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    613 mitzvot 613 mitzvot Document Transcript

    • Between the Lines of the Bible
    • Between the Lines of the BibleA MODERN COMMENTARY ON THE 613 COMMANDMENTS HERBERT S. GOLDSTEIN, D.D. Professor of Homiletics, Yeshiva University Rabbi, West Side Institutional Synagogue, New York tY3tblbsf t r 3 m 7 pma wmf.hebrewbooks.org 2 3 l l t 3 b":%h rl?)) Crown Publishers*Inc, New York
    • This volume is dedicated to my beloved, selfless, and self-effacing wife, REBECCA FISCHEL GOLDSTEIN of whom King Solomon would have said. "One in a generation." 0 1959 by Rev. Herbert S. GoldateinLibray o Congress Catalog Ccnd N . 59-14336 f o: Prhrted i the U.S. A. n
    • The duty to perform the divine commandments is eternally binding upon every Jew and Jewess. In fact, even the non-Jewish world has accepted a great part of the moral Law as a basis for universal ethics. While it is true that the Com- mandments themselves are not subject to change, the interpretation as to their purposefulness and meaningfulness in our daily lives may vary from age to age and from generation to generation. Hence, the mitsvot (the Command- ments) are eternal, but the taamei ha-mitsvot (the reasons for the Command- ments) are always subject to reinterpretation in the light of contemporary thought. In fact, Jewish scholars from time immemorial have searched for the hidden meaning, rational definitions, and deeper spiritual purposes which underlie the observance of both the ritual and moral laws of the Torah in the light of their contemporary thought, with the ultimate goal that a better understanding of the Commandments mitsvot ~ i *iritually enrich mans practice of the p " ..c. . .,I, k, .. divine laws. While a vast literature exists o &f&jd8jedinth%~ebrew ; language, unfor- tunately such expositions are hardly t;d &e fotznd & the English tongue, and at no time as in our present d a y has the need been so great for clear, intelligent and lucid explanation in modern terminology as to the moral and spiritual motives which guide Jewish practice. Such a n undertaking is monumental in scope and pioneering in nature. The distinguished Professor of Homiletics at Yeshiva University, Dr. Herbert S. Goldstein, is therefore to be congratulated for having written this book Be- tTReen the Lines of the Bile-in which he briefly but expertly comments on every one of 613 Commandments, and penetrates into their hidden meaning- between the lines of every law. The author avails himself with great mastery of our sacred literature and leans heavily on the Sefer Ha-Hinuch (The Book of Education) which is universally acclaimed as a Hebrew classic in the field of the religious philosophy of Judaism. Furthermore, he does not limit his refer- ences to ancient Jewish sources alone but also delves into contemporary sci- entific literature in order to illustrate the deep wisdom and inner moral purpose for the performance of the Chrm-mndments. One can readily see his excellent approach even in his comment on the first Commandment "Be fruitful and multiply," or in the one on Circumcision. I am confident that both Jews and non-Jews will find this book spiritually enriching and intellectually absorbing.r the Lines of the Bible is a scholarly volume, written with great clarity,crnd has briefness for its ideal.Every intelligent reader will find the book ihminating and it will open for him new horizons which will stimulate hisj own religious and moral convictions and practices. SAMUEL BELKIN President, Yeshiva University
    • PageIntroduction ............................................................................................................................ vWith the Help o G-D............................................................................................................................................. f xThe Commandments ........................................................................................................................................ 1-349 SUBJECT GUIDEM l . l prohibltbn of, 20; Sotah, 215-217 utr, -. 1. taught to children, 255-6Altcfr. no strange incense, 58-9; perpetual fire, Camm*, 376-7 Cbmn~cltb8L107And& to be blotted out, 342-3 Cbmm o tho M, poor, 118-9 f forlLmmon and mod^. no peace with, 321 Comtbg, 21-2, 250Inimslr. damage, fines and punishment, 27-8, CmdItor, 3929-30; laden, helped, 31 1-2 C~.~dem, 2Ark, staves, 54 Corriog. father or mother, 147-8; forbidden, o Lord. commanded, 347-8; forbidden f 40-1; Ismelite, 126-7to maimed or Illegitimate, 320llbn-t w. date, 4; In Temple, 106-7; Dead, defilement, 181, 240shofar, 187-9 Ikoth p.nolty. 256 Dobt, 31fI o b . gratuitous, 30-31; paid, 34 )i. D.btor. not imprisoned, 39-40 mumum. see Omer Devoted - , to priests, Temple, altar, 209-10M b Dhr (court), on New Moon, 3 D i em Lows. 9; blood, 82; clean foods andI W . nesting, 512-3 I. liquids, 89-90; creations from &, 92; creepingI)htb CartroL 1-2 things, 88-91; fliers, 279-80; dead of themselves,Ilbod. Christian libel, 173; covering of, 108; for- 280-1; fish clean and unclean, 856; fowl, un-bidden, 140-1; of neighbor, 131-2; on house, dean, 86-7; l c s s permitted. 98; meat and out,dangers, 314-5; sprlnlding, 271 milk, 52-3, 62; permitted cattle, 84-5; sinew, 3;bmwor. laws concerning, 35-6 traifa, 42-3; unclean animals, 85; w o r n Inb i $ U b otd Eehod, 56-7 vegetation, 91-2 47-8 MM or shdliw bbdr. 2E9 284 Dho3a, laws of, 32830; New Testament, 330;Camp. ritually unclean excluded, 212-3, 321-2;rulss, 322CapHol plmbbalt, 44-5,4§7 EPlrpt return p~ohhb.3, 292-3; thou shalt not mapigah), 287 abhor, 321Lllm*lh. dough set aside*22-9 prohibited, 29 1Cklkm. of deod bro!hers wife, 339-41 &e&aa in Waf. n d to be feared, 303-4W t ioyful. 284 t. m. to. 46 help 318 %uclL_lrmbunr. forbidrten, 141 krws uqakd. 1934 E&k=, 27275.6cmdbmk fJfmng,94-5;r und~(mness id of .E - chummntka, 46-7; c o m p h w , 68d m B 924 t 70; W a n t h q u i ~2767;o d a i i v ~3345 , f ,~ s u , l r o r r saln,ltoey of, 11-12Circolekioa 23; prophylactic-. 2 d -.J ~ ~ C I I I , 247, 301 agcdsd am- Fcdbr 4BWh%fern of, 116-7; ,B 18.19; sT&k%g, 26 -crrr . ~ a r r 2778 F ~ t n d t f o r 120-1 ~ ,
    • F& d d W . 122-3 Inhaihan, laws of, 241 F a k e w i n g . 123-4 .n -I forbidden, 262: with Ammon and F o b . b4timon~.21 Moab, forbidden, 320 F r l f m h , dates, 4; no servile work, 1689; Pil- grimage, 269, 287-8 Iorbh -. free from cancer, 114, Firo-, 30 Iubil.. Yw. 186-7; mtun of fields to owners. FimI Bom. low of, 9-10; male redeemed, 2346; 196-7; sanctification and law, 189-91 cattle not redeemed, 236-7; redemption of ani- Judqao, appointment cmd courts, 288-90; im- mals, 12 p r i l justice,12830; wisdom and wurage, 249 ata Firm1 52, 343-4 Iudqment o Neighbar. 130 f Food holy, forbidden, 94; ritually unclean, 81, Jwncelo slmqa, 335 94 Farced W,319 Imbrru,see Dietary Laws Fdaqa. on garments, 229-31 Kiddush, sanctification over wine. 17 Fruit. forbidden first t r e years. 138-9; s a n d - IUddamhu, 59f hei f i , fourth year, 13940 Kkbapbq (Thou shalt not steal). 20-21 King. over Israel, 291-2; wives, writing Scroll, Gezdhu Chcaodim (lending money), 39 293 Choa and 8- involvement forbidden, 144 G1.mring.. for poor, 119-20 kborsr, daily puy, 334; laws of field, 327 God, b l e in. 13-14; fear,service, oaths, 266-8; eif Land n a b . not permanent, 195-6 love of, 254-5; name in vain, 26, 166-7; s a n d - lrmdmmt not to be removed, 302 fied, 187; only one, 1415; unity, polytheism and L8aP Your, 4 other un-Jewish concepts 2504; ways, 346 Loawn, 7; flour of meal offering. 77: forbidden bocu otbr xIL 263-5.I . on Passover. 10-11; prohibited on altar, 85-6; Orbf rewi SnU-Wq, 2789 removal of, 5-6, 51 ,G - forbidden, 135-6 w, 95-102, 332-3; of garment, 98; mlkvah, 101; offering, 102; purification, 98101 &gigah, holy day offering, 50-1 lvrit... cities, 197-8, 246; distinct from priests, &otlul 347-8 233-4; dues, 41; guarding Sanctuary, 232-3; Hahtmkd. 59 land portion and spoils, 293-5; not to be for- E k b W 3234 saken, 272-3; Sanctuary service, 237; Ifthes H a b d 132-3 f o tithes, 239; watches, 297-8 rm fhmdoloh, at outpoing of Sabbath OK festid, Uehtpap.tuaL556 17-18 Limb from Urinq h i n d . prohibited. 274 Xbalhns, no mercy to, 261 brsrr, free,39 IBOh Wrt and the dead, 1545; on Day of Last MLdr, 310-11 Atonement, 106-7; may many only virgin, 155-7 W d I - US d , 136-7 mrlnq*3 4 5 W of - , 2656 ~ ~ e ~ s u w , 2 § 8 Mm,cmd 0thervegetcrtionforS~.1813 h, prohibiped on altar, 65-6 Skuson i walled city, 197 n mkWbuht. forbidden, mttle, 137%; seed, 138 I(oclur (Tithe), 41-2, et padm forbkldea, 141-2 -mbdi&b, 53,117,290; bowing to stone. 8hzIam. laws,317-8; cum y%ar with H e , 331 m; destnrction o , 288; imrrpee, 15-16; jewels f Yokri(J. .45; when noi to be foUOIKIICI, 445 - d aOV&ngs, 123;oatb by, 49; p ~ o p h d e s , - o d a U m & 2 3 5 85; fa, 49-50; woRhip and e- n %u&o& 6f; on day be6ose Pamover, 2884 - merit, 276; Ssvar lbuom, 261; w ~ n of, 61-2 e B b - 1DU; I w .113-5; o m , 105 p. iPP1II. Pmhwed, 22 ~cmdoarpost,2589 h-e* cbntc ,1034 lesal 31-2 J89.6f 332
    • Mob& 115 P.n(.cwt musuph offering, 2431Icoth.rhaod. 1 P-ol injury, fines for, 26-7Idruda, 19-20; law, 248; no mercy for, 301; mur- Pmaador, to idolatry, 49-50derer not to be killed on spot, 246; Cities of Ph~ktd~B, 257-8Refuge, 247 Plaque. of houses, 102-3 PJaJntIff and defendant, debt, 311Hukodnom, on altar, 22 Pbdpsr. 333-4, 336Narmih. no wine, 217: no grapes, 218; no hair- Plowing, ox and ass, 316-7cut, 218-20; no defilement with dead, 220-1; Poor, corner of field, 119; dues, 41; fallen frult,haircutting after term, 221-2 120-1; gleanings 119-20; judging of, 45-6; justiceN&, 3 to, 461; tithes, 282-3Aelqhbor, love of, 136-7; not to be shamed, 134; Prl..tr. altar fire, 76-7; annointed in war, 304-5;to be rebuked, 133-4; rights, 34 bathing, 60; bearing Ark, 225-6; Blessings, 222-#ow Moon. 3-4 5; chalah, dough set aside, 228-9; consecrationNmehlan h 53 , of, 153-4: daily blessing of Israel, 222-5; defile. ment laws, 148-51; diagnosing leper, 95-6; dis-O d u , annulling, 16-17, 244-5; by idol, 49: for tinct from Levites, 233-4; dues, 41-2: eatingdeposits, 73-4 offerings, 57-8; entering Temple, 106; first ofW n . (Sacrifices), abominations, 80; addi- i p fleece, 296-7: forbidden liquor before services,tional, on New Moon, 242-3: after animals 83-4: garment, 76; gifts to, 10: guarding Sanctu-eighth day, 16?; after childbirth, 945; blem- ary, 232-3; harlot, profaned woman, divorceeished animals prohibited, 162-4, 164-5, 269-70, prohibited to, 151-3; long hair, 82: may marry291; burnt, 271; views of Maimonides and widow, 156; may not have physical blemish,Nachmanides, 63-4; cattle for altar, 286; eating. 157-8; meat from all offerinqs. 295; nipping271-2; for rich and poor, 70-1; guilt, 78, 79: left- fowl, 71-2; on leaving Temple, 83; redeemingovers burnt, 80; meal, 65; of high priest. 77-8; first born, 234-6; removal of ashes, 76; service,remainder eaten, 76; Musaf (additional) on Pass- 545; tom garments, 83: unclean. may not serve,over, 169; Pentecost, 243; Rosh Hashonah, or eat holy food, 158-9; vestments, 56f: watches,177-8; Yom Kippur, 179; no oil or frankincense 297-8on poor mans. 72: of erring Sanhedrin, 67-8; Prophets, false, 300-1; hearkening to, 299-300;outside Sanctuary, 107, 269, 271: peace, 79-80; no overtesting of, 259-60portions to priests, 295; presuibed at Temple, Pmr,1yk.. not to be oppressed, 37288; remains forbidden, 117-8; replacing or Punctnaut. 5 1changing sanctified animals, 2051; salt with, P u a ~ b u d n g , 148; death, 25-7; hang- l66-7; sin, 68, 78-9; Succos, 180k trespass, 73-5; ing, 307-8, 310; stripes, 7, 21, 337-8, et passimtwo lambs daily, 241-2; unfit, 279 Rnchms and Sob, laws, 191-3011 annointing, 60-1 P u S c d b . Wabr u , 240-1 fOmrr.b m k y measure, firat brought second day Rmp.r,and pursued, 341-2Passever, 170-1; offered for 49 days, 173-4;brought before new produce or corn may be Eod IEdbr, 306,30&10: laws of, 239-40eaten, 171-2 Bebat, 107Opp.uton. 124 Rltwl bcdh. and leper, 101Dt a3389 Eobhy, 1244 Boof 313-4 %ah - . shofar, 243-4; work prohibited.M Iamb, 45; slaughter of, 51-2; to whom 176-7prohibited, 7-8, 8-9-, fImt dcry rest, 167-8; laws of, 4k ofier- f&eon,62-3; hits, 123; okmwmce, ---iam, 287; Omer on oecond day, 170-1: ssverith 8, 10, 17; showbread, 55, work on, 18, 49d a y rest, 170 Yw, 48-9; debts, 283-4;f r land, oPoraa, s.cord.laws, 22%8 62. 185-6: lending. 2845m.before warfare, 30%
    • &ap.. ond Eldm, to be honored, 1445 TWboay. false, 43 Sanc~~ury, guarding, 234; no stranger in, 54; Twd. tithes not set aside, 1601 234; reverence for, 143-4 Ilteft. detailed, 121-2; punishment for, 29; res-Sanh&in, High Court, 291; erring, 67-8 tomtion, 75-6 Scroll, Sefer Tomh, 348-9 Titha. 295-6; holy food, prohibited to wmmoner, Sedm (Passover), 11-12 tenant or servant of priest, uncircumcised man, S d u c h a (enticement), laws concerning, 36 defiled woman, 159-60; not set aside (TeveU, Sorrcmb and Slav-. 23-5; freed, 285-6; laws, 160-1; obligation, 237-9; of cattle, 210-12; on 200-3; not to be wronged, 323 Levites tithes, 239; outside Jerusalem, 270f;Ssrm N - , in Cunaan, 260-1; no covenant poor, 282-3; Second Tithe, 281, laws. 344-6with, 53; to destroy males, 308; ways forbidden, Tomh, no adding or diminution 2745; obliga- 148 tion to write Scroll 3489; reading, 347-8Sex, adultery, Sotah, laws, offerings, 215-7; T a f . see Dietary Laws tiacarnality, 115-6; forbidden relationships, 10813; I m ~ . . l i t l r m .3 12hygiene, 2: perversion, 115; regulations follow- Impan, unintentional, holy things, 72-3ing a birth, 92-4; uncleanness of seed, 104 Trinity. Jewish view, 252Shaotnm, laws, 317; mixed wool and linen, 37; Inunclh. tithes or dues to priests, Levites, poor,mixtures of seeds, 315-6 4 1-2m q , forbidden; comers of heads, 142; of Trumpet see Shofarbeards, 142-3 TclM., fringesS h w , forgotten, 336-7Sbomfni Ab.r#, 180-15henmm (Pentecost), two loaves, 1745; workprohbited, 175-6 V - m, forbidden, 1345Shmn. daily reading, 256-7 Vivbedon. 645Shofar. rams horn, 54, 177, 187-9; daily in Sanc- Vowa and m l ~of~ , animals, 206; o houses, ftuary, 228; on Rosh Hadionah, 243-4 206-7; of fields, 207-8Shomrlm, Temple guards, 233 Vows, laws of, 325-78horbmrk 55S h confession of, 213-5 W a q a . daily payment, 125-6SlrmqhW. laws, 273-4; of crnirnal and young In War, and cutting down trees, 308one day, prohibited, 165-6 Woiqhll ond Id.opm.145-7, 342Sotah. see Adultery WWw and orph% help for, 389Stems. hewn for altar, 22 W& of D.od Isotha, 339-41 after heart and eyes, 231-2 Whr~,prohibited, 61-2SlumbHnp Block before blind. 127-8 W I k h a d 36-7SUEFOk building, use, symbolism, 183-4 Wilmssa, acceptable, 43-4; in capital cases,Sllffcw, no work, 180f 248; one Insufficient, 302; punishment of plot- ters, 303T a h a m i cat ton, 59-60 Wed, breaking, 245-6,r- 130-1 Womcm. beautiful captive, 306-7; In Judaism,rotloohrg. forbidden, 143 330-1; outraged, 319-20~~ @hykret-), 257-8 W e b W d , 1945rd -o bufldtng, 54= - m, 34 Yom Xippur, fating, 178, 179; rest, 179-80
    • WITH THE HELP OF G DEver since my earliest student days I always hoped thatI might be able to bring to the non-Jewish world the truemeaning of the 613 Biblical Commrmdments. No one canunderstand the Biblical Laws if he does not know how theywere practiced, as for example, "An eye for an eye," Thank E D this hope of mine is being realized in Betweenthe Lines of the Bible. Toward this end I have used as thebasis of my work the Sefer Ha-Hinnuch (The Book of Edu-cation) by Aaron Halevi of Barcelona. ct Spcmish Talmudistof the thirteenth century. It took me fifteen years to prepare this volume, which is,as far as I know, the first exposition of its kind in the Englishlanguage. During this period, it appeared serially in theWest Side Institutional Review in New York. Thia work was begun in New York City and went forwardcontinually, especially during my v s t to Jerusalem each iisyear for the p s eleven years. Throughout, I have had the atgreat privilege of being able to consult with a number ofoutstanding scholars,both here &d in Israel, including anumber of FeIlows of the Hany Fischel Institute in Jeru-salem. I pray t a my readers may approach this book with the htdesire to find out the Will of G D thrortgh His 613 Corn-mccndmez~tk HERBERT S COLDSTEIN .New York, November, 1959-c%eshvan, 5720
    • seek counsel from the proper reliqious authorities. Indiscriminate birth control is against the law o f The Bible contcrins 3 f f * U 1 613 God, "Be fruitful and multiply." Commandments. The first command- It has often been stated that thement is found in the f i s t Chapter of mother who bears many c h i l b n Genesis, Verse 28, "Be fruitful and loses her health. There are statisticsmultiply. " to prove that maternal longevity is "Be fruitful" is both a blessing and associated with large families. Nota command to have children; "and the bearing o children, but igno- f multiply" means that we must leave rance and the lack o medical care f the race more numerous than we have in most cases been the real found it. The Prophet Isaiah gave a causes o disease and death. A f generalization o the Divine policy f physician o standing wrote in one fon this subject as follows: "For thus o the British Medical Reviews as fhath said the Lord who created the follows: "An experience o well over fheavens; God Himsdf who formed forty years convinces me that thethe earth and made it. He hcrth artificial limitation o the family festablished it. Not in vain hath He causes damage to a womans nerv-created it. He formed it to be in- ous system. It makes her not onlyhabited." The Rabbis point out in sterile, but also nervous, and gen-the Talmud, Nidduh 13a, that the erally poor in health." Fibroids andgravest sin, and the one which was neuroses o various kinds are trace- fresponsible for the destruction of able, according to the testimony ofthe generation o the Flood, was the f leading physicians, to birth control.custom o husbcmds crnd wives liv- fing the married life without the ~ O S - I have found that birth control issibility o propagation. f largely responsible for the break- At first the female w ~ s called down o the stability o the marriage f f"Ishah," "Womuq " the companion bond. And one-room hotel suitesto Adam; later she was called "Cha- or expensive two-room apartmentsva," "Eve," the mother of d living. occupied by tens of thousands o fWoman reuchers her highest and married people are evidences o a fmost exalted function in motherhood. preconceived determination on theThis lofty and eternal privilege of part o the so-called better classes fwoman cannot be degruded be- for birth control. As a result, theremuse o ignoble und s l i h ease f efs is no real home life and a total lackon t e pcnt o our young people. h f of the joy and rejuvenation o spirit f Often the legtimay of birth con- that children bring into a home.trol is juertified because of the eco- It has been stated that a largenomic question. As a m t e of fact, atr family brings its attendant blessingsbirth c p a t d is usually practiced by unto the children therein. A largsthose o the middie and well-to-do f family brings in its tnrin self-reli-clarre~. recognizes, how- ance, generosity and r d i l i t y .ever, e x a s p t i d crises where f i i On the other hand, the one or two~ L ~ i n c e r t Q i a o c t a e dddren of the modem home are s ,to be sure, w h h-dth is i n y o l d , generally petted, sedi-opini~nated~theRcxbbiSfht8e-lit~~~- d s l i h Furthermore, statistics efs.turef h m i n d i d zm3thods for prove t a the third, fburth, or fifth htleai- Jlirfh @cabzol In antcb chiid is apt to be the best; for the *thek€i~aPoddrmot*tb fist or second is moat liabb "tof ~ ~ s p a e i r o p Wabsuld a a ~ inherit some of the most o u t s t d -
    • ing physical and mental defects of pressed a iingering doubt whetherthe parents." the statistical data on which the Judaism does not descend to the argument was based were suf-low levels of men and women; it ficiently reliable. Since then, Dr.lifts them up from these low M. Sorsby, ** in his study on thelevels and pronounces the command- incidence of cancer amonq Jews,ment as a blessing. "Be fruitful a n d has shown that Jews and Moham- multiply." medans enjoy complete freedom from penile cancer, and in this SECOND C O M M h N D ~ issue, Dr. Wolbarst contributes CWCUMCJSION further evidence which estab- lishes this fact beyond doubt. The second commandment, found In the previous article, we noted in Genesis, 17:10 states: "This is my that Jews a r e free from penile can- covenant, which ye shall keep be- cer because of their observance of tween me and you and thy seed circumcision. It is interesting to note after thee: every male among you another fact about the absence of shall be circumcised." Our com- a certain type of cancer among mentators point out that the Jew is Jewish women who observe our perfected physically through circum- laws of family purity. I quote from cision and spiritually through ob- The Lancet, Jan. 16, 1932, page 147: servance of Judaism. For Jewish women observing Dr. Abraham L. Wolbarst, special- the Mosaic code, Dr. Sorsby ist in Genito-urincrry diseases, in an demonstrated a lower incidence article entitled "Is Circumcision a of c m c e i of the uterus, as com- Prophylactic against Cancer?" sum- pared with Gentiles, and ascribed marizes the question as follows: it to the insistence of the Mosaic The incidence of penile cancer code on sexual hygiene. is approximately 2 per cent of all The penalty for not observing the cancers in the male. All students commandment of circumcision is of cancer are agreed that this "Kores," excision. cancer rarely, i ever, has been f The Jewish male child is circum- recorded among Mohammedans cised, giving his own blood to be and Jews, who practice circumci- united with God. Israel never takes sion in eculy life. the blood of a non-Israelite as p r at Records of hospitals, confirm of its religious observance. When the absence of such cancer in we think of the Christian Crusarkss, Jews. In two Jewish hospitals in mankind may well stand entKntoed New York, not a single case was at Israels perpetual self-sacrifice at observed in a total of 958 cases the altar of the worlds persecution. of male cancer, all of the patients During the Crusades, & s n of being Jews. Christians, led by their religious The following serves to corroborate Wers, deemed it a religialis act tothe authencity of Dr. Wolbcnsts shed the blood of the Jews des anreports:* atonement on their m d t the o A few years ago we commented Holy Land. Decrn Swift hus said. in this column on a paper by "Too many peaple have emugh Dr. A. L. Wolbarp;t, in which he religion to hate, but not enough to claimed to h m e proved that love. " penile cancer never occurs in *IL.LazMst.lsw~L,.aR persuns who have been cirnun- ~ " e a c r r r d ~ - L a r l a . ~ l c i d in infancy. We &en ex- m-m,Lptsm.
