11 The Role of Occupancy
Learning Objectives  (1 of 12) <ul><li>Classify occupant ability to evacuate using an occupancy factor matrix. </li></ul><...
Learning Objectives  (2 of 12) <ul><li>Define assembly occupancy and provide examples of different types of assembly occup...
Learning Objectives  (3 of 12) <ul><li>Define educational occupancy and compare the life hazards in elementary schools, hi...
Learning Objectives  (4 of 12) <ul><li>Compare and contrast occupants in hospitals, nursing homes, and limited care facili...
Learning Objectives  (5 of 12) <ul><li>Define detention and correctional occupancy and explain the special challenges asso...
Learning Objectives  (6 of 12) <ul><li>Evaluate and discuss civilian fire deaths and fire fighter on-duty death rates in r...
Learning Objectives  (7 of 12) <ul><li>Examine life safety and extinguishment problems related to “big box” stores. </li><...
Learning Objectives  (8 of 12) <ul><li>Compare and contrast business and residential occupancies in terms of the risk to f...
Learning Objectives  (9 of 12) <ul><li>Describe the problems associated with changing the commodities stored in a sprinkle...
Learning Objectives  (10 of 12) <ul><li>Define industrial occupancy and the effect of hazardous materials related to life ...
Learning Objectives  (11 of 12) <ul><li>Define multiple, mixed, and separated occupancies and explain the difference betwe...
Learning Objectives  (12 of 12) <ul><li>Describe the fire hazards associated with buildings under construction, renovation...
Overview  (1 of 2) <ul><li>The building’s occupancy type should be considered as part of the size-up process. </li></ul><u...
Overview  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Residential, high-rise, and assembly occupancies all require different strategies. </li></ul><u...
Occupancy Type <ul><li>The function or use of a building has much to do with life safety.  </li></ul><ul><li>Codes and sta...
Major Factors  (1 of 3) <ul><li>Mobility of the occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Age of the occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders...
Major Factors  (2 of 3) <ul><li>Occupant density and total number of occupants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of the numb...
Major Factors  (3 of 3) <ul><li>Familiarity  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they know the building layout? </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Reports <ul><li>Publications detailing large loss fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ...
Assembly Occupancies <ul><li>50 or more persons gathered for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ent...
Assembly Concerns <ul><li>Large number of people in a small area </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel load varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Churches  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Often use open flames (candles) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be overcrowded </li></ul><ul><li>Most fir...
Churches  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Exposure problems from attached structures </li></ul><ul><li>Priceless contents </li></ul><ul><...
Eating and Drinking Establishments <ul><li>Overcrowding is a common problem and exits may become blocked. </li></ul><ul><l...
Sports Arenas <ul><li>Extreme life-hazard threat </li></ul><ul><li>Potential terrorist target </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to...
Convention Centers <ul><li>Potential for large fires and high risk to life </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics include protecting eg...
Theaters <ul><li>Older theaters were built for live shows and movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Newer theaters are housed in very ...
Educational Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the twelfth grade </...
Educational Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle...
Mobility Factors in Schools  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Tend to be very good in school settings  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger eleme...
Mobility Factors in Schools  (2 of 2) <ul><li>All levels should be aware of fire conditions and be able to hear the evacua...
Elementary Schools <ul><li>Tragic fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger children are less likely to take appropriate action ...
Saving Factors <ul><li>Discipline gained through frequent fire drills </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are natural role models f...
Special Challenges <ul><li>Fire extension </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile buildings may suffer complete destruction in a short pe...
Middle, Junior High, and High Schools <ul><li>Fire drills are required through grade 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability ...
Colleges and Universities <ul><li>Larger campuses </li></ul><ul><li>More evening and weekend activities </li></ul><ul><li>...
Health Care Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for purposes of medical or other treatment or care for four or more persons...
Health Care Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Occupants are mostly incapable of self preservation due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Types <ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing homes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited care facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Ambula...
Hospitals and Nursing Homes <ul><li>Mobility is a major concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Many patients are non-ambulatory. </li>...
Ambulatory Care Facilities <ul><li>Usually treat minor illnesses and injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients may be immobi...
Areas of Safe Refuge  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used in place of evacuations </li></ul><ul><li>Patients are moved through fire door...
