be part of pre-plan </li></ul>
  79. 79. Age of Building <ul><li>Positive effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older buildings have heavier, more fire-resistive construction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renovated buildings may have lightweight construction added. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May weaken with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on construction materials and maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Height and Area (1 of 2) <ul><li>Size can partially dictate total volume of fire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of flow formulas are based on size of the fire compartment. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Height and Area (2 of 2) <ul><li>Height of the building affects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of aerial apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of possible occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Complexity and Layout <ul><li>Pre-plan should include a general floor layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel should orient themselves in large, complex buildings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to the stairway, street, standpipe, and other critical landmarks </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Probability of Extinguishment <ul><li>Important to life safety </li></ul><ul><li>Death and injury are greatly diminished when fire is extinguished. </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors in determining fire attack method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of fire </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Offensive/Defensive/ Non-Attack <ul><li>Deciding an attack strategy is critically important. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical factors change as tactical objectives are achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important objectives are related to life safety. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Ventilation Status <ul><li>Finding/extinguishing the fire is easier when fire has self-vented. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be vented as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Venting for extinguishment is done to move smoke/heat away from crews. </li></ul>
  86. 86. External Exposures <ul><li>Should be shown on pre-plans </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative should show nearby structures (not connected), vehicles, and other property threatened by the fire. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Internal Exposures <ul><li>Parts of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Fire pathways should be identified in pre-plans. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Extinguishment Factors (1 of 2) <ul><li>Fuel load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies as to quantity, type, geometric orientation, other factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculated rate of flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the lines extinguish the fire? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be pre-calculated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of hoselines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be determined once rate of flow is known </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Extinguishment Factors (2 of 2) <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some systems have limited supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger systems have multiple supplies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apparatus pump capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications should consider available water supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In many cases, pump capacity exceeds water supply. </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Manual Fire Suppression Systems (1 of 2) <ul><li>Standpipe systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to use on upper floors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces work to advance hoselines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control valves, pumps, fire department connections and hose outlets should be shown on pre-plans. </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Manual Fire Suppression Systems (2 of 2) <ul><li>Standpipe systems, continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of this equipment also should be explained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs also should specify hose, nozzles, and necessary equipment. </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Automatic Fire Suppression Systems <ul><li>Sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary tactic involves letting the system do its job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control valves, pumps, fire department connections, and hose outlets should be shown on pre-plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler system becomes the first line of defense. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Property Conservation <ul><li>Third operational priority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seldom takes on urgency of life safety and extinguishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about property value and location should be pre-planned. </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Salvageable Property <ul><li>Nearly every property has some salvageable property. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be included in pre-plans </li></ul><ul><li>Property also may have non-monetary value. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Location of Salvageable Property <ul><li>Residential settings: throughout the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Other settings: may be concentrations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-plans should identify these locations. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Water Damage (1 of 2) <ul><li>Water used a primary extinguishing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Some quantity of water will be in a building. </li></ul><ul><li>Water will migrate through openings. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Water Damage (2 of 2) <ul><li>Prefer to use built-in features to evacuate water </li></ul><ul><li>If property can not be moved, common practice is to cover it. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Smoke Damage <ul><li>Can infiltrate entire building </li></ul><ul><li>Common pathway is upward </li></ul><ul><li>Most damage occurs on upper floors. </li></ul>
  99. 99. Ventilation <ul><li>Best way to reduce damage </li></ul><ul><li>Materials that absorb smoke more susceptible to damage </li></ul><ul><li>Can be overdone </li></ul><ul><li>Damage should be limited to what is needed to achieve tactical objectives. </li></ul>
  100. 100. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (1 of 6) <ul><li>IAP will require resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Exact number may not be known. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximations need to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing is the most important and difficult resource to obtain. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (2 of 6) <ul><li>11 to 13 fire fighters for safe fire attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-level, single family dwelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two hoselines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited areas to search </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (3 of 6) <ul><li>More staffing necessary if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and complexity of property increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional hoselines needed </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (4 of 6) <ul><li>NFPA Fire Protection Handbook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests guidelines for high, medium, and low-hazard occupancies and rural operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA 1710: Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career Fire Departments (14–15 personnel) </li></ul>
  104. 104. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (5 of 6) <ul><li>Additional staffing needed for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching large areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically removing victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger rate of flow requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas beyond a fixed water supply </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Staffing: Total Versus Needed (6 of 6) <ul><li>IC must match incident requirements with available resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offensive/defensive decision can be made. </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Apparatus: Total Versus Needed <ul><li>Total apparatus versus apparatus needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive operations = apparatus intensive </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Staging/Tactical Reserve <ul><li>SOPs should address staging. </li></ul><ul><li>Small incidents = one engine company/one truck company </li></ul><ul><li>Larger incidents = larger tactical reserve </li></ul>
  108. 108. Utilities <ul><li>Water, gas, electricity, other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential gas or fuel supplies can be shut down if necessary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility company personnel are better equipped. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-plans should show the location of shut-offs. </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Time of Incident <ul><li>Time of day (likelihood of occupants being present) </li></ul><ul><li>Day of week (occupancy varies on different days) </li></ul><ul><li>Time of year (weather conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Special times (holidays) </li></ul>
  110. 110. Weather <ul><li>IC should consider extremes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme heat/cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could require additional REHAB stations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity is important during heat extremes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases fatigue factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can affect smoke movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  111. 111. Size-Up Chronology (1 of 5) <ul><li>SOPs and pre-incident plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Done well in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a significant role in the IAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the IC a head start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shift/day/time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IC should consider factors at time of duty </li></ul></ul>
  112. 112. Size-Up Chronology (2 of 5) <ul><li>Alarm Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-of-day factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatch information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building location/address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occupant status </li></ul></ul></ul>
  113. 113. Size-Up Chronology (3 of 5) <ul><li>En route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies arriving on scene </li></ul></ul>
  114. 114. Size-Up Chronology (4 of 5) <ul><li>Visual observations at the scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial IAP based on visual information and reconnaissance from companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IC must determine if current IAP will accomplish desired objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality and quantity of information will increase with time. </li></ul></ul>
  115. 115. Size-Up Chronology (5 of 5) <ul><li>Overhaul </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be planned and deliberate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution should be taken to avoid injuries. </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Summary (1 of 2) <ul><li>The IC’s job is simplified by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing procedures in advance of an incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying target hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing pre-incident plans </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Summary (2 of 2) <ul><li>A safe and effective IAP can be developed by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having this information available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing a thorough size-up </li></ul></ul>

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