    • "And he that is eight days old to pay the price. The young student shall b e circumcised." We wait until will attend classes on Saturday. The the eighth d a y so that the infant business man will start out in life should have passed through a b y breakinq the Holy Sabbath. Peo- Sabbath, so that when he enters the ple generally, in order to ape their covenant with his sign, he shall also neighbors, will break the Jewish have passed through the other im- dietary laws or any of the com- portant sign, that of the Hoiv Sab- mandments either because they d o bath, as we read in Exodus, "Where- not seek the greatest victory of the fore the children of Israel shall keep Jew, loyalty to God and His faith, the Sabbath. It is an nlN "a sign" or they a r e unwilling to pay the between me a n d the children of price. Israel forever. Like Jacob of old, who was cured The earliest possible infancy was of his lameness when the sun rose, chosen so that the pain to the child so too do we overcome the manysac- be reduced to a minimum. . rifices we may have to make in the pursuit of our goal, be it physical THIRD COMMANDMENT or spiritual. k t us, in conformity with the letter of this law, under- The Third Commandment is found sand its spiritual significance, name- in the 32nd Chapter of Genesis. ly that every victory has its price. Verse 33, "Therefore the Children of Israel shall not eat of the sinew FOURTH COMMANDMENT which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, untd this day." The Fourth Commandment in the This includes the sirloin steak that Bible deals with sanctification of the covers the sinew. This commandment new month and the intercalation of came as a result of Jacobs success- an additional month (the making of ful combat against the evil force of a leap year). Esuu. Symbolically, we shall meet The basis for this is found in our enemies as Jacob did and e- Exodus, Chapter 12, verse 1, "This merge successfully. But, like Jacob, month shall b e unto you." The im- who became lame, we must be will- portance of setting the months cor- ing to pay the immediate price of rectly was that the holidays should victory. occur a their proper times. The same t We m e now engaged in a great thing is true in regard to the crea- struggle against Nazism a n d Com- tion of the leap year. Our monthly munism. In order that the Allies may calendar is based on the moon and be victorious, they will have to pay our festivals on the sun. a tremendous price for the victory of In Temple times, when two ob- freedom of thought and of fuith. servant Ismelites qpearsd before The young medical student fore- the Beth Din and declared that they goes all social life so that h e may had seen the new moon, then by Pass his course in the medical their testimony, that d a y was sancti- = h a , and thus reach his gwl- fied as the New Moon. The Beth fh status o a doctor of m d c n . Din was corn@ f eiie of orduined Fkb- HehaaEItopcrythepricektrbvic- bis who received the same type of tw, the atiahmmt of his gcxd. ordination as Moses and Aaron. In However, when it comes to fhe spir- other words, they were the greatest it& oicksry tfrat every Jew md and most pious of their time. Jew- s h d d mmsiantly endemor It takes the moon 29% days toI t o ~ - d * r m ~ revohre around the earth. The He-
    • 4 SihctmmanM brew word for month is "Yerach," t h l creation of the leap year are n.r* which also means "moon." seperate commcnxlments. According The word, "Chodesh," m m i n g the to Maimonides (Rambarn), they are i months renewd, is also called the one, and according to Nachmonides Tflt3 , "Nolad." In leap years the (Ramban), they are two. The Law first Adar has 30 days and the sec- is with Maimonides. Since Hillel, ond Adar has 29 days. In some (the Palestinian), the months and the years, Cheshvan and Kislev are not years have been set according to always respectively short cmd long. the astronomical calendar, which he In some years, both are long or both arranged. are short. The vuriation is designed The sanctification of the month to prevent the Day of Atonement and the season is dependent upon from coming immediateiy preceding Israel, while the sanctification of the or following the Sabbath, because Seventh Day is not up to Israel. The it would be harsh to have two con- first seven days represent Gods secutive days of total abstinence creation. Israel sanctifies time. Israel from work. On the other holidays, takes a new moon day or any other you may carry, cook, bake, smoke, day, like Passover, Tabernacles or etc. Pentecost, which would have been We divide the lunar hour into ordinary, secular days, and trans- 1,080 parts instead of 60. There is forms them into consecrated, up- a difference between the solar and lifting days of our lives. Thus, in the lunar yeur of 10 days, 21 hours exile or persecution, the Jew is a- and 204/1080 of a n hour. It is im- bove time. He even makes a holi- possible to divide the solar year of day out o a blackout day in his f 365 days into 12 months because life. This thought was suqqested b ythe Bible indicates that they are to a remark of the late Chief Rabbibe lunar months. Kook of the Holy Land. Since the Bible says t a Passover htmust be in the month of spring and FlPTfIcO-Succoth in the period of harvesting,if we simply allow the lunar year m PASCAL OFlmmGto proceed without any leap years, The Fifth Commandment bids usin the course of time we would to bring, on the afternoon of thecelebrate Passover in the winter and 14th day of Niscm, a male lamb ofS u m t h in the summer. For that the first year, without blemish, orm n , the leap year was instituted a male goat within its first year.Thisa n d we hwe 7 lecq> yecns in every was the Pascal o f f e w . See Ezodus,19 y m , Because we -1 in each Chapter 12,verseS. k i s b t b r e u i d ,year about 11 days, in 19 yeass the "The whole congregation of h 1loss amounts to 209 days, or 7 shall daughter it towards evwiqj"munths. Thus we have 7 leap yecas The Pascai I& w w $0 be eubnin 1 years. The limp yearr, occur 9i the- third, sirtb, eighth, eleventh, nfourteenth, seventeenth and nine-&sm&yeor%of&19~cjde. isthatthey&ddeattba~I n t ) l i s w a y , w s k a r m e h s d a r Iamb"forthrsscdEef3fcxmYi.w~and the lunar yecm. When kap t ) y B . * a h " d l l Q f f O s @ W t h epaKH oocurs, we ddd bEllOafisf month *mid wmfite.b Adar, arihng it Adar a. There i It is o f ~ n c m s t o ~ r bftherQ8bwmc30ncmd
    • order to build up a proper national tive commandment forbidding us to life, one must be prepared for sacri- e a t of the Pascal Lamb, either i~ a iice. raw or in a boiled state. The Bible Why was a lamb and not a larger says, "Eat not o it raw, nor sod- f animal chosen for the Passover dep at all with water, but broil it sacrifice? The Rabbis scry that dur- with fire." (Exodus, Chapter 12. ing the month of April, which has verse 9.) The water referred to in the lamb as it. sign on the Zodiac this verse includes any liquid or circle, and which was the time when fruit juice. The punishment for the the Egyptians especially worshipped violation o fhis commandment was f the lamb, the lamb was chosen to stripes. We were bidden to eat the demonstrate the omnipotence of Pascal Lumb only when it was God, the Holy One Blessed be He, broiled because that was the way and to show that these idols were the princes and freemen ate their not worthy of worship and adora- meat. The poorer classes could not tion. The lamb was also chosen not affordthis. Broiling causes the v a n - only to dscredit idolatry both in the tity of meat fo shrink, whereas boil- eyes of the Egyptians and the Israel- ing causes the meat to become in- ites, but also to show that all the flated. The poor had to consider a B stars and planets were subservient this. to Gods will. Furthermore, broiled meat also The blood was sprinkled on the indicates haste. The Israelites wereoutside door posts in order to give forced to leave Egypt in haste andthe matter publicity. The lamb was therefore they had no time for anyroasted in order t a the air might ht but the most speedy process of pre-be full of the odor, so that the paring their food.Egyptians might not be mistaken as The 8th commandment bids us notto what was going on. The head, to leave any meat of the Pa--1legs and entrails were kept toqether Lamb over for the next morning, -so that the Egyptians could clearly namely for the 15th day of Nisan,see that it was a lamb which was for the Bible says, "And ye shall letbeing offered. AU this, of course, no*nq of it remain until the morn-was done to further discredit the ing" (Exodus, Chapter 12, verse 10).worship of the lurnb as a god. The reason for this is that princes and freemen do not have to be em-6th. 7th 4 a nomical and leave meat or other Tkl%PASClCLlZClYlB food from one meal to cmother. The 6th Commandment cleais Nwm-with the eating o the Pasad Ixxmb. T?iE R€MOVAL OF THE LEAYE# fThis c o m m ~ e n had to be w- tr i d out an the night o h e 15th of f The 9th c m - o mt deals withNisan, "And they shall eat the meat h e r e m d in thought and in deedOn + u nigbt, h i l e d with fr ht ie o leavened bread. On the 14th day f[Etodus,Cbuptes 12, verse 8). Ectch o the monih o Misian, d leavened f f l- w U S ~ ~ K I ~ & ( I ~ € ~ U & Q CPfS brecadistobeflemovedfromour~ P o r t i o n t i r e ~ o f a n o l i , v e . I t i~ c l s w e r e a d i n t h e B o o k sintmB&ng to l m b &a ure hcme of l%c%its, cxxpter 112, verse 15. The first M t k w ? axxmncmd- ~ 0 f t h i g a r m r P a n d m a n t ~ W enjotning USP remindusofthe-which were inEgypt,inoiube- is31 w.
    • Chometz, or leavened bread, is maining days of Passover, the eat- to b e removed not only from our ing of Matzohs is optional. We may dwellings, but from any place where eat cake, for instance, or any other it may be found, as for instance, in food that is not leavened. the garret or in the wine-stall. It is not, however, sought for in the syna- The kneading of the dough for gogue, where, as a rule, chometz or Matzoh must b e done as speedily leavened bread is not brought. One as possible so as to prevent fermen- must remove al chometz from his l tation. So, too, the place where the home if he leaves it within 30 days dough is kneaded must not b e warm of the holiday. so as not to induce fermentation. According to the Bible, the expres- Every step in the prepcuation of sion tt n n P 3 put a w a y leaven the Matzoh must b e made for the out of your house," means that if we merely annul the leaven in our sake of the Matzoh for Passover. mind a n d regard it as dust of the Thus we a r e commanded to eat earth, it is sufficient. But our sages "Matzoh Schmura" for it is written were afraid that w e would not annul in the Bible, Exodus, C h a ~ t e r 12, all our leavened possessions whole- verse 17 nimn nH DnTDtW "Ye heartedly. Therefore, they instituted shall watch the Matzohs". the search for a n d the burning of What is "Matzoh Schmura"? There the chometz. The question then a- is a difference of opinion betweenrose, if we b u m the chometz, there Maimonides on the one hand, andis no need for annuling the chometz the Rosh a n d Nachmonides on thementally. The answer is that one other. The Rosh a n d Nachmonidesmight find some precious leaven and hold that the preparation of the Ma-fail to burn it. In that case, the men- tzoh begins with the kneading of thetal annulment would assist and dough, a n d from that time on everycomplete the removal. On the other step in the preparation must behand, it may be impossible or too watched a n d performed for the sakedifficult for one to burn all of his of the Matzoh. This is the type ofchometz. Therefore, the Rabbis insti- Matzoh most people eat on Pass-tuted "machiros chometz" "the sale over. However, Maimonides con-of the leavened bread. In other tends that the preparation of thewords, as is our experience, i one f Matzoh begins with the cutting ofhas sold his chometz, he has very wheat. Therefore, those people wholittle left, after the evening meal hold that the law is as Maimonides.before Passover. This, in brief, pre- e a t a special Matzoh called Matzohsents the law of the annulment, of Schmura which is suprvised, notthe searching, of the burning and of only from the time of the kneadingthe selling o the leaven, the cho- f of the dough, but from t e time of hmetz. the cutting, and grinding of the wheat. There is a r a dietinction between el The 10th Commandment bids us these two opinions. One holds thatto eat udmened bread on the l5th when we o bread, we think of fof Nisan. We must eat unleapened the bakery where the dough isb d on the Seder night, for it is krreaded und baked, and the otherwritten, "On that night ye s h d e t morintains that when we think -of aMatzoks" {Exodus,Chupkw 12, verse b d we h n e in mind the wheczt cr18). In other words, during the re- frcnn which i* mmes.
    • trSy pp7S jla)21f? 12 Inw in? "A negative commandment the vio- The 11th C o m m d m e n t is a neg- lation o which, is not done by an f ative one, forbidding us to have act, is not punishable by stripes". 1 % chometz or leaven in our domain during d the days of Passover, for it is written in the B i l e (Exodus, [chapter 12, verse 19) "Lswen shall ,not be found in your houses for Tlm 12th Commandment prohibita seven days." Our rabbis have ex-a Iplained this to mean no! only our houses, but &o our possessions. food on Passover which, not completely chometz, i a s mixture of leavened and u n l e a v d The purpose o this commandment f hod. The Bible in Exodus, Chapdsr is to remind us of the miracle o thef 12, verse 20, says HS nmm f a exodus from Egypt, namely that we I = shall eat nothing lecrv- ? "Ye left Egypt in great haste, and we end" had no time to tarry or wait until The Bible has anticipated by three the dough had leavened, as it is thousand years our Modem Rue written in Exodus, Chapter 12, vers? Food Laws, which are intended to 39, "And they baked unleavened prsvent food adulterations. In the cakes out of the dough, becaus? Talmud and Caonic literature, the they were thrust out of Egypt and whob question of the effect of food could not tarry. dulkxants as it relates to Kashaaus I one gave his chometz (to he f i discussed in great detail. s stored for a period of time covcrins The 13th Commandment forbids the Passover holiday), in the hands an apostate Jew or an idolator to eat o another person or others gave their f of the Pascal offering,for it is written chometz to be stored in his domain, in W u s , Chapter 12, verse 43, tl5w nr 7 3 3 p 53!both violate this c o m d . The own- er must sell the chometz, and the bailee must t r a d e r his responsibil- "NO caiba shall eat thereof." The word "alien" refenr to one who has estranged ity to a Gentile. If one t m n s ~ e S S e s himsell fmn Judaism, or one who this c o m d m e n t by purchc~sing embmaes idokrtsy. The Pascal Lamb chornetz on Passover, he has vio- &%red a an evidence of ow s lated thereby two ommandments, namely, not to see and not to have cmy chometz on F b w m r , and is , tmstinGod,andour the Tomh. b 2? z !Y" k q k d that one who disbelieves all to i. punished by stripes. this should not be eating the Paswi Punishment by stripes k adminis- Lalab. tered only in the case of the vidation The 14th CommcrnQnent forbib of a negative ctmmdmt. The wagirinpastmqercozdafcweign- violation o fhe m d m t must f e r , t h s P d ~ J . ~ a m e o l , h it is written in Exodus, Chapter 12, *aria 45, "A strornger (ger) and u faoisnerr (toshav) &all not d fked". foreigner means one wbo A ~ ~ o n l y t h e 7 N o c r c h i Q l ~ u n d a ~ r , m a ~ t i f s w h o n r r a ~ b u t w h a d i d aotbatefh8ritucrlbadlfor indotlhefclitb. ThePbsoQlfnaobwrraoffemdrr
    • a memorial of our entrance into the v i d n g a private teacher for ourtrue covenant with God. Therefore, childrens religious education, andit is fitting that only those who hem have no thought of the large num-come completely into the faith should ber of children about us, then, whenparticipate in the Pascal offering. our children grow u p a n d become The 13th and 14th commandments friends with the vast throng of un-refer only to Temple times as it WQS educated and irreligious young peo-only then, that the bd Irnnh w(pl ple, w e will, in all likelihood, loseoffered. our own children spiritually. Spiritu- a) epidemics like physical epidemics know no boundary lines. Thus the B i l e set down the com- The 15th Commandment tells us mandment of the Paschal Lambthat no one may take his meal of meal, as the lesson of group respon-the Pascal offering, a n d eat it out- sibility.side of the group, as it is written inExodus, Chapter 12, verse 46 "In one 16th COMMANDMENThouse shall it be eaten." THE PASCHAL LAMB The Pascal Lamb in itself repre-sents Israels preparedness for sacri- The 16th Commandment bids us fice. It sacrificed the Lamb, which not to break a bone of the meal ofwas the idol which the Egyptians the Pascal Lamb, for it is said in worshipped, and put its trust in God. Exodus, Chapter 12, verse 46, "Nei-Sacrifice, in order to be successful, ther shall ye break a bone thereof."must be practiced not merdy by Since we became a princely, freeindividuals, but by the whole group. people, it ill befits us on the holidayA Moses, or a Mattathias or a great celebrating that event, to grovelrabbi can show the way. However, with bones a n d to break them asunless he succeeds in inspiring the dogs do. Here we have, first, thegroup to follow him, that group wl evidence of what the rabbis s a y ilnot be spiritually successful. that "where there is wealth, there The farmliar Jewish expression h a s should b e no sign of poverty." Ait, "We cannot make Shabbus for man who enjoys wealth should notourselves." In other words, we, as stint in his household expenses, andindividuals, may observe the Sab- certainly not in regard to charity.bath and be smugly contented and We must not act "small" where wesatisfied.If, however, w e fail to help can afford to be liberal. Secondly,make Sabbath observance paasible we have here a law which raisesfor others, when our chddren grow our status as human beings. Theup, we will find to our utter dismay rabbis have always made the pointthe problem of finding for them Sab- that bemuse God has created usbath-0- positions. Some men above the beast, we are to indicatemay be content with their prayers the higher kingdom which we enjoy,in the bcnest cmd mod uninviting both by the way we eat and the wayroom. but unless h e y make prmi- we live.sion for fine, beautiful, &OI The question may be raisetd, whySynqpgws, our chiidren when they do we need crll these detcdied ceregrow up amid modem Iuxurious monies to remind us of t e Exodus hs m e . will rebel d turn to from Egypt. I wonder if we ever stopaonsenrptive or reform Synagogues. toc0nsiderthatallUeismadeup largely o ae~emcmy. f What is a =re-
    • mony? A ceremony is a physical his environment, will attend the syna- act which expresses a spiritual idea. gogue and perform the ceremonies Let me illustrate. If you meet a lady of religion and the practices that the in the street and raise your hat, this synagogue enjoins, will emerge a is a ceremony which expresses by better man, charitable and spiritual. the physical act, the spiritual idea of There is a saying that even "rocks gallantry. When you shake hands can be hollowed by the constant with your neighbor, this is a physic- dripping of water. So too will the al act expressinq the spiritual idea constant ceremony break into even of friendship. When. you salute the the hardest heart and inRuence the flag, this is a ceremony expressing meanest person. a spiritual idea, namely that of civic These ceremonies as they relate loyalty. I we fail to d o any of these to the story of the Exodus from Egypt f ceremonies, we would be considered are intended to impress upon us our as unqdlant, unfriendly and dislo-r- status a Jews, as free men elevated s al. It is only when it comes to reli- from bondage and idolatry to reli- gion that we balk and speak of "so gious freedom and democracy. much ceremony". The ceremonies of religion are intended as means to an end. They are lifes spiritual amenities. They The 17th Commandment states raise us from mortal c a to im- that a n uncircumcised person, be he ly mortal spirits, from passion to purity. Jew or Gentile, may not eat of the from irresponsibility to duty. Now Pascal offering, for it is written inI we can understand why we have Exodus, Chapter 12, verse 48, "Fori the many ceremonies connected with no uncircumcised person shall eat Passover - to remind us that we a r e thereof." As far as a Jew is con- to be free men and women, "mcrsters cerned, this can refer to one whose of our fate and captains of our brothers died because of circumci- souls." We cannot have too many sion. According to our knv, if two ceremonies to keep us constantly succeeding brothers have died be- spiritually fit and to give us the cause of circumcision, the third moral f b r and ethical stability that should not be circuracised However, ie make for religious vitality. The more he may not eat of the Pasax1 offer- commandment we follow, the less ing, because he who participates in is our danger of going wrong. Thrj the PascaI offering must be p r e p m d Torah, in view of its very minute and to, or be c a p d e of shedding h s i detailed exadions indicutes the saf2 own blood. He mcry eat, however, road for every individual. to travd. of the Matzoh and of the bitter herbs. Some people might scry, "I am a If one failed to circumcise his chil- good man. I do not need all these dren, neither h e nor they may p a - commandments." My answer is, "If ticipate in t e Puscal offering be- h we atlow o d v e s merely to come cause the parent did not organize into contad with life without the his family and his household to be e i i n i e re pared for sacrifice. Accordingly, m i i n g infIuence of r l g o . l f wiU cuus0 ucs fo ~ l m i C , M he has no right to participate in his ~ l m sO eR ~ a n d e n g d f o u r ~ ~ i g i n u ? g opeoples sacrifice. od p"incipb with which we started out p " You cxmnQt to& * Pitch and rwmin c h . On fhe other ~araickednwnwhowilljoin a beca cause of The 18th Commandment bids us
    • to sanctify the first-born, as it is f i e for God, for parents, for duty written in Exodus, 13: 2, "Sanctify and for the community. We give our unto me all the first-born; whatso- children a morsel of religious educa- ever openeth the womb among the tion at the close of their cdready children of Israel, both of man and spoiled childhood and exped it to o cattle, is mine." There is no sanc- f ~erform miracles. It cunnot be done tity so far as the beast is concerned. ihat WCW. The only animal among the unclean I am reminded of the farmer who cattle which has been sinqled out said, "I wiH not sow in the Spring. for sanctification is the donkey. It is I will wait until August." Yes, in redeemed, not by sacrifice, but by August he found weeds of all kinds; giving a lamb or sheep in its stead the ground was spoiled. It was too to the Priest. The first-born of the late to do much any longer. So, too, cattde was given as a gift to the with our children. Their beginnings Priest, who in turn offered it as u must be consecrated with religious sacrifice. Outside of the Holy Land, training, so that they may be strong the first-born is either sold before it enough to fight off the weeds of life, is born, or it is sent out into the of materialism, seculclrism and pleas- field until it receives a permanent ure-seeking as ends in themselves. blemish so that it will be unfit for sacrifice. - Many are the spiritual lessons we may derive from the law of the first- The 19th Commandment bids us born. We are commanded to give not to eat chometz on Passover, for evidence of the fact that all first- It i suid in Exodus, Chapter 13, s fruits are to be sanctified. I wef verse 3, "No leavened bread s h d bebegin life with the thought that we eaten." This is to remind us of the are going to observe the Sabbath exodus from Egypt. The Exodus re- and give charity, for instcmce, during presents haste. There are times in the rest of our lives, it becomes life when we should crct quickly. Just naturcd and easy for us to b reli- as dough ferments through decccy,so gious cmd charitable. The whole of an opportunity to do a go6d deed our lives is then m d e sweet, noblemay be frwtmted through delay.and finer because o the m s m - f ne u There a e many m I who say, r petion o beqxdqw f "DQnot be impulsive." My advice is that, whenever an opportunity to do If, in the life of our children, wepbmt first the s e d a tmining of thegood arises, we should let everypublic d o o i and the plecr;ut.e seek- g d i m p u l s R ~ o u t Amanwas .ing o the "group"aMZ the summsr f usked to give a contribution. He an-ccmrp, cahd fgcnte religious eduax- swered, "Whats the rusfi?Withintimuntilttheageofed8~gnortwslvrt, a short time,he d i d and left thewe wiH inHabiy be dhppc&W good deed undone. h the realm o fi o r chiM. suchp. . b!som- n u chiEd the good,tomomow is the emmy o f~ ~ sedam&c @ + e - = , today. It & be oarp One o Zhe ~e~ f ti x r q ud~ c u l t k a i t t o t 6 a ~ kits parents m the amrnurdty.