Areas of Safe Refuge  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Defend-in-place strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred option </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Hospitals  (1 of 3) <ul><li>Building features assist in accomplishing the life safety mission. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas...
Hospitals  (2 of 3) <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable for patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliab...
Hospitals  (3 of 3) <ul><li>Patient rooms are usually within the flow capacity of hose lines.  </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke spr...
Nursing Homes <ul><li>Present many evacuation and rescue problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents are unable or only parti...
Sprinklered Buildings <ul><li>Fires are generally limited to one room. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary tactic is to move patient...
Limited Care Facilities <ul><li>Sometimes called assisted living facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to nursing homes exc...
Residential Board and Care Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>A building or portion thereof that is used for lodging and boardi...
Residential Board and Care Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Residents will usually be mentally or physically disadvantaged. <...
Detention and Correctional Occupancies <ul><li>Used to house four or more persons under varied degrees of restraint or sec...
Residential Occupancies <ul><li>Provides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than health care or detention and corr...
Types <ul><li>One- and two-family dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Apartment buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Dormitories </li></ul>...
One- and Two-Family Dwellings <ul><li>More line-of-duty deaths occur in these properties than any other occupancy. </li></...
Tactics <ul><li>Primary and secondary search </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety objective is achieved through extinguishment.  ...
Apartment Buildings <ul><li>Large number of people concentrated in smaller area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life safety problem ...
Dormitories <ul><li>Small living spaces with common public areas </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety is a critical issue. </li><...
Fraternity/Sorority Housing <ul><li>Can be old residential properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified to hold more tenants ...
Student Housing <ul><li>Alcohol consumption results in a lack of awareness and reduces mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Arson i...
Hotels and Motels <ul><li>Little leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except parents traveling with children </li></ul></ul><u...
Mercantile Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for the display and sale of merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Shoppers and emplo...
Mercantile Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Leadership is not provided in most stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupant density can...
Shopping Centers <ul><li>May lack sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>Required rate-of-flow could be very large </li></...
Enclosed Shopping Malls <ul><li>Larger than shopping centers </li></ul><ul><li>Can be two or more levels </li></ul><ul><li...
Lifestyle Centers <ul><li>Laid out like blocks of stores resembling a city street </li></ul><ul><li>Each store is accessib...
“ Big-Box” Stores <ul><li>Open layout store to the front with an attached storage area to the rear </li></ul><ul><li>Shoul...
Multi-Level Department Stores <ul><li>Can be part of a shopping center, enclosed mall, lifestyle center or a stand-alone b...
Business Occupancies  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for account and record keeping or the transaction of business other than merca...
Business Occupancies  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Leadership depends on the specific occupancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rehearse e...
Storage Occupancies  (1 of 5) <ul><li>Used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, vehicl...
Storage Occupancies  (2 of 5) <ul><li>Occupant density is generally low. </li></ul><ul><li>Could have an immense fuel load...
Storage Occupancies  (3 of 5) <ul><li>Most are of non-combustible construction with metal truss roof structures </li></ul>...
Storage Occupancies  (4 of 5) <ul><li>More challenging than a small residential building due to:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Si...
Storage Occupancies  (5 of 5) <ul><li>Fire fighters are more likely to be killed in these structures than in residential f...
Storage Occupancy Tactics <ul><li>Suppression systems should be supported and augmented. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate-of-flow re...
Industrial Occupancies  (1 of 4) <ul><li>Occupancy in which products are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, ...
Industrial Occupancies  (2 of 4) <ul><li>Occupant density is usually higher as compared to a storage occupancy.  </li></ul...
Industrial Occupancies  (3 of 4) <ul><li>Pre-incident planning is key. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to fire fighter safe...
Industrial Occupancies  (4 of 4) <ul><li>Special tactics must be developed to handle the number of hazards and the potenti...
Multiple- and Mixed-Occupancy Buildings <ul><li>A building or structure in which two or more classes of occupancy exist </...
Buildings Under Construction, Renovation, or Demolition <ul><li>Not classified as specific occupancies </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Buildings Being Demolished <ul><li>Fire protection equipment and structural features designed to impede fire are often rem...
Renovated Buildings  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Classification may change once the renovation process is completed.  </li></ul><ul><...
