Entrepreneurship as a National Security Initiative


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  • Entrepreneurship as a National Security Initiative

    1. 1. Entrepreneurship as a National Security Initiative April 24, 2009 Richard Boly, National Security Affairs Fellow, Hoover Institution [email_address]
    2. 2. - Entrepreneurship & terrorism: two sides of the same coin - Context matters - Fatalism vs. self-determination - Entrepreneurship IN Government (an aside) - A case study of a replicable model for nurturing elements of the entrepreneurial ecosystem - Lots crammed into a short talk What to expect:
    3. 3. <ul><li>“ Whether individuals follow the formal rules legislated by governments will depend to a large extent on the alignment between formal rules and informal norms of conduct.” </li></ul>Sautet, Frédéric. &quot;The Role of Institutions in Entrepreneurship: Implications for Development Policy.&quot;  Mercatus Policy Series Policy Primer , February 2005. norms laws & regulations norms laws & regulations “ non-virtuous entrepreneurship” e.g. Mafia, Camorra, 'Ndrangheta, terrorism “ virtuous entrepreneurship” e.g. Silicon Valley, United Way, Craigs List
    4. 4. Terrorists’ University Degree Source: Gambetta, D. and Hertog, S., “Engineers of Jihad” Sociology Working Papers, University of Oxford 2007 (404 members, 30 nationalities, 9 large groups)
    5. 5. Does Success Depend on Forces Outside Our Control? Source: Pew Global Attitudes Survey, Oct. 2007
    6. 6. The Sea Star & the Spider The Apache & the Inca The Starfish and the Spider , Brafman, O. and Beckstrom, R. 2006 (Aside)
    7. 7. <ul><li>- Building the elements of an entrepreneurial ecosystem is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States leads in bottom-up, market-based creation of high growth, new companies. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. embassies are well suited as honest brokers to promote the growth of indigenous entrepreneurial ecosystems networked to U.S. counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting entrepreneurship abroad focuses on fulfillment of the American dream and is good public diplomacy. </li></ul>Assumptions/Empirical Questions:
    8. 8. Entrepreneurial vs. Bureaucratic Capitalism Entrepreneurial Capitalism - Schumpeter’s “creative destruction” - Messy, bottom-up, unplanned - Private actors create new venture ecosystem - Government creates positive policy framework Bureaucratic Capitalism - National champions - Centralized, top down, negotiated industrial policies - Job preservation, not job creation - Sacrifice growth for stability - E.g. Failure of EU’s Lisbon Agenda
    9. 9. Source: Carl Schramm, “Building Entrepreneurial Economies,” Foreign Affairs , July 2004
    10. 10. <ul><li>Move research to market </li></ul><ul><li>Grow risk capital markets </li></ul><ul><li>Spur innovation by strengthening the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime </li></ul><ul><li>- Create and promote Italian entrepreneurial role models </li></ul>Case Study: U.S. Mission Italy’s Partnership for Growth Building the “New Venture Ecosystem”
    11. 11. Move Research to Market <ul><li>National Science Foundation Fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Two-day visit by Stanford President Hennessy </li></ul><ul><li>- Italian Academics for Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanges for university tech transfer officers </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech guru road show </li></ul><ul><li>Life sciences exchange project (NIH, Pittsburg Life Sciences Greenhouse) </li></ul>
    12. 13. Italian Academics for Entrepreneurship Raffaele Oriani LUISS Guido Chiarotti SISSA Stefano Fantoni Director, SISSA Alberto Di Minin Sant’Anna Francesco Sacco Bocconi Paolo Cremonesi Milan Politecnico Leo Miglio Milan Bicocca Stefano Zambon U. of Ferrara Max Bergami ALMA Graduate School Paolo Milani U. of Milan Ruggero Frezza U. of Padova Chiara Franzoni Turin Politecnico Rosa Grimaldi U. of Bologna Roberto Guerrieri U. of Bologna Manlio Del Giudice UNISOB, Naples Alessandro Sannino U. of Lecce Ferruccio Fiordispin SIAF Volterra
    13. 14. <ul><li>Angel investor exchange </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. entrepreneurs-in-residence </li></ul><ul><li>- Keynote speech at biennial Italian Venture Capital Association global meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Conference on venture capital with Columbia, Harvard, Stanford, and INSEAD alumni </li></ul><ul><li>Pitching session for 20 Italian start ups with Silicon Valley VCs </li></ul><ul><li>Established Italian Angels for Growth </li></ul><ul><li>VentureCamp and TechGarage </li></ul><ul><li>Conference on improving the regulatory framework for VC and angel investing </li></ul>Grow Risk Capital Markets
    14. 17. Spur Innovation by strengthening the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime <ul><li>Demystifying the patent process (webinar) </li></ul><ul><li>Kauffman Foundation iBridge </li></ul><ul><li>Conference on the Bayh-Dole Act </li></ul><ul><li>IPR conference with Italian magistrates and U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>- Ministerial conference on IPR protection with the Foreign Minster and Minister of Economy </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO/CRUI conference </li></ul>
    15. 19. Does Success Depend on Forces Outside Our Control?
    16. 20. Create and Promote Italian Entrepreneurial Role Models <ul><li>Face2Face: Capturing Creativity (40-episode </li></ul><ul><li>webinar series) </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation Network </li></ul><ul><li>Mind the Bridge (business plan competition focusing on entrepreneurs already in the workforce) </li></ul><ul><li>Fulbright BEST Silicon Valley Immersion Program </li></ul><ul><li>Day-long Entrepreneurs’ Summit at the Ambassador’s Residence </li></ul>
    17. 22. Università di Torino Università di Genova Università di Bolzano Università di Padova Politecnico di Milano Università di Brescia Suor Orsola Benincasa Università del Sannio Università La Sapienza Università Tor Vergata Università Roma Tre Luiss Università Face2Face: Capturing Creativity Università II di Napoli Università di Camerino Università della Calabria Università di Lecce Università di Trento Università Bocconi Università di Firenze Università di Pisa Scuola S. Anna Participating Universities Università di Catania Università di Pavia Università di Ferrara ALMA Graduate School Politecnica delle Marche Università dell’Aquila Università di Bari Università di Palermo Università di Udine Università di Milano, Bicocca
    18. 24. President Bush Meets with First Generation Entrepreneurs, Fulbright BEST Scholars June 13, 2008, Rome, Italy
    19. 25. Institutionalizing and Spinning Out: A Sustainable Future for the P4G Partnership Summit, May 20, 2008, Venice Ambassador Ronald Spogli 15 Partner Organizations 300 Policy Makers, Entrepreneurs, and Media
    20. 26. Terrorist Kidnappings + Killings Per Capita (excluding Iraq, Afghanistan) Source: Geoff Lewis, Fortune, June 2007 Source: National Counter Terrorism Center, 2007 Report 15 29 51 (Entrepreneurial Rank out of 53 Countries) 46
    21. 27. <ul><li>-Colombia, and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt, Lebanon, and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark, France, Greece, Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden </li></ul>Promoting Entrepreneurial Capitalism Some Possible Candidates Countries (not exhaustive):
    22. 28. Next Steps: <ul><li>- Case Study of Italian Partnership for Growth </li></ul><ul><li>High-Level Seminar on Promoting Entrepreneurial Economies as U.S. Foreign Policy </li></ul>
    23. 29. Richard Boly, National Security Affairs Fellow, Hoover Institution [email_address] Thank You Questions?