    • Rockefellers when they said in the LIVER YOU; und I WILL REDEEM Talmud, "When a m~tzvahcomes to YOU; and I WILL TAKE YOU UNTO your hand, do not let it become ME FOR A PEOPLE." Here we have chometzdik." The Rabbis meant four stages of deliverance. In other that a good impulse should immedi- words, even God Himself does not ately b e satisfied. A good impulse, bring a sudden revolution into the just like Matzo, should not b e al- world. So too, when the world was lowed to ferment, to become chometz. created; we find in Genesis, 1:4, It should be given immediate a n d "And God divided the light from the quick reln and thus free us from the darkness." mastery of the bad inclination within Chometz represents revolution, a each and every one of us. sudden rise through fermentation Chometz comes from the five a n d decay. At Passover, we are bid- species - corn, rye, oats, wheat a n d den to put it out of our sight so that barley The law prohibiting the con- we may remember that even the sumption of chometz on Passover re- break from slavery could not ccme fers to all times, to all places, to instantly without a gradual evolution. males and females alike. One who In our dealings with men, it would transqresses this law purposely is b e well for us to understand that we punished by excision, and one who cannot accomplish greut things in transgresses it unconsciously must life without a n evolutionary process bring a sin-offering of a lamb or a that comes only through patience. goat. See Leviticus, chapter 4, verse Impatience brings revolution and, as 24-35. a rule, havoc a n d ill-will in its trail. Patience brings deliberate thousht, breadth of vision, constructive think- ing and peace. The 20th Commandment bids us not to h a r e any chometz in our dwell- 21st COMMANDMENT ings during Passover, as it is written in Exodus, 13:7, "And there shall b e The 21st Commandment bids us to no leavened bread seen with thee. tell the story of the Exodus from neither shall there be leaven seen Egypt. On the night of the 15th of with thee in all thy quarters." These Nisun, a t the Seder, every one of us two statements are purt of one com- according to our ability is to thank mand. In other words, the word. God orally for all the miracles He "Chometz," and the word, "Sohr," performed for us in Egypt, for it is 1 W , are used to indicate that said in Exodus, 13:8, " nlfill For 1 there is n o difference between that ye shall tell your son (household." which has become chometz a n d that The story of the Exodus from which muses chometz. Egypt is an. evidence of mankinds h t us note that chometz represents refusal to lean the lesson of history. ~wlution cad inflution. The Jewish State and religion have both com- conception, however, is that freedom bined to annihilcrte the Jew, but they CQn only be geEined through the have been frustrated b y the specid nahud proCeS8 o e , taf whi . providence of God. "Behold th3 In Exodus, 6:s cnsd 7, are found guardian of Israel neither sleepeths t h e faurstqe~ pcepciratory t the nor slumbereth." Man writes history, o d m o the Jews from a n d W-R-I-T-E-S it poorly. God, in f Egypt: W o r e scrg to thts chil- turn, R-I-GH-T-S it, a n d o course, f d r e a a f h a e 1 , 1 m n t h e ~ b r d ; 1 m does it nobly. B R I N G Y ~ O ~ ~ T ; ~ ~ ~ ~ I W ~ L the. Seder, we also pwm- At L D E -
    • a benediction on the bitter herbs, other beasts a n d declared sacredindicating that we accept from God because it acted as Israels burdenthe bitter as well as the sweet. As bearer in the Exodus from Egypt.a matter of fact, none of us knows Even today, in the Orient, it is not un-whether the bitter has not been common to see a Jew riding on hismeant to b e a discipline, as well as donkey instead of using a carriagethe sweet a test, from which w e a r e or automobile.to emerge into a larger, greater, There is a rule that w e may in-grander life. Thus, the Royal Bard crease the status of holiness, butdeclared in Psalm 101, "0 Lord, if never decrease it. Therefore, if ait b e kindness, I sing; or if it be strict mule, which is a lower form of mi-)usitice, I sing." mal, is born of a donkey, it need not The word "Seder" means order. be redeemed. It seems that God, inOne of the reasons we d o not make His scheme o creation, planned that fheadway in this country is that w e the lower forms of existence shouldlack vision a n d organization. I am serve the higher. The mineral king-thinking now of orthodox Jews, and dorn, for instance, serves the vege-have in mind the Union of Orthodox table kingdom; the vegetable servesJewish Congregations of America. the crnimal kingdom; a n d the animalWe are too parochial. We cannot serves man. (This, perhaps, explainssee beyond the parish. We are afraid the theory b e h n d sacrifice--that theto lose our identity in movements offering of a n animal serves man asbeyond the four walls of our syna- a n atonement for his sin.) Man, ingogue. Even in our synagogue insti- turn, serves God. Emerson, in histutions we d o not, as a rule, have essay on "Nature," gives voice tobudgets and systematized methods the thought underlying this schemeof administration in our various ac- of creation when he scrys, "A thingtivities. is good only s far as it serves." o One who does not participate in These laws in regard to the re-the Seder services violates a positive demption of the donkey pertain tocommandment. the possessions of all men a n d wo- men, excepting those of Cohanim a n d Levites. The 22nd Commandment dealswith the redemption of the first maleborn o the donkey, a it is said in f s Exodus 13:13, "Every first born of The 23rd Commandment bids us the ass thou shalt redeem with a to break t e neck of h donkey in h I d . " The redemption must take the event that it is not redeemedplace within thirty days of its birth. (as is ordered in the 22nd Com-If its owner has no I d , he may mQndmerrt), for it is written in Exo-pay the cost of an werage lamb dus, 13:13, "if fhou wilt not redeeminsteud. TIhe redeeming lamb be- it, then thw shdt break its neck."comes GIS a "common possession" o f Thismeasureisdntpunishingthe P i s s T i means that it need ret. h s the negligent owner. The neck woesnot be sacrificed upon the cdtar. bro~bymaamrdan~~,8othat One purpose of this coguncmd- the c b h g . b u k t n t ~~. u If ament i ta mmkd us o the plcague s f d o n b e y d i e d b e f ~ i t ~o the first horn in Egypt Then is f ithadbbebunidheawseofthealso a rubbinic trcrditian the sanctity attachbg tQ its bady.donkey wcap disthgursbd from the Tha 24th fu&ds
    • 25th C c e t 13 us to walk outside of the city limits that there is God in the world." The on the Sabbath, for it is said in word, UfH "I am," announces Exodus, 16:29, "Let n o man g o out the fact of His being. He declares," of his place on the seventh day." . . And I took thee out of the Land The Rabbis define "out of his of Egypt. . " s o that mens hearts place" as a n a r e a of 2,090 square should not be persuaded to take the cubits, basing their calculation on whole events of the Exodus, the free- the measurement of boundaries dom from bondage and the slaying found in Numbers, 355: "Ye shall of the Egyptians as a n accident, but measure from out of the city on the would know that it was the design east side 2,000 cubits, and on the of the living God, in fulfillment of south side 2,000 cubits, and on the his promise to our Fathers--Abra- west side 2,000 cubits, a n d on the ham, Isaac and Jacob. north side 2,000 cubits." Thus 2,000 Belief in God is the foundation of cubits beyond the citys boundary knowledge. He who does not believe line is still considered "his place." in God denies the very foundation One may not g o further on the Sab- of the world and has neither portion bath without an "eruv." nor merit in Israel. The existence of This commandment serves to em- the world cannot be explained with- phasize the meaning of the words in out God. When questioned concern- Exodus, 20:ll: "For in six days the ing this belief, one should unhesitat- Lord made heaven and earth, and ingly reply that it is the faith of his rested on the seventh day." In com- heart, which h e will not relinquish memoration of Gods d a y of rest, we even in the face of death. are to remain in one environment o n It is well for one to express, crrticu- the Sabbath a n d not to walk great lately, this belief in God. While we distances except for a leisurely prom- a r e not to argue, we may profitably enade. discuss it. When men argue about The Torah repeatedly urqes us to religion, they generally become ac- use the Sabbath for rest a n d m d t a - rimonious a n d unbrotherly, and thus tion. The Sabbath is to be a d a y of irreligious. The older I grow, the joy and spiritual refreshment. Travel- more I realize that it is our function ing from place to place diverts our to present and to dlscuss religion. -j minds from the true nature of the but rarely, if ever, to argue. If a per- Sabbath son is willing to have a n open mind, This commandment is to prevail h e will find hinlseif able to philoso- everywhere, at d times. It is in- about God and thereby be- cumbent upon all men a n d women- come wiser a n d happier. It is interesting to note that the 25th 25th Commandment, to believe in God,begins, "I am the Lord thy God The 25th Commmdment begins who brought thee out of the h d of with the wolds, "I am the Lord thy Egypt, . . . " It i not urged upon us s God who b r o w thee out of the as a matter o ad&@, but ruther f land of Egypt, the H o w of Bond- a one o knowledge or experitme. s f age. . . " (Exodus 202) It bids us Our Rabbis point out the fadthat believe that there i one Cod in the s if he c m d r n e n t read, " I am world Who is the inventor and t e h the Lord thy Co$ who created h m - ,andthat from en a n d earth," instead o "who f eve-Q brought thee out of the Land o f tfia WUS, i s , M a b m be do& Egypt," C O & O ~ o God would f It 3 .ae if God said, " b o w s be Wed w t Creation, crnd we ih
    • would have to accept God on faith. reigned ere any creature yet was But since the story of Egypt is re- formed: ferred to, it is no longer a matter At the time when all things of hearsay but rather a n actual his- were made by His desire, then torical happening, which was wit- was His name proclaimed King. nessed and experienced by three And after all things shall have million souls. Furthermore, the story had a n end, He alone, the dread- of creation would tell us only that ed one, shall reign; there was a creator, a Supreme Who was, who is, a n d who will Cause, but not that there is a n Om- b e in glory. niscient, Introspecting Judge of hu- And He is one, a n d thme is no man affairs, One Who also bestows second to compare to Him, to con- the spirit of prophecy upon mortals sort with Him: so as to have intercourse with hu- Without beginning, without end: manity a n d to inform them of His to Him belong strength a n d dom- wish a n d pleasure. All of these inion. things were evidenced in Gods And He is my banner and my dealings with Egypt and in the re- refuge, the portion of my cup on demption of Israel through Moses. the day when I call. It seems to me, also, that the latest Into His hand I commend my in modern science, the theory of spirit, when I sleep and when I relativity, would tend to indicate that wake; all things are related to a unity. And with my spirit, my body That unity is God. The late Professor also: the Lord is with me, a n d I . W. M. Haffkine, a n outstanding bac- will not fear." teriologist, said: In the Thirteen Creeds of Maimon- "The faith which binds together ides, the second and third read as the Jews has not been harmed by follows: the advance of research, but, on the "I believe with perfed faith thatcontrary has been vindicated in its the Creator, blessed b e His name,profoundest tenets. Slowly a n d by is a Unity, a n d that there is no degrees, Science is being brought unity in any manner like unto to recognize in the universe the His, a n d that He alone is ourexistence of One Power, which is of God, who was, is a n d will be. no beginning a n d no end; which "I believe with perfect faith that has existed before all things were the Creator, blessed b e His name, formed and will remain in its integri- is nof a body, a n d that He is free ty when all is gone, the Source a n d from all the accidents of mcrtter,Origin of all. All things perceivable a n d that He has not any formas matter and forcesare subjected to whatsoever. "His inquiry and designs." This is the commandment o all f Not only is the c o r n m d e n t to commandments, that has no set time,believe in God based on our fore- for all the days of a mans life he is 1fathers experiences in the Land of obliged to be with this thought,Egypt, but even modern science namely the existence and presenceserves to reinforce this belief. The of God. iisum total of the scientific discoveries iof all lmds and all times is an agproach to our sublime chant, "AdonOlcrm," which is here translated: laasker d the Universe" The 26th Commandment bids us "He i Lord of t e universe, who s h to believe t a there is no other God ht
    • 27th 28th and 29th Commandments beside the Holy One, blessed be He, for all the children o the universe f for it is said in Exodus, 20:3, "Thou to 0b" e r v e . ~ shalt have no other gods before Me." Maimonides said: "You will never 27k 28k find Scripture to say other gods cmd 23th COMMAM)1VLENTS except concerning the faith o the f heart or the mind, but never in The 27th Commandment forbids regard to action." You cannot make us to make images, because they a god in form, but only in spirit. We may lead to the spread o idolatry. f are to have no mental reservations It makes no difference whether oneor hankerings after idolatry. We are actually makes the images or com-not to delude ourselves by saying mands someone else to make themwe love art, and thereby exhibit for hlm, for it is said in Exodus 20:4, idols. Idols should be defaced or "Thou shalt not make unto THEEdisfigured. any graven image." According to The basis o this commandment f this commandment we may drawis revealed by its details. Anyone pictures or paintings, but not fashionwho ascribes godliness to any cre- sculpture. This accounts for the lackated being, for example, even though o physical art among Jews. When fhe may admit that God rules over one enters into houses o worship fhim, nevertheless transgresses the of other faiths, one is forcefully struckcommandment, "Thou shalt have no with the bold representation o hu- fother gods." There is no pcrrtnership, man beings in icons, statues andno sonship with God.This is piquant- images before whch people bow.ly expressed in the Machilta, (the The 28th Commandment bids usHalachic Tanaitic commentary on notsto prostrate ourselves before anthe Book o Exodus) where, on the f idol, for it is written in Exodus 205,words, PlnN Pp5N we have the "Thou shalt not bow down untofollowing comment: "Are they gods? them." One may not do anything inHas it not been said they are not front o an idol that will make him fgods? But (the answer is) others call appear to be worshipping it, as, forthem gods." instance, picking up coins before it. One who transgresses this law in- Our Rabbis also say that when tentionally is subject to excision. I fone loses his temper it is as i hef he is warned and still transgresses,serves a strange god. Why? Because he is to be stoned; if he does so un-when one allows a fit of anger to get wittingly, he is obliged to bring athe better of him, he feels independ- sin offering.ent o all, even of God Himself, and f By the 29th Commandment, we arethus allows anger to control. In the bade not to worship in any mannerZohar, the Kabbalistic commentary any idol, whether it be customaryon the Bible, we read: "Kol Ha- to do so or not. Any form of the fourkoyas Keloo Oh-vahd Ahvado Zaw methods o worshipping an idol is fRaw." "He who loses his temper is prohibited. These methods are bow-as i he worshipped an idol." One f ing, sacrificial offering, libation ofof the methods of curing anger is to wine, and the sprinkling of blood.think of death; then this strange mal- Some idol worship entails disgrace-ady mcry CbaPpear. ful actions, cxs the worship of "Peor," Thrs law prohibiting idolatry per- which includes lewdness; the wor-tains not only to Jews, but to fflI ship o "Markulis," .which involves fmankind, crnd is one of the Seven the throwing of stones; or the wor-Noachian Lcrws, which were given ship of "Chemosh," which requires
    • the casting of ones hair to the ids~l. sleep for three consecutive days or One might think that these acts bring not to eat for seven consecutive such discredit upon those who per- days. form them that the disgrace should The fundamental thouqht behind be sufficient punishment. Neverthe- this commandment is th6t mornkind less, the Bible, in the words "Thou should feel it obligatory, that in men- shalt not serve them," (Exodus 20:5), tioning Gods name, one should be expressly forbids any method of idol circumspect, exact, and reverent. In worship. other words, the Bible wants us to know that we should be guarded in our speech. There must be no loose 301h coIbmrmDm talk. All that we say in Gods name Not to take Gods ncune i vain n should be uttered so as to and not to degrade His holy name. The 30th (of the 613 command- ments) bids us, --"Thou shalt not It is interesting to note that the Catholics have taken this to heart, take the name of the Lord Thy God by promoting Holy Name societies. in vain." (Exodus Chapter 20 verse 7) This is the third of the TEN COM- MANDMENTS. 3 t COMMANDMENT 0h The late President Theodore Roose- velt in his world renowned address, ON TAKING A N OATH before the Egyptian people (on his way to the African jungles), took Today I want to discuss the whole this commandment a s his theme. He guestion of t&g and a n n a g a n painted out how the nations in mak- oath- When we take an it i s ing a treaty with other nations use generally due to excitement, envy, therein the name of God. This he or some weakness. Therefore we said as a rule, results in violation o have the ~ r a d c that when a Person f e our commandment, "not to take tho swears and i sorry crftmmKk he s name of the Lord in vain." He had comes to the Rabbi who a-lores no illusions as to international mor- the possibilities which would clecniy ality. and undoubtedly indicate that if the Let us be on our guard to dis- Person were aware of the recd faCk, fnguish between a false and a vain he would not have taken the oath. oath. There are different ways in This i d e d "ch-te". s to taking an oath, and using Gods for the txdh. name in vain. A very f n philosophic question ie 1- To swear, for instance that mar- is now raised in regard to God. In ble is gold, is not a false oath be- the Bible we find that God is pie- cause everyone can see the marble t u r d as taking an oath. God, unlike is not gold. Therefore it violates not man, ~~y b w s all the f ~ c d$the commandment o swearing fals- the cam, past, W n t and future. fly, but o swearing in vain. f How ccm God ever hcrve " M 2- One swears that stone is stone or be sonry because of a d d i t i dor that wood is wood. This too is a fdtgweWhich he was not m Yet of ?violation of the commandment be- Gods vow. %mr M- crrmuUcdmuse it is evident ta stone is stons underatent a chrmge but dy ht isnst thossHsand t a wood is wood. ht crmtingenck which pwmf&ed w 3- One takes an wrth to do same- cbxess of &ution: piusthing or not to do something which nepmtame makes o t mcra or of b fis impossible, as for irmkmce, not to the people inwdvd Q IIBTW.