Renovated Buildings  (2 of 2) <ul><li>Buildings may contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
General Occupancy Considerations <ul><li>Special occupancy fires require pre-planning for specific properties. </li></ul><...
Estimating the Number of Potential Victims  <ul><li>Closely related to the type of occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Occupant lo...
Determining Evacuation Needs <ul><li>Requires evaluation of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Summary <ul><li>Occupancy type will directly affect the fire-ground strategy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Primary responsibility is...
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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. 11 The Role of Occupancy
  2. 2. Learning Objectives (1 of 12) <ul><li>Classify occupant ability to evacuate using an occupancy factor matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by occupant density and how it affects occupant safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the dimensions, number of floors, and occupant density, determine the maximum number of people who could be in a building. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (2 of 12) <ul><li>Define assembly occupancy and provide examples of different types of assembly occupancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the risk to fire fighters when fighting a fire in an assembly occupancy compared to a residential occupancy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (3 of 12) <ul><li>Define educational occupancy and compare the life hazards in elementary schools, high schools, and colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>Define health care occupancy and explain how evacuations in health care occupancies are different than in most other occupancies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning Objectives (4 of 12) <ul><li>Compare and contrast occupants in hospitals, nursing homes, and limited care facilities and describe how the occupant characteristics in each affect life safety during a structure fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Define residential board and care occupancy and compare these facilities to nursing homes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Objectives (5 of 12) <ul><li>Define detention and correctional occupancy and explain the special challenges associated with combating a fire in a large correctional facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Define residential occupancy and compare various types of residential buildings in terms of life safety. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Objectives (6 of 12) <ul><li>Evaluate and discuss civilian fire deaths and fire fighter on-duty death rates in residential occupancies. </li></ul><ul><li>Define mercantile occupancy and compare older style shopping centers to enclosed malls and lifestyle centers in terms of life safety and extinguishment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Objectives (7 of 12) <ul><li>Examine life safety and extinguishment problems related to “big box” stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how search and rescue procedures in a large commercial structure differ from search and rescue in a typical residential building. </li></ul><ul><li>Define business occupancy. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Objectives (8 of 12) <ul><li>Compare and contrast business and residential occupancies in terms of the risk to fire fighters during fire-ground operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Define storage occupancy and evaluate the effect of fuel load on manual firefighting. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning Objectives (9 of 12) <ul><li>Describe the problems associated with changing the commodities stored in a sprinkler-protected storage occupancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast storage and residential occupancies in terms of the risk to fire fighters during fire-ground operations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Objectives (10 of 12) <ul><li>Define industrial occupancy and the effect of hazardous materials related to life safety and extinguishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast industrial and residential occupancies in terms of the risk to fire fighters during fire-ground operations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Objectives (11 of 12) <ul><li>Define multiple, mixed, and separated occupancies and explain the difference between a mixed and separated occupancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the increased hazard to occupants in multiple story buildings where the first floor is occupied by stores and shops with apartments above. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Objectives (12 of 12) <ul><li>Describe the fire hazards associated with buildings under construction, renovation, or demolition. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Overview (1 of 2) <ul><li>The building’s occupancy type should be considered as part of the size-up process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the level of risk to occupants and fire fighters </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Overview (2 of 2) <ul><li>Residential, high-rise, and assembly occupancies all require different strategies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day and day of week are also critical factors. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Occupancy Type <ul><li>The function or use of a building has much to do with life safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Codes and standards are written with a focus on the special hazards presented by the occupancy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Major Factors (1 of 3) <ul><li>Mobility of the occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Age of the occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will there be an organized evacuation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping, mentally impaired, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Major Factors (2 of 3) <ul><li>Occupant density and total number of occupants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of the number of people in a given area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of ft2 per person </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Major Factors (3 of 3) <ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they know the building layout? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When are people present in the structure? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Reports <ul><li>Publications detailing large loss fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute for Science and Technology (NIST) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA Journal and Fire Engineering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Assembly Occupancies <ul><li>50 or more persons gathered for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amusement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awaiting transportation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Assembly Concerns <ul><li>Large number of people in a small area </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel load varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flame spread rate is critical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire must be kept out of exits </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can gain headway because building is unoccupied for long periods of time </li></ul>
