Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was excellent painter, architect and inventor. For much of his life, Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight, producing many studies of the flight of birds. He made plans for several flying machines, including a helicopter and a light hang glider. Most were impractical . T he hang glider was successfully constructed and demonstrated. Design for a flying machine
The Leonardo Gallery in Museum of technique in Milan The original nucleus of this museum was the ample collection of models of his machines, which were reconstructed from his drawings
Balloon A balloon travels by moving with the wind. It is distinct from an airship, which is a buoyant aircraft that can be propelled through the air in a controlled manner.
History of ballooning Unmanned hot air balloons are popular in Chinese history. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, in the Three Kingdoms era (220-280 AD) used airborne lanterns for military signaling. The first clearly recorded instance of a balloon carrying passengers used hot air to generate buoyancy and was built by the brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier in Annonay, France. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first tethered balloon flight with humans on board took place on October 19, 1783 with the scientist Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, the manufacture manager, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and Giroud de Villette, at the Folie Titon in Paris. The first free flight with human passengers was on November 21, 1783 King Louis XVI had originally decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis Francois d'Arlandes, successfully petitioned for the honor. First passengers: sheep, cock and duck
PARACHUTE A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are made out of cloth, most commonly nylon. Parachutes are often used, for example, to slow the descent of an object falling to Earth or another celestial body within an atmosphere. According to historian Robert Temple, Chinese texts described a form of parachute 21 centuries ago. A conical parachute appears for the first time in the 1470s in an Italian manuscript, slightly preceding Leonardo da Vinci's conical parachute designs. It was intended as an escape device to allow people to jump from burning buildings, but there is no evidence that it was actually ever used. Leonardo da Vinci sketched a parachute while he was living in Milan around 1480-1483. The first military use for the parachute was for use by artillery spotters on tethered observation balloons in World War. These were tempting targets for enemy fighter aircraft, though difficult to destroy, due to their heavy antiaircraft defenses.
PARAGLIDER The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing, whose shape is formed by its suspension lines and the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing. A paraglider is a free-flying, foot-launched aircraft.
Powered hang glider A foot-launched powered hang glider (FLPHG), also called powered harness, nanolight or hangmotor, is a powered hang glider harness with a motor and propeller in pusher configuration. An ordinary hang glider is used for its wing and control frame, and the pilot can foot-launch from a hill or from flat ground, needing a length of about a football field to get airborne, or much less if there is an oncoming breeze and no obstacles. Although the main appeal of FLPHGs is to the already experienced hang glider pilot, interest in these machines is growing rapidly, particularly in areas where there are no hills for foot-launching. The pilot can cruise in good weather at speeds of 40 to 72 km/h (25 to 45 mi/h), but powered harnesses have limited power, range and thrust, so are best used as self-launch devices to achieve enough altitude to find a warm-rising air thermal for soaring.
An ultralight trike , also known as a Flex-wing trike or Weight-Shift Microlight , is a type of powered hang glider using the Rogallo wing coupled to a propeller-powered three-wheeled undercarriage. While most powered aircraft have three-wheeled landing gear, the term "trike" refers specifically to the form of aircraft described here.
BLIMP Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. In contrast to small non-rigid blimps, giant rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. The best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin. It flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of the that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced. The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on June 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire killing 36 people. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time.
GLIDER A glider is a kind of airplane. It does not have a motor. It uses wind to fly.
History of glider The first heavier-than-air man-carrying aircrafts were Sir George Cayley's series of gliders which achieved brief wing-borne hops from around 1849. Santos Dumont, Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher, John J. Montgomery, and the Wright Brothers are other pioneers who built gliders to develop aviation. After World War I gliders were built for sporting purposes in Germany (see link to Rhön-Rossitten Gesellschaft) and in the United States (Schweizer brothers). The sporting use of gliders rapidly evolved in the 1930s and is now the main application. As their performance improved, gliders began to be used to fly cross-country and now regularly fly hundreds or even thousands of kilometers in a day, if the weather is suitable. Otto Lilienthal 1895
AIRPLANE A fixed-wing aircraft , usually called an airplane or aeroplane , is a heavier-than-air aircraft capable of flight whose lift is generated not by wing motion relative to the aircraft, but by forward motion through the air. The term is used to distinguish fixed-wing aircraft from rotary-wing aircraft and ornithopters in which lift is generated by blades or wings that move relative to the aircraft. Many fixed-wing aircraft are propelled forward by the thrust from propellers or jet engines, but the category includes unpowered aircraft (usually called gliders).
The Wright brothers The Wright brothers built the first airplane that had a motor. When Wilbur and Orville were boys, they m a de own toy helicopter. The Wright brothers worked together when they grew up. They learned more about how birds fly. They used what they learned to build a glider. They could steer it well. They made a wind tunnel from a wood box. It helped the brothers learn about flying. The brothers made a new plane. It had a motor. They called the plane „The Flyer”. They took the plane to a field at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Wilbur got in the plane. The plane flew for about 3 seconds. Then it crashed! It took three days to fix the plane. When it was ready, Orville got on the plane. On December 17, 1903 the plane flew! It stayed in the air for 12 seconds. Then it safely landed on the ground. It was wonderful first flight.
The Caproni Ca.60 Noviplano was a nine wing flying boat intended to be a prototype for a 100 passenger trans-atlantic airliner. It featured eight engines and three sets of triple wings. Two pontoons, mounted on each side, were intended to give the aircraft stability. Only one example of this aircraft was built by Caproni. The prototype only made one short flight on 4 March 1921 over Lake Maggiore in Italy. The aircraft attained an altitude of only 60 feet and crashed shortly thereafter. It broke up on impact and quickly filled with water, sinking to the bottom of the lake in a few minutes. Both pilots were killed ! It has go 9 wings and 8 engines.
JET AIRCRAFT A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft fly much faster than propeller-powered aircrafts and at higher altitudes — as high as 10,000 to 15,000 meters. At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller powered aircraft achieve their maximum efficiency at much lower altitudes. Jet aircraft can move faster than sound.
HELICOPTER BLADE A helicopter is an aircraft that is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. Helicopters are classified as rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter achieves lift with the rotor blades which rotate around a mast. The word 'helicopter' is adapted from the French hélicoptère , coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix/helik- (ἕλικ-) = "spiral" or "turning" and pteron (πτερόν) = "wing".