    • the people involved, different or which tends to create a spiritualnew. atmosphere in the home on Friday It is interesting to know, however, evenings.that whenever God promises to do Wine is generally used for thegood, that promise is fulfilled. On Kiddush. The Tosofos (commentatorsthe other hand, when God is de- on the Talmud) point out that thescribed as taking an oath He wl il origin of the use of wine comespunish, then he is not bound to ful- from the Song of Songs, "let us re-fill that oath because the element member our beloved with wine".of repentance i open to man. This s Thus wherever rememberance is re-we find admirably expressed in the ferred to, wine is used. In otherBook of Jonah in regard to the peo- words when we perform the Kiddushple of Nineva whom God vowed he service we offer a spiritual toast t3would destroy. But later when they the Sabbath. However, i one preflrs frepented, the decree for destruction bread to wine, then Challas maywas amended. be used instead, for the Kiddush Our generation too can be spared service.from further destruction, if only like The Kiddush is to be said wher-the people of Nineva, we would both ever we have our meal because aspray and repent, so that God in t run the prophets declared "and thouwould forgive us for the accumu- shalt caIl the Sabbath a pleasure."lated revolt from Him. Thus the Rabbis say that there, where the means of pleasure is to be found, namely at the dinner table, is the Kiddush to be recited. The lctw is that not only the man EMEMBER THE SABBATH but also the woman is obliged to (The 31st) or the 4th of the Ten recite or listen to the Kiddush serv-Commandments bids us to, - "RE- ice.MEMBER the Sabbath day." The We usher in the Sabbath throughRabbis say this means that one the Kiddush prayer, and we bid it should have forethought during the farewell through the Havdulah serv- week so that Sabbath desecration ice The word "Havdalah" meansshould not face one suddenly and "distinction". The purpose of the become unavoiduble. If a woman Havdalah is to have us understandgoes shopping, she should arrange that when we enter the new weekit so that her order should not b e of industry, or business we are todelivered on the Sabbath. take into these seadm pursuits the The Sabbath is so holy t a it be- ht Sabbath spirit of holiness. Industry comes part and parcel of the few not is to be employed not merely toonly on the S&b&, but every day. make a l v n but a n honest l v n . iig iigWe cktse our daily prayers on Sun- Fire which starts the whe6b of in-day b y suying "today Is the first dustry going i symboW k~ the sday to the Sab$ath," a n d then mad Havdulah, by the am& light.a Adm, On MondcIp we condude, Another @ d o n of the sym-"ThisisbseccmddcrytohSctb- bolism o the W a v d d a h is that j w t fbcdh," ek.,ccnd on Saturday we say, <as we brand the hand, under the"Todcry k Noly $%&ha&." flame of tb,ccnzdle light, t distin- o The Sabbath groper i invoksd s guish btwcen d light,though t E d d ~ servloe cold gior- h h so are we to make dear o distinc-en a f a r e 4 throu$z the! b d d A t i c r n ~ t h r t r h O 1 ~ ~ d t h e ~ ~ ) --e a. T b K&$d& i rreel%add fane. s
    • There is still another explanation Rest, cessation from work, miqht given for the Havdalah service. In b e interpreted as the opposite of a concluding the old week, we a r e to blessing because it seems as if notake over into the new week a mes- progress is made whilst resting,sage of consecration. Therefore we therefore the commandment con- begin by sanctifying the "five cludes with the words "thereforesenses". We sanctify sight through the Lord blessed the Sabbath day."the candle, hearing through the re- This means that Gods blessings cital of the prayer, smell through provide during the preceding days the fragrance of the spices, taste what is needed for the Sabbath.through the drinking of the bever- To the unthinking, the injunction age, and touch through the handling forbidding us to telephone, to ride,of the ceremonials. etc., should b e annulled in these The Talmud in Berachos says, modern times. "These restrictions" ?;9fD ilh3il ily7 1.8 08 "If there . says Chief-Rabbi Hertz, "justifyis no knowledge whence do w e know themselves in that the Jew who actu- il-38 "havdalah", how to make ally a n d strictly obeys these injunc-a distinction?" We may well take to tions, a n d only such a Jew, has a d a yhecrrt this admonition of our sages. of rest." Such a Jew not only rests,If we have no knowledge of what a but is free from the nerve-rackingconsecrated life should be how can week-day grind.we make the Havdalah, the distinc- I want to pay a deserved tributetion between the holy a n d the pro- to the Sabbath observing Jew. Ourfane? I the Sabbath is spent in busi- f sages say, "Can there be any great-ness, in material pursuits, or in secu- er hero, than the man who knowslar pleaures, there can b e no distinc- that while he is in Synagogue ontion in our lives between the sacred Saturday, his competitors place ofa n d the profane. business is open a n d his is shut?" Concluding the Havdalah service "Who are the mighty?" our Rabbiswe can s a y with the poet, ask. They answer in the words of "A Sabbath well spent the 103rd Psalm, "They a r e mighty Brings a week of content." who carry out His commandments." To those of you who observe the 32nd COMMANDMENT Sabbath properly, I extend my ad- Not To Work On The Sabbath miration. To those who have missed the blessings of the Sabbath, but The 32nd Commandment (or the who would like to learn to enjoy its4th of the Ten Commandments) de- beneficence I take this means ofclares that not only we but our help humbly offering you my advice.as we11 a r e not to work on the Sab-bath,as we read in Exodus, Chapter20, Verse 10 "Thou shalt not d o a n y 33rd -Cwork, neither thou, nor thy son, nor Honor Thy Father m d Thy Motherthy daughter, nor thy ox, nor thymaidservant, nor thy stranger within The 33rd Commandment (or thethy gates." However, a gentile, say Fifth of the Ten Commanhents),the Rabbis should not be interfered concerns itself with honoring fatherwith if he wants to work on the Sab- a n d mother, for it is written "Honorbath. How much more broad-minded thy father and thy mother in orderand tolerant is thii thaii the Christian that thy days may be lengthenedSabbath bgislation, which deafs upon the land which the Lard thywith the same problem in some of God gitreih thee."our States. I w sr very impressed as I d cr
    • the introduction to Mesilas Yesharim, human being, a n d not a horse or a where Moses Chaim Luzzatto makes mule. the point that the trouble in the The commandment to honor ones world is that we take cardinal rules parents, prevails in every place, a n d for granted, but w e d o not stress a t every time. He who transgresses them. Luzzatto says, "I have not writ- this law is to b e punished severely, ten this book to teach the reader because he not only dishonors the a n y t h n g new, but rather to attract parent, but dishonors God, who gave his attention to certain well known him or her, their parents. I the B d h f a n d generally accepted truths, for Din or Jewish Court has the power it the very fad that they a r e well is supposed to force the children to known, a n d generally accepted is the carry out their obligations to their cause of their being overlooked." parents. I feel the same is true in the physical Our religious law declares that if world. Air, sunshine, water, exercise the p e n t cannot support himself, and rest a r e generally accepted as then the son must even go from necessary for our physical well be- house to house in order to secure ing, yet we overlook them, perhaps food for his parents. because they are so self-evident. However, although the Torah en- So too in the spiritual world the gen- joins us to pay extreme regard to the erally accepted morals a n d truths wishes of our parents, yet there is are overlooked, as for instance, the one case in which parents may a n d commandment to honor our father should be disobeyed, a n d that is a n d mother. when they order the breaking of the Since the father is usually less Sabbath or any of the Divine com- popular with his children because mands. In such instances the author- he restrains them a n d the mother is ity of the parents is overridden b y usually more popular because she the higher authority of God whom yields to their wishes, the Torah w e a n d THEY a r e bound to obey. places the father first, so that one (See Talmud Yevamos 5b a n d Baba should honor his father as well as Metzia 32b) his mother. On the other hand, since 1t is interesting to note that the a child is apt to fear his father more law further provides that wherever than his mother because the former there is a conflict on the part of a is the teacher of the two, the Torah daughter, between husband a n d in the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 19, w e n t , the daughter must remain Verse 3 commands "Ye shall fear with the husband, because the as- every man his mother a n d his sumption is, that as a rule, the father father," making it obligatory to fear a n d the mother because they wantthe mother as well as the father. to secure happiness for their daugh- What is included in the term hen- ter annulled their rights when theyoring? The! Rabbis say this means gave their daughter in marriage. Ofone should, if necessary, feed his Cou, a husband, who wiHm n t s , dothe them a n d lead them in the way between his wifeto and from their destination. a n d the support of her purent is as The base for this commandment i s a rule a wwr husband, u mean songratitude. One sfiould dwqs be a n d a selfish member of m c i e t ~ .grrrfeful to his parents for their kind-ness, in h i n g i n g him into the world. 34th C- OOne should also show gratefulnessto God for ones parents, because Thou SBcdt Not Murderdm to his m t s he was created a The 34th Commandment bids u s 1
    • not to slay a n y one, as it is written The Jewish law does not recognizein Exodus, Chapter 20, verse 13 circumstantial evidence."Thou shalt not murder." Our Rabbis are even opposed to 35th and 36ththe so called mercy lulling, as Rabbi COMMAND-Salanter pointed out, that an hour Thou Shalt Not Commit Adulteryin a persons life is not merely an Thou Shalt Not Killhour, but may represent a wholelife. i that h o w he might repont n The 35th Commandment "Thoua n d thus be worthy of everlasting shalt not commit adultery" refers tobliss, as we read in the Talmud, another mans wife. If this commcmd-"one may acquire eternity in a single ment were broken, then the wholehour." (Avodah Zorah lob) basis, and Wgree of the world God created the world a n d com- would be lost. According to themanded us to be fruitful a n d multi- scheme of creation, all created. be-ply, a n d not to destroy man b y our ings are supposed to b e accordinghands. However, the wicked are to to its species or kind. There is n obe punished a n d uprooted from the confusion in creation.world, they are like the thorns, In promiscuous sex relations therewhose destruction makes the world would be the problem on the pctrtsafer. In this connection the Bible of the child to know who his fathercommands, "And thou shalt uproot is, whom he must honor, a n d alsothe evil from the midst." the matter of inheritance would al- We have in the Hebrew original ways be in question. The late Profes- two readings for the word murder, sor Edwin R. A. Seligman in h s i "Tirtzach" a n d "Tirtz-awch." One book, "The Principle of Economics" with an ah called "pahsach," a n d said, "It would be a wise chiid whoone with an a w called "kawmahtz." would know his own father."The "pahsach," means oponing be- The Rabbis say that an adulterercause it is uttered by opzning oriels is on par with a thief. The thiefmouth, while the second vowel is steals something that is f x d iniecailed "kawmahtz" because it is price, whilst the adulterer steals thepronounced b y closing the mouth. love of ones spouse, which is price-So one is apt to become an instru- less.ment of murder either b y opening Adultery leads to jealousy, and- inor b y closing his mouth, as for in- turn this leads to murder. Venus, thestance: one who slanders a n d libels godess of beauty, a n d Mars,the godis a n instrument of murder b y the of war, are closely r e h e d . Our refi-opening of his mouth. On the other gion has laid down a number ofhand, if one is able to save some- lcrws to prevent as far as possible,body from trouble by telling the the mingling of sexes which in turntruth about him, yet remains silent, may lead to adultery. A man is nothe is a n instrument of murdzr b y t h s to be alone with another mans wife,closing of the mouth. lest he should be led into temptation. Capital punishment for murder in The punishment for adultery is thethe Jewish Law is meted out only death penalty.when the perowon who kills does so The 36th Commandment "Thouwith intent, and there are a t least s a t not stecd" ( x , hl E& Chapter 20two witnesses p- at who warned verse 15) in this instanoe refers tothe killer auainst comrnitina the kidnapping. we have beencrime o murder, if he fails to listen f ing i the previous connatxxbcsnf nto the admonition and commits the the dedh penal*. Thus the Rabbiscrime h e is t o be slain b y the sword. pointaui,~~onlydeathpen~
    • as fcrr as stealing is concerned, re- bears false testimony must, accord- fers only to kidnapping. We have ing to the "lex taliones" o "measure fantedated legslation o this kind f for measure", pay for what heagainst kidnapping, by at least three wanted to do by his false testimonythousand years. Well may we Jews to others. However, where this isstand entranced at the perennial, impossible, a for instance i one s fnever ending truth and modernity perjured himself and said that Mr. B.o our holy Torah. The death penalty f is divorced, the perjurer receivesis administered only i the kidnapped f "malkos" or stripes. Written evidenceperson is sold, or ransomed, other- is not admissable in criminal mat-wise the punishment is merely ters. The witness must face th,e onestripes. charged with the crime. However, in regard to money matters to save the lender a great deal o time or f 37th COMMANDMENT inconvenience, the Rabbis permitted written evidence, so that loans may The 37th Commcmdment, (the ninth be made and that the "door foro the ten commandments) bids us f help" should not be closed to thenot to bear false testimony. Exodus borrower.Chapter 20, verse 13. Our Rabbis say: "The foundationso the world are truth, justice and f 38th und 39thpeace. (Avos 1:18) Remove truth and c NM N - oJ ADyou are undermining one o the pil- flars o the world. Without truth, faith f The 38th commmdment (which isin human beings would be rare, the last o the ten commandments) ffriendship would disappsar, and the declares: "Thou shalt not covet"very existence o society would bs f (Exodus 20, Verse 17). I think it wasimpossible. Therefore, the prophet Humboldt who said that this is theZechariah said, "Love the truth". most important of all the command-There is no better lesson to teach ments, for it is the coveting o some- four children than that profit without thing which one does not possessprobity is sinful, and that probity which leads to the temptation towithout profit is profit in itself. The break all the other commandments.world is famishing for truth. To he, It would be well for us not tosay the Rabbis, is idolatry, the great- satisfy every expressed desire of ourest sin in religion. The Talmud say^ children. The tendency of our timesthat, "truth is the seal of God." It is is to "soften" rather thcrn "harden"the hecnt of life. Without it no word our children. As our children growhas value, no character, respect. up and perfore we are either un- i we could ody f of Cod as able or unwilling to safisfy d o l fthe 3rd party of we their desires, expzrience indicatessay, and reseming judgement upon that we hd them losing their respectus for ancdm h e , then I think we amd revolting a@mt t e r parents. hiwould stop lying. The mao who Iiss My e-rience with children undis afFaid o man a d not o God, f f f d a 8 promptsme t o achriae strong-~ ~ ~ : h s n h e l i e s h e d e n i e lyaguimtallowingourhecrrttog~t stb Io ~ , m d b f h e ~ e ~ r ph ~ Z k r r o f o u r m i n d s , f u r ~ w e l - c e 1of God. *of ourc&ikbefl. Heartondmind T h e l c n w i n ~ e g c n d t o ~ y im & w a k t o g e b r . s 1thatwracrrrr~bemcxst~-~ . ~ n d o n l y t ogoing in who tkwt wkich bekmgs to someone elm,vo* if arpd frutafiieto OT pemU(;IEIB QPP- t
    • other person to give up, even for is peace" because the altar brings, pay, that which he loathes to depart through forgiveness, peace of con- with. This was the great sin o King f science. The Psalmist put it :for with Ahab who tried to force Naboth to Thee is forgiveness so that Thou sell him the vineyard which he in- mayest be feared." herited. Those in power and those The law has it that if any of the who enjoy wealth sometimes believe stones were hewn by means o an f that their position or their money iron tool, the whole altar became ought to secure for them anything unfit for use. So despicable was war they want. in the minds of the Rabbis, that they The 39th Commandment bids us declared that even when the altar isnot to make any images. (Exodus to be whitened, no implements bear-Chapter 20, Verse 20). This means ing iron may be used for that pur-that we are not to make any physical pose. Of course, all these laws pre-form o man whether it be o iron, f f vailed through the p3riod of thewood, stone, or anything else, even Temple. Anyone who transgressedif it is made as an ornament. The this law received stripes. This lawobsomance o this commandment f refers not only to the altar but alsoprevents us from deifying man. to the ramp leading up to it. However, it is permitted to make Putting an axe upon the altar isa form of a man i we omit any ona f an insult to it. The Rabbis in theof his limbs or add an extra limb. Midrash Lekcch Tov emphasize "aThis will tend to show his imperfec- fortiori", that if an inanimate objecttion. Of course pictures or paintings is not to be regarded lightly, howare also permitted. much more careful should we b9 with reference to a hmom beings feelings. The 40th Commandment bids us not to hew the stones in the building o the altar. (Exodus Chapter 20 f The 41st Commandment mads, Verse 22). The altar was not to have "Neither shcrlt thou come up by been built with stones which were unto Mine a l b ~ that thy nakedness touched by iron, for it is said "Thou be not uncovered thereon." E d u s shalt not build them hewn." The Chapter 20 Verse 23. There must Rabbis point out in the Mechilta that have been m ramp leading to the iron or steel implements are em- altar. In other words, as one ascends ployed for making a sword or other the altac, he should do so s l o d ywar munitions which threaten human and reverently, step by step. 0 1 life. The altar is for the prolongation course, it is evident that the stones of human life therefore these two op- are n t rmnscious o any c h w p c t o. f positions must not meet together. or any nakedness. This slow and The altar brought forgiveness for awemme m d to the d t m was tosin, blessing and peace. A c c o b i y impress US with the d for apit represents happiness, and gaod prcraching God with humility arid notwin, whilst that which hews starre with pride cpf dslwped.r -sei the opposite, and is em- This Icrwr pre*ed in Tgayrleplow as a rule far the purpo8e of t h m c d wcls i n & t m upon Hlenspilling blood. Therefore the tools and woman. Whoeveremployed in building the must it i n w y by w d h gharmonize with the purpadat o the f spwtfmy t the altar r l ? e & d o* , namely peace cmd lib. Gideon 8&@SS.dedtheaftar - 3 "WsIx,rd Ride b t r c s s y s the world. It bring%
    • war and devastation. It causes one permitted to leave within the six inordinate ambition. On the other years i any of the six coincided with f hand, humility and reverence main- the Jubilee year. He was also psrmit- tain and retain all that is good and ted to leave i he could raise the f noble in the world. The Talmud in money to pay his master for the Kiddushin commenting upon our stolen article; or i his master died f commandment says, "We do not within the six years a n d did not search from the altar and upwards." leave a son. In other words, a man who is really, At the end of six years i the f completely and genuinely interested Hebrew servant desired to remain, in the Synagogue, reaches thereby "Then the master shall bring him to his highest spiritual self-realization. the Judges; he shall also bring him to He needs no higher ideal. Through the door or unto the door-post; a n d his proper approach to the altar, he his master shall bore his ear through is willing to listen to its message with a n awl; and he shall serve him and thereby is led step by step forever." (Exodus Chapter 21, Verse through the observance of the vari- 6) His ear is to be bored, say the ous commandments to the highest Rabbis as punishment for not heark- approach to God. This is evidenced ening to the injunction made at Sinai by the fad that when men and wo- "Thou Shalt Not Steal", and also for men whose lives are partially void disregarding the declaration made and empty, take a sincere interest by the Holy One Blessed be He, in the message of the synagogue when he pcrssed over the door-posts they come closer to the performances of the children of Israel "For to Ms of the commandments of the Torah. are the children of Israel servants." As a result we derive additional s u p Kiddushin 22 b. Twice did he dis- port for our communal endeavors, obey and ad contrary to the d i v i n ~because in the Synagogue there are order, for he stole a n d cherishedusually workers or leaders of other slavery.public institutions and they encour- "And he shall serve him forever"a g e others in the House of God to does not mean for all time, but u phelp maintain our various communal to the lubilee year when every Is-projects. raelite &tomati&lly became fr& re- The proper QPpwch to the al= gardless of whether he wanted to oris through humiliW. This leads not. The ceremony described is d9-the performance of the Will of God. signed to show how detestable slavery is from the Biblical point of &d C P view. Abraham Lincoln had a clas- The 42nd Commandment concerns sical precedent in his fight aqainstitself with tfie mcrster and servant t h i most undesirable of institutions.~elationshiP among Jews, as we read The master and servant relation-in Exodus Chapter 21, Verse 2. "If ship, acoording to Jewish law, mustThou buyest a Hebrew servant, six be one o utmost kindness, thought- fy e m he shall serve and in the f&es and c-onsideration. This isseventh he shall go out free". The Jawish b.lw a n d tradition for all time.Hebrew wces sold to sluvery because The s b h s of a Hebrew bondmanhe stole someones property cqd was was Eke thcrt of a lcdxxer, hired foru n a b k t o p ~ t y a s ~ l a a certain permi o time. When the w ~ . fAfter six yeats o service ha cwb- f B3 fqv3 "Six years he Shall Serve" ikm&ic&y btxam free casd r e q W E m d a s 21:2) it does nof mean theno pFmisslim ar nu&-on frrrm duing of any kind of work, degmd-h i s m ~ t o ~ h i - m . ~ w ao s O Saiphus therefore ing r ~ M .