  23. 23. Churches (1 of 2) <ul><li>Often use open flames (candles) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be overcrowded </li></ul><ul><li>Most fires occur when the building is unoccupied, resulting in delayed alarm. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional uses may add to fuel load. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child care, homeless shelters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Old, gothic-style churches have large concealed spaces. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Churches (2 of 2) <ul><li>Exposure problems from attached structures </li></ul><ul><li>Priceless contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stained glass windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defensive operation should be considered </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse potential great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bell towers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Eating and Drinking Establishments <ul><li>Overcrowding is a common problem and exits may become blocked. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupants may be impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire probability is fairly high due to smoking, cooking, and highly combustible decorations and furnishings. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire must be quickly confined and exits protected. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sports Arenas <ul><li>Extreme life-hazard threat </li></ul><ul><li>Potential terrorist target </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to protect egress routes while directing/facilitating evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Newer facilities may be protected by fire sprinklers. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Convention Centers <ul><li>Potential for large fires and high risk to life </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics include protecting egress routes </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers are commonplace. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly diminish potential loss of life and property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be overwhelmed </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Theaters <ul><li>Older theaters were built for live shows and movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Newer theaters are housed in very large, long buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting egress routes is a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Newer theaters are often protected by fire sprinklers. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Educational Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the twelfth grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six or more persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 or more hours per day or more than 12 hours per week </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Educational Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle, junior high, or high schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleges and universities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Mobility Factors in Schools (1 of 2) <ul><li>Tend to be very good in school settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger elementary school students depend on a high degree of leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most elementary and high school students would be mobile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College level should not pose a problem. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Mobility Factors in Schools (2 of 2) <ul><li>All levels should be aware of fire conditions and be able to hear the evacuation alarm. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Elementary Schools <ul><li>Tragic fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger children are less likely to take appropriate action on their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The younger the students, the greater the danger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only recently have schools been protected with automatic sprinkler systems. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Saving Factors <ul><li>Discipline gained through frequent fire drills </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are natural role models for the children to follow in an emergency. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Special Challenges <ul><li>Fire extension </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile buildings may suffer complete destruction in a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional fuel load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other collected materials </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Middle, Junior High, and High Schools <ul><li>Fire drills are required through grade 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability may not be as efficient at the high school level. </li></ul><ul><li>May be occupied outside of normal class hours </li></ul><ul><li>Auditoriums may be classified as assembly occupancies. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Colleges and Universities <ul><li>Larger campuses </li></ul><ul><li>More evening and weekend activities </li></ul><ul><li>Adult population is better able to take care of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>No occupant accountability system </li></ul><ul><li>Rate-of-flow should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><li>May contain high-value contents </li></ul>
  38. 38. Health Care Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for purposes of medical or other treatment or care for four or more persons. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Health Care Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Occupants are mostly incapable of self preservation due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or mental disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security measures not under the occupants’ control </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Types <ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing homes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited care facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Ambulatory care facilities </li></ul>
  41. 41. Hospitals and Nursing Homes <ul><li>Mobility is a major concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Many patients are non-ambulatory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to self-evacuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will need assistance from nursing staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited care facility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More mobile than nursing homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff usually provides leadership </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Ambulatory Care Facilities <ul><li>Usually treat minor illnesses and injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients may be immobile and have limited or no cognitive ability due to anesthesia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be indicated in pre-incident plans </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious patients will be more likely to take independent action in an emergency. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Areas of Safe Refuge (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used in place of evacuations </li></ul><ul><li>Patients are moved through fire doors to safe areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients are seldom evacuated to the outside. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Areas of Safe Refuge (2 of 2) <ul><li>Defend-in-place strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupants are either protected at their present location or moved to a safe location within the building. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Hospitals (1 of 3) <ul><li>Building features assist in accomplishing the life safety mission. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas separated by substantial fire walls and fire doors </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Hospitals (2 of 3) <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable for patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable for visitors and doctors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary search must be conducted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large open areas may have heavy fuel load. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundries, storage, and refuse areas </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Hospitals (3 of 3) <ul><li>Patient rooms are usually within the flow capacity of hose lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke spread should be considered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain expensive equipment that may be sensitive to water and smoke damage </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Nursing Homes <ul><li>Present many evacuation and rescue problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residents are unable or only partially able to assist themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires significant commitment of fire department resources </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Sprinklered Buildings <ul><li>Fires are generally limited to one room. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary tactic is to move patients out of smoky areas to places of safe refuge. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler system must be supported. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire doors should be used to contain the fire. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Limited Care Facilities <ul><li>Sometimes called assisted living facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to nursing homes except occupants do not require continuous nursing care </li></ul><ul><li>Many resemble apartment buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Primary search and quick extinguishment are the principal tactics. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Residential Board and Care Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>A building or portion thereof that is used for lodging and boarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four or more residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not related by blood or marriage to the owners or operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For providing personal care services </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Residential Board and Care Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Residents will usually be mentally or physically disadvantaged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May result in problems evacuating the building </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Detention and Correctional Occupancies <ul><li>Used to house four or more persons under varied degrees of restraint or security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupants are mostly incapable of self-preservation because of security measures not under the occupants’ control. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Residential Occupancies <ul><li>Provides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than health care or detention and correctional. </li></ul><ul><li>Account for the most fires, most fatal fires, and most property loss. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Types <ul><li>One- and two-family dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Apartment buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Dormitories </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels/motels </li></ul>
  56. 56. One- and Two-Family Dwellings <ul><li>More line-of-duty deaths occur in these properties than any other occupancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily due to the large number of fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No fire should ever be considered routine. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a direct correlation between life safety and the time of day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily occupied at night and on weekends </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Tactics <ul><li>Primary and secondary search </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety objective is achieved through extinguishment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two pre-connected hose lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Property conservation </li></ul>
  58. 58. Apartment Buildings <ul><li>Large number of people concentrated in smaller area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life safety problem is directly proportional to the number of units in a single building. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a larger staffing commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure problems likely </li></ul>
  59. 59. Dormitories <ul><li>Small living spaces with common public areas </li></ul><ul><li>Life safety is a critical issue. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of people is fairly high compared to most residential properties. </li></ul><ul><li>May be regulated by the University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety policies should be in place. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Fraternity/Sorority Housing <ul><li>Can be old residential properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified to hold more tenants than the original design intended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be controlled by the college </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupant load increases substantially due to social events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guests may not be familiar with building and exit facilities. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Student Housing <ul><li>Alcohol consumption results in a lack of awareness and reduces mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Arson is the leading cause of fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Most rooms will be within the flow capacity of standard hose streams. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Hotels and Motels <ul><li>Little leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except parents traveling with children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hotels and motels are transient in nature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most occupants will not know the location of alternative means of egress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater occupant density than most residential occupancies </li></ul>
  63. 63. Mercantile Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for the display and sale of merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Shoppers and employees should be fully alert. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most will be able to evacuate with little assistance. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Mercantile Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Leadership is not provided in most stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupant density can be very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Time factors are critical in sizing up a mercantile occupancy. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Shopping Centers <ul><li>May lack sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>Required rate-of-flow could be very large </li></ul><ul><li>Internal exposure hazards </li></ul><ul><li>May have common attic space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for horizontal fire spread </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Enclosed Shopping Malls <ul><li>Larger than shopping centers </li></ul><ul><li>Can be two or more levels </li></ul><ul><li>Can have confusing layout </li></ul><ul><li>Stores may be separated by non-combustible partitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain open to the front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most are sprinkler protected </li></ul>
  67. 67. Lifestyle Centers <ul><li>Laid out like blocks of stores resembling a city street </li></ul><ul><li>Each store is accessible from the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally protected by sprinklers </li></ul>