    • says, "As a hired man." (Leviticus and sacred task he chose Damesk,25:40). Like a hired man, he cannot his servant.be fwced to do anything other than A Jew who does not treat his ser-his trade. (Mechilta, Exodus 21:2). vant well is in essence not a Jew.Furthermore, in connection with the Because, a s the Rabbis point out inscriptural admonition, "Thou shalt the Talmud in Yevamos 79a that anot make him to serve as a bond- Jew must be "merciful, humble andservant" (Leviticus 25:39),the Sages charitable." Certainly no Jew shouldsaid: " A Hebrew bondman must act toward a Negro in a derogatorynot wash the feet of his master, nor way. I never like to hear one c l a alput his shoes on him, nor carry his Negro a "nigger". The Jew mustthings before him when going to never forget that he was a slave inthe bath-house, nor support him by Egypt. Therefore, we find the Bible,the hips when ascending steps, nor the Talmud, Jewish tradition andcarry him in a litter or a chair or in Jewish practice indicate a masta sedan chair as slaves do" (Mechil- beautiful relationship between mas-ta). It was these and other similar ter and servant.limitations imposed upon a master The law pertains only to males, forin regard to his Hebrew bondman a woman was not permitted to ac-that led the Sages to observe, "He quire a Hebrew male servant be-who buys a Hebrew bondman is as cause o the moral issue involved. fif he buys a master unto himself." The 43rd Commandment bids the (Kiddushin 22a) They further iIlus- Jew who owns a Hebrew slave girltrate this by saying that i there be f to marry her. (Exodus Chapter 21,one pillow in the house o the mas- f Verse 8). This commandment is toter, then the servant and not the show us that God wants us to extendmaster is to receive it. This was done our mercy to the poor g r who has ilso that the servant should not feel to be sold by her father and to pre-his degradation. To the Jew, em- vent the clash o class by causing fployees are not just so many hands the more prosperous to be consider-but so many human beings pos- ate o the less fortunate. As a matter fsessed pith the same feelings and of fact, if the owner does not marryperhaps with more sensitive feelings her, then he should try to see to itthan the employer. The question has that his son marries her. (Verse 9) .been asked "We are commanded to If his son does not mcmy her, helove our neighbors as ourselves." In shall not stand in the way of haringthis case it appears as if we should her released. He should help her inlove our servants more than our- her efforts to be f e from bond- reselves. The answer given is that if a age, so that she shoud not have toman has only one cushion, he has remain unto the end of the period ofno right to employ a servant. her sale. The law permitted a girl to be sold only u t l the age of 12. She was not ni allowed to be resold by her plaster. We am see in what high regardthe s e m t was bki, that our futherAbMham, in cfiaosling one to select a iUtb..15th.d46&wife far his d y beloved child Isacec,m d s his s e m t rkxm8mk Ebcszer, The 44th Comm-?it bids thean this IrPisision. There was zmthing master to do everything pod& to&at AbratKna wanted mote, than to h d p redeem his H h w mcdd-as-see Lsaac properly sfluh3d. Yet fr fhe plmt. Ws Chapter 28, Vg.rsrs 8). o t lrrscrlizatian of this h* i impom & & ~ i n ~ g h ~ t h e
    • scrme wages for the first years o her f shall be SURELY put to death". service as for the latter years, even Wherever the Torah says there shall though her services in the beginning be a death penalty, without indicat- naturally, are not worth as much as. ing which one of the death penalties they are later on, when she becomes is to be inflicted, as stoning or burn- more experienced. I he bouqht her f ing, then it means strangulation. If for $603.09 for six years and she ser- one receives a death penalty no ved for three years and saved in other penalty, as a monetary fine, that period $300.00, he is to accept for instance, is added. The Rabbis the $300.00 from her and not force make the point throughout the Tal- her to complete the three remaining mud that "the severer punishment years of her service. This would in- only is meted out". The Mechilta dicate a bad heart, and the children shows this to be true from the end of Israel are to be "merciful, children of Verse 11 and the beginning of of the merciful." Verse 12 "free without money", "h? The 45th Commandment bids the that smiteth a man so that he die master never to sell his Hebrew maid shall be SURELY put to death". servant, to another master. The pur- The reason t a strangulation is ht pose of this commandment is to get declared us the means of death is us into the habit o acting merciful f and lo$ngly toward those socially because according to the law of below us. measure for measure, the murderer The 46th Commandment reads wanted to rid the world quickly of "And if he hath betrothed her unto the victim, therefore his penalty ishis son he shall deal with her after through the swift means, namelythe manner of daughters". (Exodus strangulation. However, where oneChapter 21, Verse 9). She is to re- derives great and increasing pleas-ceive d the marriage rights of any ure from his sin, then the penaltydaughter in Israel. He must forget is such that gives great and increcrs-her humble origin and must act to- ing pain like burning or stoning.ward her as i she hails from the f All these laws were only pertinentsame social plane as he does. Ac- when the Jews lived in Palestine.cording to the Rabbis, food, rcrimant One who had the power of ccrrryingand conjugal relationship are the out the law and failed to do sorights of every ]%wish wife and the violated a positive commandmentobligations of every J w i s h husband. namely "He that smiteth a man SOIn other words he who buys a Jew- that he die shall be SURELY put toish girl us a w a n t and marries her death. Thus we are bidden by ourshall not diminish f o her m y of rm law not to create maudlin sentimentthese rights. Our Rabbis point ol~t, for the slayer. This is a dis-servicethat a woman may never be told "in to society.your bhers house you bed on amuch poorer stmdard". Therefore Our Rabbis say that if a man com-when it comes to the obligations due mits suicide he loses "Oiawm Huh-her, they ate not to be e s t i m d ac- baw" the future world. The philoso-cording to her former lower socia1 pber kchyah in his work entitledposition, bu* according to his higher "The Duties of t e Hecrrt" explains hsocial dcadards. this as foilows: "He says, it is bad emugh if one slays another, it is 4m worse still if one dcrys his bruther, it is still worse if one slays himself Tr 4 hP M 31 73 "for a mun is dosest in obligation to hims1f.
    • 48th C O M M A N D r n better self is to be of a severer nature than that which is prompted by the The 48th Commandment bids us animal instinct of man (Zohar).never to smite our father or mothereven when they smite us, exceptingonly if they want to slay us. For "he 49th COMMANDMENTwho smiteth his father or his mother The 49th Commandment deals withshall SURELY be put to death" the laws concerning one who injures(Exodus 21:15). The reason for such a fellow man. Such a one must besevere punishment is due to the fact punished, as is indicated in Exodusthat when one raises his hand ag- Chapter 21 verses 18 and 19. "If menainst his parent, he does so against strive together and one smiteth. . . hethe representative of God. One shall pay for the loss of time andis liable to capital punishment (by shall cause him to be thoroughlystrangulation) for smiting his parents healed." In another verse we haveonly if he spills blood. I no blood f "So shall it be done to him", indicat-is spilled then he is guilty as in any ing, "measure for measure." In otherother case and must pcry civil dam- words, i one hits another he should fages for ptj "loss" ,py "pain" be struck in return. However we "doctors bills" n>v con- have the Jewish tradition of fines in-finement to ones home" and n V 3 stead of bodily injury to the offender."shame". To carry out the law of "measure for Just as in capital punishment there measure" would be savage. The Je-is no monetary fine, so also where wish religion makes every effort tothe punishment is civil there are no reduce the expression of a i a in- nmlstripes, and where the punishment stinct or savagery in man. The Rab-is stripes, no monetary or civil dam- bis in the Talmud call one who onlyages are tr, be paid. raises his hand to smite another a As a matter of fact, the law has it "a wicked person." It is pqthat one is not supposed to operate a n evidence of the "Claw" C i ~ ~ l ~ a -on his own parents because in doing tion which our religion and law tryso he unwittingly spills some of his to curb. Let me give another exam-blood. O course, if there is none f ple. A Rabbi was once questionedother to operate;then the son may about the matter of slaughtering.act as surgeon. A son may not act "What difference can it make to theas a representative of the court to animd whether you hit it over thepunish his father except in the case head with a sledge-hammer or cutwhere he was a missionary for its throat by means of a sharp cmdidolatry, smooth knife, especially prepared Why only pjn "strungulation" (according to the Jewish religion) forfor smiting ones parent whilst for slaughtering?" "It surely makes acursing ones parents ;r?rp~ difiaence," replied the Rabbi, "whe-"stoning", is the pmidment? The ther you kill c c d m d painlessly or manswer is t a smiting is a n animal ht by crushing its head. But there isact. A human being has some animal another difference which refiectsin him nrn m P y a arm therefore 5 character. The me way makes forwhen he employs t h part of himself, ~ brutality and the other for refine-he is not completely responsible. ment. "However, cursing comes not from the Thus instead of inflicting physicalanhd but f o the soul of m a n rm pain upon the one who smites, weTherefore, we can understand that have the substitute of a money fine.the punishmat for a wrong done Inthisway,wealsoccapoutbin-through the mind, or sod, or ones tent of the verse fhcrt says; "So s h d
    • it be done unto him". For in payir~g first, the sla-ve was regarded as aa fine sufficiently large, the evildoer chattel. Chattel-owners assumed theis pained therby. He pays a five-fold privilege of acting as they like withfine to the offended, namely (1) f r o them. Thus the Torah, whilst on th?the pain infJicted, (2)for deprecia- one hand recognizing that a mndi-tion, (3) for M i n g , (4) for loss of tion of slavery existed, denies untotime, and (5) for degredation. the owner any cruel treatment that he may believe he can rashly accord his slave. The 50th Commandment dealswith that form of punishment that is Slst COMMANDMENTexercised by the sword. For trans- The 51st Commandment deals withgressing certain few of the com- the damage done by a n anintul CISmandments we a r e commanded to we read in Exodus Chapter 21 Verseslay the transgressor by the sword. 21, "If a n ox gore a man or a wo-Punishments by means of the sword, man", then the owner is obliged toour Rabbis say come under the cate- pay damages. When the Bible usesgory of 3lct "to slay". This the phrase a n ox "gored", it refersis a n easy death. Easier than this is to his "horns" only. Furthermore, thestrangulation. law makes a distinction between He who smites his sla-ve, even his "Tam" and Muad. The "Tam" is anCanaanitic slave, is -slain by the crnimal that has not done damagesword. For the Bible says in Exdous, more than twice, the Muad is oneChapter 21 Verse 20 "And if a man who damages three times in succes-smite his siave or his maid with a sion. Our Rabbis deduce from therod and he die, he s h a l l be surely expression in Verse 29 "If the OXpunished". Commenting upon this were wont to push with his hornsverse, our Rabbis say, that this puni- yesterday and the day before, and itshment is through the sword. huth been testified to his owner" that God wanted to uproot from Hs pe- i an act or a peculiarity repsatedopIe a heart that might become so thrice is to be considered as a nbrutal thcrt it could a l w it to rise to lo indication of the innate nature andsuch anger that it would slap any permanent churacter of the person,human being, even ones slave. We cmimd or circumstance in question,must always remember that. a slave till the opposite is proven by reversevrus regarded. as ones pixsession. conduct. Thus the animal who hasOnethinlcsheccrndoasheplecaes gored thrice has manifested a n in-with his own possession. Therefore, h m t tendency for goring. Manythe Torah commdnded us thcrt any- olher examp1es are given in theone who will wrmit himself to get so Tcdmud to prove the truth and legal-enmged k it will iead him to slay t ity of ti fact, concerning a n action hseven his dam, he himself should be repeated ihree times. There are C ~ T -put to dedh. Even though after all is tain animcds that are always in thesaid and done he h a fast his money category of muud because of theirthrough t)le lam o his &me, and f nature to harm, as for imdopICe, thethewby sufiens pbbhxrieni becaus3 km,wolf, leapard h e and pan- theon,Man is ~~ a muad a cdl times. Whether he is awukeor a- t steep, he i M y responsible fcn hS s uctioas. Ail tbse paym~nfsPar dmagas B&thehecsdingof-
    • Fines. Fines were originally imposed The purpose o this commandment fin the Holy Land and by those or- is to impress upon us to hate killing,dained in Palestine. Since this type so that we may be free from caus-of ordination has ceased the law is, ing sams. Whether the animal bethat where there is a loss sustained Tam or Muad, it is to be stoned if itand it is a usual occurrence, the Rab- kills any creature whether it be man,bis may take upon themselves the woman, child or slave.right to decide upon such loss, be- It is interesting to note also that thecaus where ones animal does da- law has it, that since the soul o the fmage it is a matter of conscience, to animal is involved in this case, nosee that the damage done is paid for. less than 23 judges are to make theThe law further says i the injured f decision, just a s in any other case ofhas something which belongs to the capital punishment. So also, must theone responsible for the injury, he owners of the anim4 be present atdoes not have to return same until the trial, and we do not penalizf?he has h ,counter claim satisfied. r the animal because of the testimony of one witness, as in the case of capi- tal punishment, in regard to human beings. The 52nd Commandment is based ~lpon Exodus 21: 28, "If a ox gore a man or a woman that they die, then the ox shall surely be stoned The 53rd Commandment deals and its flesh shall not be eaten." with digging a ditch or any stumb- The Rabbis say in the Talmud that ling block in a public domain, as we the ox which gores human beings may not be eaten, even i the ox is f read in Exodus Chapter 21 Verse properly slaughtered, because its 33-34 "And if a man shall open a propensity to kill human beings pit, or i a man shall dig a pit and f show that it has the same nature not cover it and a n ox or an ass fd a s the unclean, carniverous and therein; the owner of the pit shall bloodsthirsty animals, whose flesLl is not beneficial to the body and make it good and give money unto mind of him who eats it. the owner of them." We have it as a When a n animal is slaughtered for tmditiond law that we must payfood, according to our Kabbalists, its civil damages for a n ox but not forsoul receives its fulfillment. They say a ,,, for an ass and not for ves-that in the scheme of creation, God Bk. The r-on being that a prsonseems to have made the lower formsof life serve the higher. Thus the should 100%and see where he i go-smineral serve the vegetable king- ing ~cnticularf~ a public domain. indom; the vegetable serve the animal The depth of the ditch in odes tokingdom; and the animals serveman In other words the , death dealing f i m ~ bereachest its highest self-reahation, a least ten handbreaths or 40 i. t n -its fulfillment, when it serves as a For a ditch less than 10 h m d b r d ,life-giving substance for man. How- one is civily -nsibEe for dam-ever, in the case of the blcrodthirst~ ages, but does not d w e capitalanimal (&ti@, k t s Or fowl), dead therefor. % came hor dive, it has a lost soul. Emersqn, true not only ofdigging a Fit but ofin his essay on "Nature" said, athiag is in so fa as it POu*g water i the street i the n n widar~ecawingf$4side~to
    • be slippery, or throwing glass in the because the presumption is that the gutter causing a tire of a n auto- thief is prepared to kill first. The lcrw mobile to be punctured. also has it that if the thief before he is found out has in his posession the If one removes the cover from a the thing stolen and spends money pit, although he did not dig it, if a n to improve it, he is entitled to receive accident happened thereafter, he is what he spent on improvements. obliged to pay the damages because The thief must pay the fine from his act was th cause of the accident. the best of his posessions. When we speak of the fine, it is to be esti- I two people dig a pit, one after f mated at the time of judgment. In the other, the last one is responsible other words, if at the time of the trial for damages. The law wants us to be the thing stolen is worth more, the as distant, as we possibly can, from thief is to pay a larger fine and vice musing injury. The judges in these versa. I one steals from a thief he f does not have to pay the fine to ei- cases are males and not femaies. ther the original owner or the thief, The reason why as a rule our judges because he has not stolen from the are men and not women is because owner. A bailee or a watchman who women are apt to be more emotional is not paid for his services and who than men. This is adduce from the sivears that the thing he guarded was stolen and it is found to be false, story of Eve and the Serpent. (See he must pay the fine in addition to authors Bible Comments) the principal. One may not buy stolen goods. 5ath COhdMANDMENT I A W OF THEFT 55th COMMANDMENT The 54th Commandment deals with The 55th Commandment bids us the laws concerning the thief, "If a to judge the damage done by the man shcrll steal a n ox, or a sheep, tooth or foot of the animal, as it is and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore written in Exodus Chapter 22 Verse five oxen f r a n ox, and four shekp o 4. "If a man shall cause a field or for a sheep." Exodus 21:27. In the vineyard to be eaten, or shall put Talmud Bab Kamma 97b, we find the in his beast and shall feed in an- following reasons given for the dif- other mans field; of the best of his ference in the fines imposed. Rabbi own field, and of the best of his own Meier says that since a n ox is a vineyard, shall he make restitution". working animal, the loss involved The Rabbis say two kinds of liability when an ox is stolen is greater than for damage are involved here-- one when a sheep is stolen. Hence the is for damage by the foot of the thief should pay a heavier penalty. animal, indcated b y the words and Rabbi Jochanan Ben Zukkai says that put in his beast" and the other is for since the ox can walk as quickly as the damage by the teeth which is the thief while the sheep has t be o i n d i d by the clause "and shall carrisd on the shoulder, the penalty feed in another plans field. for stecding a sheep should be a little The laws crre that if an animal does less than st&g an ox." a n y of thew damages by foot or byI I t e case o money, the thief n h f tooth i the public domain its own- n1 must pay, not only the principal, but ers d o not have to pay for same. as a fiw? he m s pay douI.de. I the ut f There is also a difference as to what thief Be famd lying i wait the per- n the animal consumes. I it wts things f son wK meets him may kill him, tE not good for it, as for instance clothes
    • or shoes, then the owner pays only ent is accordingly legally obliged to half the damages. (If it is the first pay f r the damages he causes o or second time). However, i it eats f through the fire. anything under pressure or emer- The law discusses the case of one gency, as for instance a cow eating who brings the fire, and another barley, or a donkey eating spinach brings wood and still another ccruses or fish, or a dog licking oil or fat, it to burn. I all these three things f or a c t eating dates, then the owner a were done at the same time, then must pay full damages, because it they are all partners in their liability is food. If any o these are consumed f for any loss incurred. If some time e- in a public domain, the owner must ,lapsed between the coming of one pay only for the value o the meal f and the other, then the last one is that his animal consumed. completely liable. The court must not only "Pashkan" I a camel heavily laden with f a , f lx "decide" these questions of damages catches on to the fire o a stare, then f and penalties, but must see to it that the law is as follows: if the camel ran is &cisions are enforced. I the t f into the store the camel-owner must judges fail to see to it that the law pay the owner for the building; i itf is enforced, they have violated the did not, then the owner of the store positive commandment of the first must pay for the flax. I fire is caused f verse of the Sedrah o Mishpatitn f by a Chanukah Gxndelabra which which reads "and these are the was put outside o ones door, then f C*EBt$% "judgment" which thou the owner of the Chanukah lamp shalt carry out" Exodus, Chapter must pay. Although he performed a 21 :l. mitzvah in lighting the candles he must nevertheless guard it so that it 56th - c will not be a source of damage to DAMAGE BY FllIlE his neighbors. The 56th Commandment deals with 57th C- O damagw d~~ b~ "If out and catch in thorns. so that the The hr Of The Dmhibus B.(k 1stack of corn or the stantanding or corn The 57th Commandment deals withthe field consumed therewith: he hat a E S 3131~ ~ a gratuitous kindled the fire shall surely make bailee (one to whom goods are en-restitution." Exodus Chapter 22, trusted without being paid for g u d -Verse 5. The Rabbis declare that fire ing them), as we read in Exodusis cts ones mow. Therefore one 226-10, "If a man s a l defiver unto hlshould be careful when he kindles a his neighbor, money or stuff to keep fire within his own territory or do- and it be stden out of mans huse, ifmain, t a it should not be ofsuch a ht thief be found, let him pay doublenature that it sprt?ad a d do i the thief be not found, . . . Then fdamage. The 1 t d w U the quw- - P shuli an oath of the Lord be btUremtion as to the responsibility of one them bo& that he bath pu? &swho may cause o fire t be dong o han&intohisReighbor"s~~cadthrough a minor, cm imbecile a the owner o it shalt accept .thsftsf, fclecdrnutec.Inthatcasefreiskgdy andhe&dnotmaL?eit@fmte, but m d y grdity iwwum he Blachtone, said," Far suctr ladbeiiasbetlntheoorusef~rr i s r e s ~ e t o t l w ~ i f g o ~1 dHowever if he put iato the are krstkrstUnormal person, fireI thsrn flw ~ ~ ~ e n e A aisfreebeoauseanetsanrwte
    • 58th Commandment 31 gratuitously was stolen, or lost, then or if he says, "I have returned it" he takes a n oath that he took care then he is free from taking a n oath. of it properly, and did not use it However, the Rabbis persuade him fraudulently. Thereupon he is com- to do so (SO as to be quit of all pletely absolved, However, if the doubt). The plantiff must make his bailee should swear that the thing claim clear. He must be exact, us- he guarded was stolen, and after- ing terms in measures, numbers, or ward witnesses came and proved weights. On the other hand, the de- that the thing was not stolen, then fendant in confessing part of the the bailee is to pay double,-first debt must be equally clear. He because he has stolen from his neigh- may not say "yes I owe you part or bor and second because he has at- I owe you something", but must tempted to steal, a s it were, from the give a definite statement either in mind o God. I it is discovered that f f number, measure or weight. When he is involved in the theft, even a man denies everythinq, he mav though he did not do the actual steal- yet be confessing part o the claim fing himseif, he must pay the sume of another species. Therefore, whenpenalty a s i he stole the object out f one confesses part of the claim, itof his neighbors premises. must be for the same species of the So also, if the bailee claims that he plaintiffs claim, as for instance, ifin turn give it to another person to the plaintiff says "you owe me tenact as a gratuitous bailee, then the quarts o oats" and the defendant ffirst bailee is responsible because confesses he owes him three mea-the owner does not recognize the sures of wheat, the defendant is freesecond bailee. A minor cannot cause from a n oath because he has denieda bailee to swear because the Bible completely and entirely the state-says in our verse If a man ment of the plaintiff that he owe.;(and not a minor) shall deliver unto him oats.his neighbor". Furthermore a child Miggois irresponsible and will bother the In the case of Miggo, (Literallybmlee to swear frequently. "from the contents of); - a n argu- ment that a statement should b e ac- 58th COMMAlYDMWT cepted because a better statement PUUNTIFF AND DEFEm.ANr made without fear of contradiction, The 58th Commandment com- as in the case of a woman who saysmands us to judge between the she was taken captive but she wasplaintiff and the defendant, a s we not outraged, she is believed be-read in Exodus, Chapter 22 Verse 8 cause she could have said other-"For qll manner of trespass, . . . . wise, and not made any referenc.which another CHALLENGETH to to the fact that she was a captive,be his, the cause of both parties or i the plaintiff brings a note and fshaIl come before the judge." In the defendant says "the note is cor-other words if one wants a Din rect but I paid it and forgot to tukeTorah the Beth D n must always be i the note back", he does not have towilling to let h m have it. The pre- i pay unless the plaintiff brinqs wit-sumption is that nobody will sue his nesses who signed a t the bottomneighbor unless he has some claim o the note that what is contained in fagainst him. According to the &ble the note is true. In other vrords, thean wth is extracted from the defen- defendant could have srrid, "I dontdant, only when he confesses part owe you anything" and not haveof the d d m . But if h e denies the admitted fhe existence o the note. I f nclaim o the plaintiff COMFLETEXy, f all such cases o "migga" t l defsn- f ~
    • dant is free from p q m e n ! unle.;; paid. there a r e witnesse; to cs!al>!ish the Another instance of swearing a n d contrary. taking, is that of the storekeeper and In the cases where the plaintiff his ledger, when there are three says 1 I a m sure of my p x p l e involved, as in the following statement" a n d the defendant says case. A is the laborer, 3 is the HDV "perhaps" then t r i ~LAG- employer a n d C is the storekeeper. fendant swears a n d is free On the B the empioycr owes A the laborer, other hand if the plaintiff says "per- $5.00 for a days work B, the em- haps" a n d the defendant says "I a m ployer says to C, the storekeepor, sure", then the defendant is free e- give A, $5.00 worth of merchandise." ven from taking a n oath. If both A a n d C demand $5.00 from B. If say 1 1 am sure" then the both A a n d C swear, then B must defendant, according to the Rabbis pay because the storekpepar C, says, is persuaded to take a n oath and is "I gave A, the laborer, $5.00 worth free. The psychology behind this is of merchandise which the laborer that as a rule one who owes money denies, and I have no business of is not s o brazen as to deny the debt claiming anything from the laborer, entirely. but from you, Mr. employer." So We a r e now u p to the case o! also the laborer Mr. A says, "I did ;r;.t>W 7393 the rule "pria,t- not receive any merchandise and I ting the Beth Din to give an addi- have nothing to d o with the store- tional oath," where the defendant keeper Mr. C. but with you Mr. B., could not have been compelled to my empioyer." do so were it not d u e to the fact Another instance is the case where that he made a partial confession of one is suspected as to his charader one debt. Then the plaintiff could a n d he is the defendant a n d con- make the defendant swear not only fesses part of the debt, then if the for the remainder above the psrtia! plaintiff swears for the other pari confession in this matter, but for all he collects. If one is not suspected matters with him, even where he as to his character he swears a n d is would b e free otherwise from a n therefore free from payment. But i f oath. So also in the case of a wo-later witnesses testify that h e may man having been told by her hus- not swear, then the plaintiff swears band not to b e alone with a certain and takes what is due him. man, and is found alone with him b y witnesses, then the husband Another i n s t m e is in the case makes her swear not only in regardwhere the defendant is obliged.to take an oath beccntse he confesses to this man but for all men. There- fore we have in the Bible the wordpart o the debt but is unable to f "Amen" twice in reaard to the oathswear as to the okher hulf o the f of the sota. "Amen" from this man debt, bcame h e says "I dont know a n d "Amen" from any other man. whether I owe you the rest 4 the Our law hus it that when one money" then the plaintiff c : d k & , because the defendant is not smt4swears h e doas not take or get any-thing. However, there are few ex- a n d eannot swear.ceptions to this rufe. The first is i If one c m b s e s a debt cdthaugh nthe cast-+o wages. If the employee f witnesses say, he hus M y paidsaid, "1 was not paid" and swems, he must pay. W e b e a rnuximthe gets his d a r y . Ths prggumption, that thedessiononthepartoft-hais that the employer dwcrps i d s ,defendant k equivdmt to 100 wit-after a l q x e o time, & i he has nesses. f a
    • Notes has no value in the wilderness and If one says to his neighbor, "Let he d-s not want to take the chance me see my note that is with you of mxying much money with him. because thereon I will find some- If A owes I money, and A sells 3 thing in my favor," then the holder his movable things, they cannot be of the note must show it. If one taken away from the new owner, as causes a debt to be paid and hcrs being subject to debt. They remain his note and witnesses, but the only a s a mortgage in the possession debtor is absent, he can collect, but of A until they are sold. he must take an oath to his claim. Real estate can be taken even after If one gave his agent money to it is sold. In regard to real estate, the go and pay the debt and after the law is that if a certain field or a agent has left the debtors house certain house is designated as a the debtor calls him back and wants guarantee, then the specified house the money back, he cannot take it or field only, is as a mortgage for the back because the minute the agent debt. When the lender takes the field who had the money, left the bor- that was mortgaged for the debt, rowers house, he had already r e p then he (the lender) must return to resented the lender and our law has the one who bought this field the it that 193D3 NSW DTNS 1 - 3 " g d expense which he incurred to im- can be done to one even in his prove the field. However, i the im- f absence". provements cost $90 for instance, In case of a note that does not and the fruits that came from that have the place where, or the date field by virtue of the additional ex- when, it was written, then the lender penses are only worth $10, then the can collect his debt but not from lender must only pay $10. any property that was sold by the borrower, because the party who Equity bought the property cnn claim that The Bable recognizes the law of it was bought before the date of the equity deriving it from the verse loan, because there was no date on 939y3 3lBin 7W98 n-mp: Deute- 3 the n t . oe ronomy 6:18 "And thou shalt do Every loan bears with it the im- what is right and good before the plimtion that all the immovable Lord." The borrower whose field property of the lender is an obliga- was taken away for a debt, under tion against it. Therefore if the the laws of equity, may alwcrys buy s a b who wrote the note forgot ta it back unless it was resold, inherit- include that statement, the note L ed, or given as a gift before he nevertheless valid and the fender offered to rebuy it. can collect even frum property that In the case where no oath can be was d d . taken, there are times when a "cha- If ane t o a piedge for a laan ok rem" a curse is invoked. As for cmd the pledge was lost, then the instance, one who xtys to his neigh- lender is re~pmsibiefor it. If the bor maybe you owe me $100, and-1 is than the value of the the defendant says "absolutely no",pledge, he must pay the diffetencs then the! defendant coumot take a nto fie bomww. In m e one lends oath. But the plaintiff may there-his ne&dxx- money in a city rmd upon aslr the Beth Dm to invoice athe bwrowa arid b lender meet " c h m " . l thims "charern" the de- n fendants name is not mentioned. . The Beth Din mwdy & 1 m s that
    • belong to him should be cursed. women alike and at all times and This has the effect sometimes o f in every place. I the judges can see f making the person return the money to it that the laws are carried out to the lender. We never invoke an and they fail to do so, they ]lave oath on the claim of a deaf mute, sinned grievously. They have mulled a simpleton or a minor. Testimony a positive commandment "and is never received by the Beth Din these are the commandments which unless the defendant is present. ye shall execute". Such sin causes destruction, for no country is at Oral Debts peace without justice. Our sages The law is that i one says I have f say, that upon three things the world not borrowed, it is as if he said "I is established and one of these is have not paid". He is then regarded JUSTICE. (See Genesis 2:16 and as a confirmed liar. The only way comments in Talmud Sanhedrin 56b his statements can be substantiated also Bible Comments for Home is through witnesses. There are times Reading, Vol. 1 Page 7) Ceremonial when people confess a debt joking- laws, however, are not incumbent ly. However, i while the defendant f upon all mankind, a s for instance, confesses a debt he said to two Tfilin and the observance o the f people "you are my witnesses," he seventh-day Sabbath, concerning can never say "I was joking". This which the Bible says "It is a sign is the reason that the Jewish law between me and the children o f requires "Kinyon" the ceremony of Israel." transfer for possession. Because i f there were a mere verbal agree- 59th COMMANDMENT ment, either side could say "I was The Paid Bailee and the one who Hiresjoking". Tenure The 59th Commandment deals with When there is no legal instrument the law concerning the paid baileathen, i the defendant is in posses- f and the one who hires something, a ssion of the thing being claimed for we read "If a man deliver unto hisat least three years it is regarded neighbor an ass or ox or sheep oras his, unless the plaintiff can bring any beast to keep. . ." Exodus 22:9.witnesses or a legal instrument Unless otherwise stipulated, when-showing that it belongs to him. The ever one is given anything to guardquestion arises, why did not the his wife and grown up children mayplaintiff protest that the possessions be included a s guardians.belonged to him. The plaintiff claims One who hires a moveable object,that the possessor was a racketeer may not hire it to another, as theand was therefore afraid to protest Ramban points out, the owner of theto him. However, i the defendant f thing does not want anyone. else todied he has the right to go to the handle his possession, because heheirs or in his lifetime to Beth Din may not do so properly. However,to protest against the possession by in the case o immoveable objects, as fthe racketeer. for instance a house, then one may Righta o the Neighbor f sub-let it, providing there m e no Whenever, one sells his h d , his more occupants than the originalneighbor has the first right to pur- number of his family.chase it, provided of course he gives In the case of the paid bcrilee, orhim the same amount offered by any the one who hires, neither gets 100%other buyer. advantage. The bailee who is paid, These laws of defendunt and derives payment, but may nut USEplaintiff are pertinent to men and the article, and the hirer, whiIst he
    • gets use out of the article, must PAY borrowed, as for instance, the own- for it. er was the driver of the animal, the If a laborer spoiled the material borrower is not held responsible for given him to work upon, he is o- a n accident, or any other form of bliged to pay because he is paid for loss. Since the owner is with the his work. So too, a bank expert, article, let him watch it. whose task it is, to pass upon good On the other hand, i the owner f or bad coins, i he makes a mistak~ was present during the accident, f and judges a bad coin to be a good but he was.not there a t the time of one, he is obliged to pay. In other the loan, then the borrower is ob- words i he is paid for his work he is liged to pay for the accident, be- f responsible for his mistakes. How- cause the Bible says m y 1% ever, i the employer is working "he was not with him" ? t Y Y3i f db around him when he is examining "when he borrowed". (Exodus 22 the account, and he makes a mis- Verse 13) take or the thing is stolen or lost, he The borrower is also free from is free from his obligation to p ~ ypaying when the animal dies be- because the paid bailee or the em- cause of work, or when the bor- ployer feels that i the owner is rowed vessel is broken because it is f present he will see to it that nothing used. However, i the borrower over- f is lost or is done wrong. taxed the animals strength or mis- Thus a n employee is by implica- used the borrowed vessel, then of tion a hired bailee. He is not paid course the borrower is obliged to for his work i the thing is stolen or pay for the loss. In all these matters f lost because the obligation to pay is the borrower is believed, i no one fonly when he brings the finished is present, when the animal diedwork or product to the employer. oi- the thing borrowed was broken. Ilowever, i there were people pres- f 60th COMMANDMENT ent when the animal died, then tho THE BORROWER borrower nust brinq witnesses that The lcrws concerning the borrower it died because of ihe work it per- are based upon Exodus, Chapter 22 formed. Verses 13 and 14 "And i a man f The borrower must pay for the borrow ought of his neighbor and upkeep of the thing borrowed from it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof the beginning until the end of the being not with it, he shall surely loan.make it good. But i the owner there- f If one says to another, "lend m2 o be with it, he shall not make it this thing a s long as it will work, f good." The borrower who is con- or is good", he does not have tosidered according to the law, a return it to the original owner untilbailee or a custodian, gets full use it is broken. If one borrows withouto the thing borrowed, and yet does stipulating any time limit, then tho fnot have to pay for it. He is liable owner can collect a t any time. The for every form of mishap, be it theft, exceptions are in such instancesloss, or accident. The reason for this where it is understood that it wasIS,that the borrower for all purposes, taken for a certain time, a s in the1s a s the owner of the animal. Just case of a Megillah, the owner canas the owner suffers a complete loss take it away only AFTER Purim.when the animal dies a natural If a woman borrows and thendeath, so must the borrower. How- marries, the husband, i he was un- fever, if the owner o the article was aware of the lam, is free from her fin service together with the article responsibility. I a husband borrows f
    • from his wife, i they are both pres- f kind. We do not canonize a prodigal ent at the time of the loan and the sin, or a Lady Magdalene. lender works with the borrower, then He who violates a maiden must the husband is free from any pay- pay fifty shekalim (dollars) to the ment for any loan incurred. I the f father of the girl regardless of her borrower said to the lender "send social station. The fifty shekalim is me a cow which I shall borrow from a fine against lust. Howeirer, in ad- you", then any accident that occurs dition to this fine he must pay for on :he way is the obligation o the f the disgrace and the injury done toowner. A borrower may not in turn the girl according to her sociallend the thing borrowed to someone standing and her physical well-be-else. ing. Thus the violator must pay This completes the study of the damages as well as a fine.Laws in regard to the "Four Custo- In general when we.speak of adians". Herewith is a brief sum- man persuading a girl and thusmary: seducing her it refers to the city, be- 1-He who guards without receiv- cause therein she can protest anding any compensation. shout i need be, if there is anyone f 2-He who gets paid. present. I he marries her he does f 3-He who hires. not have to pay the fine. The Torah 4-He who borrows. however granted the father the right The first is responsible only o refusal in order to discourage ffor gross neglect. I the article f evil-doers from getting a wife fromin his custody is stolen or lost he such mal-practices. If he is not a - fdces not have to make good. He forded an opportunity to atone formerely has to swear that he did not his misdeed by marrying her, heuse it fraudulently and that he took should therefore atone by payingcare of it propzrly then he is com- a suitable compensation. This is anpletely absolved. The second and example of the just provision ourthird must make good in case of Torah makes for a righteous retal-theft or loss, but are not held re- liation. I a high Priest should b e fsponsible for accidents. The fourth guilty of persuading a maiden, thenis held liable for every form of mis- he may not marry her because shehap, be it theft, loss or accident. is no longer a virgin. A forced seduction refers to a case in the fields where, even the girls protest will go unheard. The 6 1st Commandment dealswith one who entices a maiden aswe read in Exodus Chapter 22,Verses 15 and 16, "If a man enticea maid that is not betrothed and The 62nd Commandment reads aslie with her, he shall surely endow follows: "Thou shalt not suffer theher to be his wife. If her father ut- witch to live.", Exodus, Chapter 22terly refuse to give her unto him, Verse 17. Witchcraft is an attempthe shall pay money according to the to engage in supernatural powers.dowry of a virgin." Our religion is The Torah is very emphatic dvery strict about these m o d lam stringent in regard to witchcraft andW the infringement- of them it endeavors to wipe it out ccanp1ete-u n d e m e s the world. It leads to ly. W i t G t t d misrepresents arrdpermiscuow sex rekxtions, veriereal destroys beiief i Cod cmd in His ndiseases cmd ultimate ruin far man- naturaI Icnvs. All its e&xts am di-
    • reded against the scheme o crea-f proselyte. He may not be vexed, tion. Therefore we are commanded teased or annoyed with words, be- to remove witchcraft from the world cause he is very sensitive. Another because it is against the will of reason given is that here is danger God. Gods will is that everything that the proselyte because of any shall be ruled according to the Na- insults may return to his formertural law ordained in the beginning ways. The 64th Commandment addso creation. "God created everything f the words "nor oppress him." Our according to its kind", (its genus Rabbis, in the Mechilta, tell us that and its species) as we read in Gen- "nor oppress him" refers to com- esis, "and the tree yielding fruit mercial relationship with the strang- after its kind and the herb yielding er or the proselyte. seed after its kind." Every blade o f Every commandment has two grass has its law "after its k i n d . parts: first, the good it does to others Behind all this may be some clue to and second, the good that it does to the laws of Shatnes (of mixing wool aurselves. Take charity for instance:and linen together) or, of sewing when we do charity, we benefit&verse seeds together or of breed- others by the gift and we benefiting different types of animals to- ourselves by refining our soul gether. The Rabbis say in the Tal- through the gift. Maimonides pointsmud that when a mule and a horse out, that as far as character is con-are mated they give birth to a wild cerned, we do more in giving forass. iIH1D7 ?It ;H HT979 n3D instance ten times $100 than in giv-"If one is ever struck by this animal, ing at one time o $1000. Every time fhe cannot be healed" (Ycuna 49a). we are asked to give, a rebelliousThe reason for all this is that it is feeling is aroused, which causes usagainst the scheme o creation. The f to say "Another Appeal!" Thus whenRabbis asked the question in the one answers ten appeals, his char-Talmud "Why is witchcraft called acter becomes more refined than if ;i>P2 ? The crswer is because he just gave one large contribution. n7yn 5w ~ 9 5 n ettnn3t3w it So, too, is it in regard to the com-"attempts to destroy natural lad" mandment concerning the proselyte. Witchcraft involves us also as a rule If we do not tease him it makes hisin superstition, which is against the soul become better and by pradic-Jewish religion. If the Beth Din or ing this restraint we become thethe court fails to carry out this law finer for it.it is guilty o violating a negative f We may well be entranced bycommandment namely "Thou shalt the Hebrew scriptures in so far thatnot ullow a witch to live". However, we are bidden 36 times "to lovethe judges do not receive s t r i p s be- the stranger", "not to tease thecause we have a rule that wherever stranger". It would be well fora negative commandment is violat- Christians to understand and toed but no act was done, as in this practice this comanandment o the fcase, then no strips are received Hebrew Scriptures.as a punishment. It is a h interwting to note that in regard to the stranger, the same expression is used as regard to Gad, namely, LOVE - "And thou Tfia Q3Kf Corn-hat =m M t Love the atranger" and Thou"And the stranger thou shalt not shalt love God. God wants H s ivex." Our Rabbis say .that this re-fers both. to &e s t m q e r cmd * children lnved as much as He Him- E d .