  68. 68. “ Big-Box” Stores <ul><li>Open layout store to the front with an attached storage area to the rear </li></ul><ul><li>Should be sprinkler protected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have standpipe drops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Height and configuration of storage can require substantial effort to achieve final extinguishment. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Multi-Level Department Stores <ul><li>Can be part of a shopping center, enclosed mall, lifestyle center or a stand-alone building </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple stories may make life safety and extinguishment more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Large fuel load also may complicate extinguishment. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Business Occupancies (1 of 2) <ul><li>Used for account and record keeping or the transaction of business other than mercantile </li></ul><ul><li>Occupants should be awake and alert. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility is generally not a major problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically or mentally challenged people may be in the building, requiring special assistance. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Business Occupancies (2 of 2) <ul><li>Leadership depends on the specific occupancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rehearse evacuation plans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light-to-moderate fuel load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate-of-flow depends on volume of largest compartment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Property conservation must protect electronic equipment and records. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Storage Occupancies (1 of 5) <ul><li>Used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, products, vehicles, or animals </li></ul><ul><li>Most employees will be mobile, awake, alert, and familiar with the building layout and exit facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Age should not be a factor in evacuation. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Storage Occupancies (2 of 5) <ul><li>Occupant density is generally low. </li></ul><ul><li>Could have an immense fuel load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing risk of fast-moving fire or explosion </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Storage Occupancies (3 of 5) <ul><li>Most are of non-combustible construction with metal truss roof structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to early roof collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most modern warehouses are equipped with fire sprinklers. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Storage Occupancies (4 of 5) <ul><li>More challenging than a small residential building due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and complexity of the building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely high fuel load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer occupant escape time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing interior layouts </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Storage Occupancies (5 of 5) <ul><li>Fire fighters are more likely to be killed in these structures than in residential fires. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The danger increases exponentially in large vacant buildings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatality rate is nearly four times as great in vacant buildings as compared to residential structures. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Storage Occupancy Tactics <ul><li>Suppression systems should be supported and augmented. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate-of-flow requirements should be pre-planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler system calculations should be used in pre-plans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V/100 calculations may not be adequate. </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Industrial Occupancies (1 of 4) <ul><li>Occupancy in which products are manufactured or in which processing, assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair operations are conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to suffer a large loss of life and/or high dollar loss </li></ul>
  79. 79. Industrial Occupancies (2 of 4) <ul><li>Occupant density is usually higher as compared to a storage occupancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Required to have emergency evacuation plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including an accountability process </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Industrial Occupancies (3 of 4) <ul><li>Pre-incident planning is key. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to fire fighter safety and efficient operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with plant personnel is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable plant personnel can act as advisors to the IC. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Industrial Occupancies (4 of 4) <ul><li>Special tactics must be developed to handle the number of hazards and the potential for harm in some settings. </li></ul><ul><li>The main tactical activity often involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling a manufacturing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizing the incident to protect life and property </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Multiple- and Mixed-Occupancy Buildings <ul><li>A building or structure in which two or more classes of occupancy exist </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-occupancies are intermingled. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated-occupancies are separated by fire resistance–rated assemblies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be handled as two buildings due to fire-resistive separations </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Buildings Under Construction, Renovation, or Demolition <ul><li>Not classified as specific occupancies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are vulnerable to fire and warrant special attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lack fire protection equipment and structural features designed to impede fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could also have large quantities of building materials stored within </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Buildings Being Demolished <ul><li>Fire protection equipment and structural features designed to impede fire are often removed first. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes disabling the sprinkler system and removing interior walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large quantities of debris could be present from demolition of the outer shell. </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Renovated Buildings (1 of 2) <ul><li>Classification may change once the renovation process is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Converted buildings may be safer due to building and fire codes upgrades. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential problems can be avoided by enforcing building and rehab codes. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Renovated Buildings (2 of 2) <ul><li>Buildings may contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can hide fire and provide channels for fire extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing floor plans and large open areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can complicate search-and-rescue efforts and require a large rate of flow </li></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 87. General Occupancy Considerations <ul><li>Special occupancy fires require pre-planning for specific properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans of action should be developed for use within particular types of buildings and occupancies. </li></ul><ul><li>The size and complexity of business and industrial buildings place fire fighters at additional risk. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Estimating the Number of Potential Victims <ul><li>Closely related to the type of occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Occupant load is time-sensitive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office occupancy: occupied during normal working hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential building: occupied at night </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The more complex the structure, the greater the need for personnel </li></ul>
  89. 89. Determining Evacuation Needs <ul><li>Requires evaluation of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a rough estimate of how many people could be in the building </li></ul>
  90. 90. Summary <ul><li>Occupancy type will directly affect the fire-ground strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary responsibility is life safety of occupants and fire fighters. </li></ul><ul><li>IC must conduct a complete size-up that will guide the decision-making process. </li></ul>

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