    • 38 65th Commandment 65th COMMANDMENT oath that the money is due him. So, WIDOW AND ORPHAN also, if they have a litigation against any person, the Beth Din is obliged The 65th Commandment restrains to take up their claim against the us from being oppressive either b y plaintiff and to plead for them just word or deed to the orphan or a s their father would. Bscause thb widow, a s we read in Exodus Beth Din representing God is the Chapter 22 Verse 21 "Ye shall not af- "father of the orphans". flict any widow or fatherless chlld." It is incumbent upon us to deal All this is due to the fact that the gently with the widow and father- widow and orphan are bereft of less child. The court cannot punis5 their human protector and destitute one for the transgression of this of the physical force to defend their negative commandment, becauss it rights. In the olden days a widow is not defined a s to its limits, never- was h r n e d alive. In India she was theless God will take .ca;e of th? a n outcast. This Commandment is punishment a s we read in Verse 22 placed near the one concerning the "My wrath shall wax hot and I will law not to oppress the stranger be- kill you with the sword, and your cause both the widow, orphan a n d wives shall be widows and your the stranger have no strength by children fatherless." I a woman af- f themselves. There is no one to tak3 flicts a widow or a n orphan then their part, therefore Judaism de- she shall die and her husband shall mands that we treat them with take another woman a s his wife every human kindness because of who will in turn afflict her children. their weaker position. This Com- The widow and orphan have the mandment does not refer merely to upper hand in all business matters. a poor widow. Even the widow of The most striking illustration of this, the king and the princes are in- is in the case of the rise or fall in cluded. Thus the Rabbis emphasize prices. I the widow or fatherless f the adjective "ANY" widow, or fath- child have not already given or erless child, and say it is intended to taken possession, they and not the include the rich a s well a s the poor. buyer or seller can have the choice When the hearts of the rich a r e of cancellation without an interdic- grief-stricken and broken, we should tion. The interdiction was pro- be just a s careful not to increase nounced against those who took their sorrow in any way, a s we are advantage of cancellations of orders with the poor. In fact the Rabbis in business, and thus broke theirinterpret this injunction as referring word. The Rabbis have, however,to all humanity. Why then are the requested the court to make provi-widow and fatherless child singled sions so that the orphans in the endout here? Rabbi Akibah points out shall not suffer, otherwise n o onein the Mechilta that oppressors are will ever give orphans money ingenerally cowards. As a rule they advance, because he cannot cancelfollow the line of least resistance a n d the order. Orphans may need cashoppress only those who are too which they will not b e getting, ifweak to repel them or to retaliate the court is powerless to act. Theeffectively. Thus even in business guardian of orphans or any mes-matters if one has a claim validated sengzr is not under the law of inter-by a properly signed document diciicn for cancellation of orders.where ordinarily a n oath is unneces- Though we must not oppress orsary, in the m e of a widow a n d p:od the orphan, there are casssorphan a claimant must take an when it is permissable as in the re-
    • 67th and 68th Commandmentslationship between teacher a n d for a n y of his sins when h e goespupil in the study of the law or in through the pain a n d shame of beinqthe preparation for a trade. How- helped by another human being, a n dever, in such a case one is not to also by being forced to reduce hisg o too far. We a r e always to re- expenses. When iron smites iron, themember that the Bible s a y s in Verse noise is heard. When gold smites23 "If thou afflict them in a n y wise. iron, the sound is a gentle one. SOfor i they cry at all unto me, I f when one brother must depend uponwill surely hear their cry." the other, the suffering is great as in the case of iron meeting iron. When 66th COMMANDMENT it comes from God, the? it is like iron meeting gold, the contact is a The Institution of Free Loams gentle one. The 66th Commandment bids u s to lend money. The Rabbis in the 67th and 68thO -C Mechilta point out in regard to this The Creditor cmd the Usurer commandment which w e find in Ex- odus, Chapter 22 Verse 24, "If thou In the Book of Exodus Chapter 22 lend money to a n y of my people, a n d verse 24 w e read, "If thou lend the poor with thee", that there a r e money to a n y of my people who is three cases in the Bible where the poor by thee, thou shalt not b e to word IF is not permissive but manda- him as a n opressor." In other words, tory. Lending money to the poor is w e a r e to restrain ourselves from obligatory. The Rabbis indicate that demanding payment from the debtor the phrase "and poor with thee" when w e know that he is unable to teaches the well known lesson "char- pay his obligation. This also includes ity begins a t home, but must not end cppression through usury. We are there. (Talmud Baba Metzia 71a). to b e possessed with the quality of One who can help a n d does not is loving-kindness, pity a n d mercy. as unworthy, s a y the Rabbis, as a n When they a r e deeply imbedded in idolator. us, then are w e fit to receive the re- To lend is greater than to give ward which the Lord desires to give charity. A loan to prevent one from u s both in this world a n d in the falling into destitution is considered world to come. a most meritoritous deed. This feel- The Rabbis s a y in the Talmud ing towards the poor h a s led to the Baba Metzia 75B that if one is certain institution of a Free Loan Society in that his debtor h a s not the means every well organized community. with u-hich to repay the debt, he Gemillus Chasodim, or lending should not worry him, for no one ismoney, prevents pauperism. I a man f benefited thereby. However, one isis given the opportunity to strengthen entitled to demand repayment whenhis business or start some commerc- there is a chance of recovery.ial enterprise, w e raise the dignity We mcry point with pride to theof the individual involved b y saving noble attitude of our Holy Torah inhim from becoming a public charge. these matters, when w e rememberWe know of n o set of laws that is SO that not s o long a g o even in the mostinsistent upon this great principle of civilized countries, there existed thelending money, as the Jewish laws. horrible practice of punishing withAs soon as o n e gets out of the black life-impriscnment those who wereand is getting into the red", w e must unable to p a y their debts. The lawshelp him before h e will become poor of this commandment stress not onlyThe Rabbis say that one is forgiven shalt thou not be an oppressor but
    • 6t - 9t h thou shalt not appear as a n oppres- 69th COMMAND^ sor, and thus the Hebrew word The 69th Comandment bids us not TWJ~ is used. to curse the judges, for it is written In other words, when we see in the Bible, in the Book of Exodus, someone who owes us money, Chapter 22, Verse 27, which accord- and he cannot pay us, we should ing to the Hebrew means "thou shalt walk on the other side of the street not revile God or the judges". The so that he should not see us. Anyone question may be raised, why is the who breaks this law violates a neg- Hebrew expression for the judges, ative commandment of causing pain the same a s the one used for God? or oppressing his neighbor. The answer is that the judge in Jew- ish jurisprudence, gives Gods word The 68th Commandment in his decision; and thus he r e p resents Him. When the Bible says - The 68th Commandment bids us "He who curses the name oi the not to participate in a lom where Lord shall surely die," it refers to there is usury, whether a s borrower, the punishment - However, the lender or as guarantor, safer (S&be) warning not to curse the judges is or witness, for it i s said in Exodus, found in our verse. HOWmerciful is Chapter 22 Verse 24 "Neither shalt our criminal law in that Capital pun- thou put upon him umry." One is ishment cannot b e visited upon one not to participate a all in any usur- bcfore a -varning to desist from com- t ious loans. The T a l m d s q s "the mitting the wrong is given. Just as lender transgresses six negative there should be no taxation without commandments, the borrower two, representation, so there cannot be, a n d those who arrange for it, one." according to Jewish Law, no pun- God wants the world t~ be in such ishment without a previous warning. position, that one should not destroy Jewish criminal law is based upon the other through usury. However, what is only to-dny becoming more Jewish law makes it possible for and more the accepted t h ~ i ~ r n loans to be made when the lender b m i n o l q , namely. the prevention becomes a participant or pcntner in of, rather than the punishment for, the business. When we become usur- crime- ious, we s a p our neighbors strength The Fkbrew for cul.sing 9% without his feeling it, until he be- comes from the word ?, comes a bankrupt. This is why "KAL" which means "light - interest or usury is called. 1 ~ 2 other words, the judge i not to s snake-biting, because it .bifesW become i00 "kd", to0 "bghtly", sn&-&ke emits an incurable esteemed in the litigants eyes. There- poison into the normal well-being of S c r i ~ b so rigorous a g a t isthe borrower. Just as in the of failiarity, contempt of court, anda serpents-bite, one does not feel it Wainst cufsing the judge-until the poison is well into the body, Sometimes people have the mis-so is it with usury and the borrower. takien notion that they must use He-Therefore, we want not only the bnd- brew or employ a Hebrew B & in ,er and the borrower, but also the order & t their w d or their 4 aguarantor a n d the sofer (the Scribe) be in acmrdance with the Jewisha n d the witnews not to be parties to Lorw, therefore our Rabbis paint outsuch transactions. t a cursing the judge in m knn- ht y guage i a violcrtion o tfiis CVZXI- s f A usurer cun repent by returning mandmmt.the interest to the bomwer. Ifonelksesinaddi~h~
    • of God in conedion with a curse, the Nasi, the head o the great San- fthen capital punishment is meted hedrin because without authorityout; otherwise the violator is pun- there will be no law and order. Theished with stripes. people may differ with the civil or religious leader but they may not 70th AND 7181 COMMANDMENTS go to the extreme o lowering his f CURSING authority or prestige. He may not be cursed not only in his presence The 70th Commandment reads, but not even in his absence. "Thou shalt not revile God," (Exo- dus, Chapter 22, Verse 27). The dii- One who violates this commandment tindion between man and animal breaks three negative command- lies in speech. If man employs ments, namely: speech in a bad way, as for instance 1. Not to curse the judge in cursing God,he commits a double 2. Not to curse the Nasi wrong. He sins not only because he 3. Not to curse another Jew. curses God, but also because he Whenever the Jewish law speaksthereby degrades himself, and makes about cursing it refers to the use himself lower than the animal. of the name of G-d in the impreca- When the proper name of God, - tion.the tetragramattan (the four letters nrnc of Gods name) is used 72nd COMMANDMEIJTin connection with the curse, then The Order of the Duesthe judges who listened and the The 72nd Comandment hi& us notwitnesses who heard that testimony to disturb the order o the givingof f must rend their garments in the dues which belong to the priest, ing. the levite and the poor, as we read The reviler is judged by 23 judges in Exodus, Chapter 22, Verse 28, and if found guilty, receives capital y-hou shalt not delay to offer the punishment. This and the following first of thy ripe fruits and of the are the Ones outflow of thy presses (wine)." In where there is no fore-warning in other words, this bidsregard to a crime, involving a ~ i t a l US to the great 1 n -punishment. Every one of the wit- in life, namely, to make first thingsilesses and all the 23 judges must first,place their hands upon the head of As s o n the produce is grown,the sinner ad have ,e m to give the first fruits to thecaUt?d this." This is the only E W 3 priests. Then the Trumah (which ac-where such a ceremony was Pr- cording t~ Rabbinic t-scription is in regard to capital punish- &out 296) goes to the priest. Thenmenf. It i perham due fo the fact we are to tithe the s whichthat the head misled the sinner and is d d the first tithe which goes the judge and witness- to the levite. The levite in turn giveses * e their hands his hecrd one tenth of what he receives fromindicating the source of his c i e rm. this td +he ,-ohen. his is called Trumuhs : Maaser. From what re- ?s i! mains the second tithe i taken which s The Pist C o m m ~ m h e n tbids us is enjoyed by the owner, on thenot ta atwe the hgad ofthe g-em- owner, on the b , t second, fourthmw, it L written i Exodus, and fifth years of the six year cycles nC h e r 2 , V m 27. cuse &e d i mien in J e d e r n . If the 2 b sruler 04 thy m." T& includes produce is too large in quantity t o
    • be carried then it is exchanged for means that the animal is so diseased money and spent in Jerusalem. In the that it cannot live out the year. In third and sixth years of the cycle, the case of fowl, if there is a doubt this tithe is given a t home to the as to whether it is kosher or teraifa. poor. I vre would, in any way, f if after twenty-one days it should lay change the order of this giving then a n egg then it is kosher, otherwise there would be confusion, for what it is teraifa. would belong to the priest would be The reason why the word "field" given to the levite, or to the poor is used in our verse is because it isand vice versa. However, i a mis- f usual for something to happen to take was made in the order then the animal in the field.what was given is not recalled, and Cur body is harmed by eating di-the owner of the produce must give seased meat and our sages holda second time in the proper order. that mans soul should .not be in- Cur Rabbis in the Talmud and the fected by a disease of the body,MechiIta say that jnN/a refers which can be prevented by eatingto the "first fruits." In other words kosher food.the first fruits are taken from that After a n animal is slaughtered itwhich is full, which is the ori inal is specifically investigated as to itsmeaning of the word j nD This law refers to male and fe- 3 ~ lungs, whether it is tubercular, or whether its lobes are missing or inmale, and is to b e carried out in improper order, because in mostthe Holy Land, when the bulk of cases the animals disease is gen-Israel resides therein. erally lodged in the lung. A 1 these 1 laws are discussed in the Talmud 73rd COMMANDMENT Chulin, and in the Jewish Code, TBAIFA Yoreh-Deah. The 73rd Commandment bids us There are eight categories from not to eat Teraifa a s we read in which we derive the 72 different Exodus 22 Verse 30 "An Holy People kinds of ailments or diseases in the You Shall Be to Me," "You Shall Not animal which are fatal and make it Eat Any Teraifa, Any Flesh Tom off teraifa. The eight are: 1- "Droo-saw" Beasts in the Field, You Shall Cast which means aUpressed," when an It to the Dog." An animal which has animal is known to have been at- been attacked by a carnivorous ani- tacked by a beast or bird of prey mal or by any disease because of which emits a poisonous substance which it may be unable to survive into the body. 2- "NKoo-vawh" far twelve month after the attack, is which means "a perforation, -considered teraifa and may not be when an animal is found to have aeaten by an Israelite. It may be vital organ like the food pipe or thegiven to the dog, to whose health lung or heart perforated. 3- "ChSoo-such meat is detrimental. T e dog is h raw" which means "diminution" inpurposely mentioned for two rea- size or something missing as for in-sons, because of its faithfulness to its stance the l o b e of the lung. 4. "N to-master, a n d second because a the s ollow" which means "taken," as inTalmud put it "G-d does not deny the case o an animal where an or- fto any creature, its reward." &cause g a n is found to be absent or de-the dogs did not bark" when the stroyed as for instance the liver. 5-Jews left Egypt, they are rewarded "Psoo-kaw" which aeans "cut", aswt the meat that becomes teraifa. ih in the CCI;O of an anfmcd the major- We have a general rule as laid ity of whose windpipe was split @down in the Talmud that teraifa cut. 6- "Kroo-aw" which mewns
    • 75th Commandment "torn" as in the case of a n animal falsehood, lying and slander that the majority of whose outer-coating it uses the word pmn of the stomach was torn. 7- "Nfoo- "be distunt." So also do the Rabbis law" which means "fallen" where in the Ialmud declare the c:imal fell from a high place "13 i ? ~ t ;n:i l n.;m ; pmn0 ~ D (42 inches or more) having loosened "Be distant from anything unseemly the limbs of the body from one an- or frpm anything bordering upon other. I it cannot walk it is teraifa. f it" (Chulin 44). Curse and destruction I it can walk four cubits, it is not f come into the home and into the a fatal fall and is kosher: 8- "Shvoo- world when this Commandment to raw" which means "broken" as in tell the truth is broken. the case where the majority of the Our Rabbis say in the Talmud, ribs are fractured. "The seal of the Holy One Blessed Science, of course, endorses these be He is truth." Blessing rests uponlaws. But the word of God does not us only when we imitate Him. Justneed the endorsement of science. a s He is the God of truthfulness, so The scientific endorsement of the must we take truthfulness a s a n all-dietary laws is very gratifying to embracing quality in our life. Lookthe Jew. Its importance lies only in at the home life, at business, at pol-the fact that it is another evidence itics and you will find that whereto the world of the wisdom o the f there is a lack of truth, there, in turn,Torah. you will find a breakdown of peace The Gentile world understands and of the peace of conscience. I fand appreciates the Jews applica- we pervert Gods truth, we in turn re-tion of the laws of Kashruth; it can- verse blessings into curses, namely,not, however, understand his neglect mercy into pain, lovingkindness intoand rejection of them. war, personal service into the clash of class. Therefore the Bible is so in- 74th COMMANDMENT .sistent that we shall be "distant" TESTIMONY from 7pW "from falsehood," in any form whatsoever. The 74th Commandment reads a s follows: "Thou shalt not take up falsereport," Exodus, Chapter 23, Verse 1.A liiigant should not state his casebefore the judge in the absence of The 75th Commandment bids us tothe other side even if the judge is be very careful as to whom we ac- cept as a witness for it is written inwilling to listen. Under this headingthere are three ramifications, namely, the Book of Exodus Chapter 23, versenot io declare nor to receive any1, "Put not thine hand with the wicked to be a n unrighteous wit-slander nor to give false testimony. ness." The Rabbis say that this verseFalsehood in any form is despicable refers, to one who breaks the laws ofwhether it be a false report, an un- the faith between man and Godtruthful word, a slanderous declara-tion or a mis-representation. There is (namely "the wicked") and to thenathing m e contemptible than toone who b r e d the laws of the faith between man and man (namely "thebe guilty of breaking this Command-ment. Only once in the Bible do unrighteous"). It is logical that hewe hmve the word "317~" who does not care about his spiritual self inhis attitude toward God and"be dbtcmf," used in connection with m a , will certainly not be scrupulousa C o m d m e n t . S o strongiy does a s to the kind of testimony he willScripture want u , to desist from gbreaking this Csmmcrndment of give concerning others. Under the
    • 44 77th Coznmmh~& heading of the wicked, the Rabbis 77th C m include also professional gamblers CAP~TAL CB and they specify dice and racing. They also include those who raise me 77th Chrnmcmdment reads as because they follows: "Neither shalt thou spsak in restrain these animals from pasturing a cause to turn aside after many to on other peoples fields, and are thus wrest judgement." (Exodus Chapter guilty of theft. 23, Verse 2). The word in our text In addition to the wicked person 3 be pronounced as who is unfit to give testimony there meaning "a cause" or can b e read are also included women (emotional) as 311 meaning "majority" or Canaanitic slaves, minors, deaf a? "the senior, the great one," mutes (the deaf mute is unfit for thus in accordance with all those witness, because he is unable to three readings the judge may not hear well or to speak clearly,) im- speak in a "cause" to -follow the beciles, the blind and also those who "majority" or a "senior" judge. have no shame. The Rabbis say the The youngest members of thelatter includes anyone who eats his court must render their opinionsmeal publicly in the street. It indi- first. For, if the leading memberscates that the person is unbridled utter their opinions first, the less in-and without self-restraint. He there- fluential and the disciples might hesi-fore cannot be trusted in regard to tate to express a contrcny opinion.telling the truth. Hence, to insure the benefit of the Wherever the Rabbis disqualify a independent wisdom of the many,person as a witness they must first the subordinates and the younger-ounce that "so and so" i dis- s members should be heard first.qualified, otherwise he may bring This carries out the commandmenttestimony. The reason for this is that of our verse, "Thou shalt not answerthe person in question might have according to the 31 , "the old- .repented. Where a person repents it er."must be clear that he will not sell his The judge should not be influencedsoul for money as for instance in by another member of the tribunalregard to one who is not meticulous who may be a greater authority, norabout kosher because traifa is should h a b e ixduencedbe-cause thecheaper, or the finder of a lost article majority opinion seems to be a g dwho will not return same. his own. He mcry not vote according to the opinion of any of the judges 76th C O h d M A N D ~ unless by his own mentul processes, THE VERDICT he himself arrives a the same con- t clusion. If any p r of the lcrw is not at The 76th Commandment bids us, to him he should not say, "I "Thou s h d t not follow the majority rely rtpan o h m " o "urn r to do evil," (Exodus, Chapter 23, and so, who is a greates authority Verse 2). In other words if the court tw event he say, of 23 judges who decide capital pun- l1fdo not b w , "and &judgeishment cases voted 12 guilty and 11 must $e s W t u t e d for that pmticu-not guilty, we do not follow a ma- fa case,jority of one in such cases. However, Wha a judge starts h i -n ofor good we may follow the -ng the judges, in b t z h d ofeven of one. (Mechilta) The detailed the - , he wlaws concerning this cm - o mt h i up cgp-9may be found in the 4th chapter o f " r pit" aguhit #heds- bthe Talmud Sanhedrin. lemdpnt. The Torah wants crrp h r as
    • possible to help the defendant. Fur- 78th thermore, when the judges get to- TEE MAlORITY LAW gether to discuss the case they begin The 78th Commandment reads first to look for the merit o the de- f "incline after the majority." (Exodus fendant. 23:2) In all cases, (excepting those of The judge must not blindly follow Capital Punishment,) it is a Biblical his associate but he should under- command to follow the majority even stand the intricacies o the case and f of one. o the laws concerning it. Fur if one f The question may be asked "Why judge depends upon another we will doesnt Israel follow the mqority o f not have 23 judges but 2 or 3 or 4. the world?" The answer is that it G-d did not want capital punishment would be proper if the world had a cases to be decided by the judge- law equally a s divine a s our Torah, ment of one or a few judges. How- for "One with G-d is a majority." ever, in regard to civil cases this The purpose of the mqority law is procedure is not follo-.ved. Any one to establish order in society, other- of the judges may begin the discus- wise there would be anarchy. Every sion and one can rely upon another. one could say, "I interpret the lcrw The reuson for this is that in case a my way," and so we would have as mistake is made, then the money many Torahs a s there are people. can be returned to the proper party, Typical of this state o society is the f but in case of capital punishment i f Biblical period of the Judges, the the wrong decision is rendered we Dark Age o Scripture, when, "Every f cannot bring the defendant back to one did that which was right in his life. own eyes." (Last verse o the Book f I d l the 23 judges should unani- f o Judges). f mously decide that the defendant is There is a Jewish saying that i f guilty then the law is that he is freed two say you are drunk go to sleep. because it shows that there was not in other words man must discipline enough concentration given to the his mind and stop protesting against case.I one of the judges in his dis- f the mqority. It is possible that thecussion began to find the defendant majority can decide wrongly, in that guilty and he became dumb or died case the judges are to bring the s n i then another judge is to substitute offeringbut not the individuals who for him. carry out their decisions. All these matters are discussed indetail in the 7th chapter o the Tal- fmud Sanhedrin. As-a rule the judges were always The 79th Commandment directsmen, however, we hcrve the B l e the judge, "Neither shalt thou count-giving the possible exception of De- enance a poor man in his cause."borah, the prophetess. Some say that (Exodus 23, Verse 3). It is a marvel-she was actually a judge; others say ous tribute to Israel t a we have to htthat she acted "us" a judge giving b& warned aguinst being patidadvice and mumd to the &e to the poor. I the judge wants to fbui rimer handed down decisions. exercise pity let him take a dokc This oom-t cbn08-g out of his packet and give it to thecams o ccrpitai punhdmmt V f p~or and not the other htiguntonly to Westism. C l d Of +he hM g to do so, when the law does notLand we d o not permit pun- ~ t i t . W t w r n b j u d g e L ~ishamst. uprmtoremka -ofk ~ w ,
    • he must not be influenced by ex- When he is paid the mitzvah begins. traneous considerations. I we pervert Otherwise he may say, "I do not f judgement the poor man will think want your pay and I do not want to that he is right and the money is due help." No, he must help. This law to him. The fundamental purpose of refers to males and females alike this law is that judgement must be and he who transgresses it breaks a meted out truly and properly. positive commandment and is very cruel. He who does not show mercy 80th COMMANDMENT in such cases is not a fit person to HELPING ONES ENEMY receive mercy from Hewen. The 80th Commandment reads, "If 8 1st COMMANDMENT thou seest the ass of thy enemy ly- ing under his burden, thou shalt Impartiality Towards The Wicked surely help him." Exodus 23:4. Al- The 81st Commandment bids us, though the Bible says elsewhere, "Thou shalt not wrest the judgment "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in of the poor in a cause." Exodus, thy heart," our commandment refers Chapter 23, Verse 6. This refers to to one who is committing a trespass the case where the man is poor in and is rebuked privately and is good deeds. It cannot mean one who warned not t repeat the same crime is poor in money. It is self-evident o but nevertheless repeats it. Such a that the Scriptures do not want us to person is inimical. The purpose of b e unjust to the poor and steal from this commandment is to train us to him because he is poor. Therefore be merciful even against the sinner. we must conclude that this refers to Certainly we are to h w e mercy one who is poor in deeds, who is upon him, when he is fatigued, but wicked. The judge then is not to say our commandment goes one step to himself, "I will wrest judgement further and says that one must help against him," for we must remember him even when his money or things that God will take care of him. Thus are involved. Thus we are bidden we read in the Mechilta, "If the wick- to have mercy upon the cmimal and ed man should stand before thee to s w e it for hlm. The law is that on trial be careful not to scry to i one meets his friend and enemy, yourself, "I will get even with the f and they are both heavily burdened wicked man and give the good man he should first help the enemy and the decision." then hs friend, so as to conquer his own inner hostility. In this case the The purpose of this commandmentenemy is not one who transgresses is to show that when justice is to bea commandment but one with whom meted out it .must be fair unto d,he is unfriendly. He is to g o along regardless of their reputution forfor a short distance with the man wickedness or righteousness.and the animal helped, thus makingsure that the burdens were properlyplaced. In removing a heavy burdenfrom the animal, this must be donewithout pay, because to remove theload is a mitzvah involving .~gu One must be exceedmgly careful Pwn 3~3 "mercy towards a not to execute any defendant uponcreature". In loading ,the animal, circumstantial evidence, no matterthere is no question o f V Y how w e n t the defendants guilt orcn $93 "mercy to the animetl appears to be. A axe in pointand one is to be paid for his help. is given in the Mechilta as follows,
    • "If an Israelite saw another pursuing thou shalt not slay." The defendant his neighbor to slay him and warned is regarded as righteous when his him that i you slay this man you case is dsmissed by the judges. We f will be slain, thereupon the witness see how the Torah is anxious at all happened to turn his eyes aside for times to make every provision for a moment and did not actually see leniency for the defendant. G d does the defendant when he slew the per- not want innocent blood spilt. In ad- son now lying dead, or better still dition there is always a chance for found the party slain in his death repentance and for regret on the agony and the sword in the hand part of the defendant for the crime of the defendant dripping with blood. which he may have committed. Surely one might think this defend- Our Torah wants us to understand ant is certainly guilty, therefore does that i there be any doubt, it is bet- f our commandment say And the ter to acquit a guilty person, than innocent and the righteous slay thou to punish through capital punish- not. (Exodus 23, Verse 7)." Our law ment. Let us always remember that does not take any assumption as suf- "the guilty will not escape punish- ficient unless the witness actually ment at the hand of G-d even i the f scrw the defendant killing the third human tribunal fails to inflict it," as person.-Only thine eyes shall swear we read in the concluding words of for you. our Commandment "And I will not The law further has it that one justify the wicked." eye-witness in capital punishment cases is insufficient. There must be 83rd COMMANDMENT at least two witnesses. This excludes BRIBERY a case where one saw a crime from The 83rd Commandment says to one window and another from an- the judge,-"Thou shalt take no gift other window and it was impossible (bribe)." (Exodus Chapter 23, Verse for the witnesses to see each ~ t h e r . 8). The judge is not to take any gift The two witnesses must see the even i he will decide honestly and f crime at the same time and must truthfully. Namely, to judge the in- be able to see each other. However, nocent innocent, and the guilty guil- the testimony of these two eye-wit- ty. The Bible is meticulously careful nesses is considered valid (even i in regard to justice, for one who f they do not see each other), when accepts a gift which was intended they see a third person who warns as a.bribe, is apt to misinterpret the the defendant not to kill and cau- text of the l w books. He then be- a tions him i he does, he will be slain. comes unconsciously an interested f The Rabbis say in the Talmud party instead of a neutral one. He that if a defendant has been found becomes oblivious to the real mean- guilty he must have a re-trial when- ing of the text of the law and un-ever substantial evidence is forth- wittingly sees only that point of viewcoming, carrying out the letter and which he is eager to find therein.spi~qt of our commandment "And Thus does our commandment go onthe innocent shall not be skm." On to say, "For the gift blindeth the wisethe other hand i there has been an and perverteth the words of the facquittal, and someone came along righteous." The purpose o this com-fand wanted to show the defendant mandment which forbids us to takeguilty, here cannot be a re-trial car- bribes or gifts even though we meanrying o t thui gmt of our command- to judge honestly and properly i to u sment which says "And the righteous remove from our midst the possibil-
    • ity o the judge deciding unjustly be- f ing, the proprietor, the semcmC and cause o the unconscious influence f the stranger al had equal r g t to l ihs o the gift or bribe. "A bribe has an f the produce. (See Leviticus, Chapter insidious power; it will tend to shut 25, Verse 6) This lcrw applied to the the eyes o the judge to what he f vineyard, to the olive trees, cold to would have otherwise seen, and will al the products o the e d , h i t s l f inevitably corrupt him." or vegetables. In this mmmandment Our Rabbis point out that not only is included the additional injunction is the taker o the bribe but the giver f not only not to take the produce of equally guilty in trespassing this the land during the seventh gear, but commandment. The giver because also not to work it, so that it may it is written, "Thou shalt not put a rest. The purpose of this command-stumbling block before the blind," ment is to impress with theand the receiver because it is writ- thought o the renew4 ~f creation. ften, "Cursed be the one who takes Just as on the SabM, Ed rested a bribe." The bribe must be re- and did not create anything, so weturned. Not only a bribe in money or are to count six years, a d on thematerial things is forbidden but even seventh year the land is to rest, in-that o flattery. One is forbidden to f dicating that during that whola yearreceive or to listen to, a bribe in the land itself does not produce. Themere words. The only payment Atheist is self-contradictory. He sayswhich the judge may receive is for that the world is. There is and washis time. He is to receive from both no Creator. This is as: e (to usepurties the iike amount due him. the classic philosophic example) asOther details concerning this com- it is to pour out a b o t h o ink on fmandment may be found in the Tal- a piece of paper and b r e b y havemud Sanhedrin. These laws pertain a letter written thereon. This wouldto all places and to ull times. b e a miracle; but the Atheist does not M e v e in miracles. 84th c B M MM T O B A ) W There is no other Master o thef TME SABBATKAt YEAR universe but G d . He is h e Ruler of the sun, the moon, the stars, the The 84th Commandment bids us mountains, and all nature. He canto make public property of every- declare the earth in a state of rest,thing that the earth produces in the t~ become public property, or Heseventh year, as the Bible puts it in can allow t e soil to bring forth its hExodus, Chapter 23, Verses 10 ctnd produce. Thus we say when we eat11, "And six years thou shalt sow breadthe land and gather in the fruits 031Pil 7% 1333~ i l ftrtR 1173thereof. The seventh year thou shctlt nn;? ah9 R - Y I ~ S ~ ~ inlet it rest and lie fallow so that the "Blessed art Thou, 0 Lord, our God,poor of thy people may eat, cmd who cause& bread to be broughtwhat they leave the beast o the field f forth from t e eurth." lSsiti feads to hshall eat." You will note that w e n trust and faith in God. You win notethe beasts of the field arcs not for- that as a mat& Of.&.3 ff28 ruralgotten. communities who dmw fkeir living f n c m ~ a r y y e m , t h e p o o r ~f s m t h e e c t r f h a r e a s a d e ~ d igather up the gleanings as d a religious. sthe comers o ttre fields w W am f In the SabMd m, lz6t odyto be left llnmcpd (See Levi- m e we p h i h i t & horn $Q* andChapter 19, Verse 7). h tSms Sab- h o r v b g but aLso h i n~calygeatherewasno- o r e w n g warts froan r
    • All these acts help the growth o the vides, we can observe the Sabbath. f coming year. We were to do nothing I we seek a higher standard o liv- f f but to have faith and trust in Al- ing than that which the Lord in His mighty God that the next year would wisdom has in mind for us, then we bring forth the proper produce. What go out and break the Sabbath. a marvelous people! What great The law of the Sabbath is restated strength of character we displayed. here, in order to emphasize also its Mind you, we saw our neighbors humanitarian teaching, namely, that fields being worked, producing for a we are not only to rest ourselves, but whole year, and yielding financial to keep closed on the Sabbath for returns whilst our fields were fallow, complete rest for the servant, the and not worked upon during that stranger, and even the animal. period. Thus we may ask "Who are the mighty?" We may find the 86th COMMANDMENT answer in the words of the Psd- Taking am Oath by an Idol - - mist, who declared, "They are the The 86th Comandment reads, "And mighty who fulfill His word," (Psalm make no mention of other gods." 103, Verse 20.) During the Sabbatical Exodus, Chapter 23, Verse 13. We year we were to spend the time in cannot serve G-d and another deity observing the Luw, in Holy medita- at the same time. In celebrating holi- tion and in faith. We were not per- days connected with idols or idolat- mitted in any way to employ any rous practices, we are transgressing legal fiction whatsoever, that might this commandment, because we rec- tend to &ow us to work or improve ognize thereby the existence of an- our fields. For other details of the Laws, read commandment 44 timesmentions this other G d . The Bible which shows the Talmud "Shveeis." These laws how strongly any relationship, with were, and are, to be carried out, both by male and female. They were idolatryPeor, or B d , or Nebo,B i l e is forbidden. When theenforced when Israel dwelt in the others, they are mentioned in and names dis-Holy Land, and are to be observed gust, because of the immoral and when 1 - shall be autonomous ugly way in which they are served.there again. This law pertains to all places and 45th r O C- to all times, to males and females. Sabbath-Work, and the Worlrer Anyonewho transgresses this com- The 85th Commandment bids us mandment and swears not only by rest from all work on the Sabbath. an idol but by any created things. Six days shalt thou do thy work and like the sun, the moon or the planets, on beseventh day thou shalt resf. is punished by flogging. This is one Thine ox and thine ass may have of the three exceptions where suchrest, and the son o thy hand-maid punishment is meted out for a viola- fand the stranger may be refreshed," tion of a negative commandment,(ExcMtus, Chapter 23, Versfs 12). This where no positive act was per-c o m a d m e n t i r e p a i d twelve formed. stimes in the Bible. The Bible wantsto have us understand that t e Sab- hbath is h e key-stone and the found-atian. .of f i h $earuse it, (the Sab- at, The 87th Commandment reads usbcrtfi), jmpbes read cad genuine be- follows: " T k ye heed and make aelief in 0-d. U we wcmt ta live ctc- no meation o the ms o other f e fc c m $ m g . t a t h e ~ W . G d p r a - gods nor let it be heard out of &y
    • 88th Gommundment mouth," (Exodus, Chapter 23, Verse Sanhedrin, Chapter 10. 13). Although we may not serve them the very mention of their name 88th COMMANDMENT is forbidden. One who persuades a n The Hagigah individual to idolatry is called a The Holy Dcty Offering nDD a n d one who persuades The 88th Commandment reads: a community is called RT3 "Three times thou shalt keep a feast This commandment is repeated 44 unto me in a year". (Exodus, C h a p times in our Torah, to show how ter 23, Verse 14) This refers to the grave it is to violate it. Where one three pilgrimages which every Israe- misleads a community of a t least lite h a d to make to the Sanctuary 100 people the great Sanhedrin of or to the Temple before Passover, Jerusalem oi 71 judges tries the case Pentecost a n d Tabernacles. The cel- a n d the sinner if found guilty, is ebration of the festival entailed the stoned a n d his property is burned. bringing of a "Hagigah," a holiday However, in the case of a persuader offering, which involved appearance of one or a few, his property is not before the Lord, a d rejoicing. Re- burned. He is tried only before a joicing is always synonomous with court of 23 judges. We have a gen- the eating of meat. When one eral principle in our law that in alI brought an offering, the act inspired cases there can b e no agent for sin. the glver a n d uplifted him. It is our However this case is a n exception experience that when one is a work- because the very coaxing a n d per- er for a n d a contributor to a cause, suading is a sin, even if the per- it becomes dear to h m a n d tends suader does not serve the strange to elevate him. We have seen this god. The Blble describes G-d in these particularly in regard to the work cases as a zealous or a jealous G-d. for Yeshivos, Talmud Torahs, and When we suffer w e attribute it to Synagogues. When some people a t the jealousy, or zeal of G d which is first become interested they may be the way man would speak, as the quite distant from the faith. Later Rabbis say, "The Torah speaks ac- they become so inspired that they cording to the expressioi of man- not only become more pious but kind." It is we who suffer beccruse their lives a r e fuller a n d they feel of our foolishnes which w e describe the responsibility of "noblesse obli-as the jealousy of G-d. Why should ge". They become exemplars. The G-d be jealous of Hs own creatures? i laws of the commandment a r e asIf He is really jealous He can destroy follows: There mav be one or therethem in a moment. He can paralyze may be many offerings. There is nothe foot before it bows to the idol limit. There is no substitute or equi-or make ihe mouth dumb before it valent for the sacrificial offering. Ifpronounces its name. It is m a n who one did not bring the offering on thereally destroys himself. If man bows first d a y h e may make good b yto a strange god, his foolishness will bringing it on a n y of the seven daysbring him to be misled a n d pun- of the holiday, except that he mustished. The law forbidding us to wor- be in Jerusalem b y the first day.ship or to mention the name of false These commandments were carriedgods pertains to every place, to al l out only in Temple times and b ytimes, to male a n d female alike. adult males, excepting those whoWherever the community is misled, were Iume, blind, sick or old. Thoughthe misleader is tried only in the it was not obligatory upon a womanHoly Land. For further defctils am- to go, nevertheless those who coddcerning these laws see the Talmud accompany their husbands, were
    • 90th Commandmentcertainly permitted to do so, as did that w e cannot do justice a n d fullyHannah a n d Peninah. In the fulfill- enjoy a n d b e inspired properly withment of this commandment (which the performance of a n y one of themeant the homes were guarded only commandments if it is muddled withby the women), we have a striking another.demonstration of perfect trust in Di- The laws of the commandment a r evine protection. that the Paschal Lamb must b e One who transgressed this com- slaughterad before noon, a n d of-mandment broke two command- fered after. midday. The other detailsments, one a positive a n d the other concerning this commandment a r ea negative, the positive command- found in the Talmud "Pesachim".ment being to bring an offering, a n d These rules pertained to Templethe negative commandment not to times a n d referred to male a n d fe-appear empty handed. male. Anyone who transgressed this commandment a n d consciously left 89th COMMANDMENT over in his domain a n y leaven bread The Slcmghtering of the Paschal (as large as a n olive), whilst he Lcrmb. and the Removal o the Cho- was bringing or slaughtering or per- f mete forming a n y of the rituals in con- The 89th Commandment reads, nection with the paschal offering, "Thou shalt not offer the blood of was to b e punished with lashes. my sacrifice with leaven bread." So also anyone of the group who (Exodus, Chapter 23, Verse 18). Our was to eat of the Paschal offering Rabbis explain this to mean that b y a n d left "Chometz" over in his house the time it was customary to offer the was to b e punished with lashes.Passover sacrifices, that is a t noon,on the 14th d a y of Nissan, all leaven 90th COMMANDMENTbread must have already been re-moved from the house a n d de- The 90th Commandment bids usstroyed. In other words where there not to leave the entrails of the pas-is "chometz", "leaven bread," rep- chal offering until the morning. Leav-resenting self-inflation, you cannot ing any offering beyond its properbring the paschal sacrifice, which time is called lnlf as it isrepresents humility. In addition to written in Exodus, Chapter 23, Versethis explanation there is another, 18 "And neither shall the fat of mywhich serves as a general rule in sacrifice remain until the morning."Jewish law and life, namely never The p u r w s e of this commandment isto perform two Mitzvehs or com- to bring home the lesson of punctu-mandments a t the same time. Be- ality. The sacrifice is only properfore w e bring the Paschal Lamb ush- when it is brought a t the time ap-ering in the Passover holiday, there pointed for it. If one fails to bring itis to be no other commandments a t the appointed time it shows neg-incumbent upon u s a t the same time, lect, When one is really interestedas for instance, the removal of the h e keeps his appointments promptly."chometz". This must be performed This is sonething that d of us ought 1before we offer the pctschal I d . to take to heart. We are as a rulelust as the Rabbis say we may not derelict in regard to punctuality. Itm x one joy with another, as for is an evidence of being lackadaisic- i61[5pk, .not to have a wedding on al or foiling to take our duties seri-a h&day, so too we may not carry ously. The habit of coming I d e isout one mimi.t;lvah together with an- also a n evidence that our word isother, The thought being, -1 t u b it, not our bond. If each and every one
    • o us wouid take care o our respect- f f The greatest joy one can have is ive promises, this wofla would not to see the fruit o his endeavors ripen f be in a war today. We are surprised or his investments bringing results. that Hitler breaks his word. O f This causes us to recognize that G-dcourse his broken word or promise wants us to enjoy all the blessingsmeans destruction for many. In our in the world, and to confess that al lindividual relationships our broken good comes from Him.word or promise may bring unhap- The first fruits were brought frompiness to a friend, a child, a wife, or Shevuoth until Succoth. I they were fa husband. It may bring a break of brought in a wooden basket, thecredit in business and faith in hu- basket remained with the Cohan, ifman relationships. This is why our in a g o l d ~ none, it remained withreligion, especially orthodox Juda- the owner. This has given rise per-ism, is so particular about this or haps to the expression, "Wealth goesthat commandment or ceremony. Its to wealth." The fruits were not to b epurpose is to impress upon us a mixed one with the other but theyrealization of the need for a puncti- were to be brought sepamtely. Theyliousness behind every promise could be divided by reeds or leavesmade or every obligation under- separating one species from thetaken. other. Sacrifices of turtle doves a s It is not the sacrifice that is uplift- well as young ones were broughting but the mentaI approach we together with the first fruits and thenbring to the offering. This is really verses from the Scriptures were sungthe secret of the moral life. The for the occasion.entrails o each "korbon" or offer- f All this was customary duringing were brought separately. Temple times among the male popu- The observance o this command- f lation and with the fruits o Pal- fment in all its details was carried estine, Syria and Trans-Jordcmia. Weout only by the priests and during also note here, the idea t a we are htTemple times. not to mix one mitzvah with another, one species with another or one joy 91at COMWUDIAaENT with another. Unity, and singlernind- The Law o the F i i Fnrito f edness o purpose seem to be t e f h The 91st Commandment deals with scheme of Creation. (See Mishah the law of the first fruits, as we read Bik kurim). in Exodus, Chapter 23, Verse 19. He who transgreased the law of "The choicest first fruits o thy l m d f the first fruits violated a positive shalt thou bring unto the House o f t e Lord, thy G d . " These were giv- hen to the Priest. BiblicaIIy g - m a d-the first fruits were those of the seven ~T~~species for which the Holy Land i s T b &d Ckmmcmdtment reads C S Ipraised, a we read in Deuteronomy, s follows: "Thou W t not boil a kidChapter 8, Verse 8, "A land of wheat in its m o t h milk". (Exodus, Chapand burley and vines (grapes) crnd te?r 23, Verse 19). This is the basisfig trees and pomegranates; a land of the krw thclt meat d milk musto olive trzes and honey." Those near f not be befled . - tto f e d e m brought the first fruits ? feurish krifh is & & h G uniquei their fresh date. Those who lived n in the fact Zficrt its practical dtzb&~a a great distance would t them are M m e i the light ofmod- ndried (so that they would not rot) e m kraodedrge!, centwhs aiaml ;then bring them. & , r i d i d 4neglect. Plred -
    • srlth-~onmwndment 53 recent example of this occurred when as we read "Thou shalt not make the Iafe Arthur Brisbane in one of any covenant with them" (Exodus his famous columns written shortly 23.32) Israel is warned against re- before his death, pointed out that it sorting to expediency a t the expense took thousands of years for doctors of principle, and against making al- to discover that it was injurious to liances with these inhabitants of Pal- m x milk with meat, although the estine in order to gain political i Jewish people had known it from strength. This they are told will prove tune immemorial. At a conference a mistake, a disappointment, a snarl heid recently among physicians in and a source of weakness. The histo- London not only were the Jewish ry of King Solomon with his well- Dietary Laws accepted as scientifi- intention& alliances and marriages, cally correct, but also the question the tolerance he granted to the vari- of allowing a certain number of ous kinds of idolatry he came in con- hours to elapse after eating meat tact with, and the national misfor- and before consuming milk foods tunes which followed this course of was commended. action, are striking testimony to the It is interesting to note that the everlasting truth of these verses. Bible does not use the term 9f 7 which means "goat" but PT 972 IY 94th - c which means the flesh of a n animal. THE IDOLATOBS There are many reasons given for this commandment. ~ ~ scienced The 94th Commandment prohibits ~ ~ ~ l says fiat the mixture of meat and ue from allowing idolators to dwell in milk substances represents an a- the Holy Land as we read "They cumulationof too many voteins. shall not dwell in thy land lest they is interesting to note the statement makethee sin against me, for if thou of ~ ~ ~ whodsaid, ~N ~ hbene- serveth~their gods it will surely be e ~ h fit arising from the many inexplica- a snare unto thee". (Exodus 23:33) Ifble - 1 of ~~d is in their one is willing to leave idolatry he isand not in the of their permitted to dwell in the Holy Land.motives." Such a person is called 2rptn 13 his commandment is mentioned which m w he is a proselyte, whot h times in the Bible, (1) in our may dwell in the Holy h d . Theverse (2) in ~ ~ chapter 34,d idolators were asked to accept the ~ ~ ~ ,V - 26 and (3) in buteronomy, seven fundamental Noachian lawsChupter 14, verse 21. These three which all mankind are expectedm b n t s repr-nt three pro- embrace. These laws areuiwm, (1) to meat 4 milk ingre- uw Genesis, Chapter 26, Verse 16:di- being boiled togethe, (2) to (1) Mankind i to be under the do- sprohibit the sing & & ma minion law, 12) Not t~ blasphemesubstan- toge~er and (3) to pro- God, (3) Not to serve idols, (4) Not&it us having any from to commit murder, (5) Not to commitsuqh a mixture. adultery, (6) Not to rob, (71 Not to e t a limb from a living mimd, a =-d (Talmud Sunhedrin, 56B). The idol- lBEsEVEHN11~ ator was allawed to h e a store 93d m e a t b * us i the Holy Land,but not a PUP of nnot to make a m ~ m with t them, for they be s e e d ofseven Mi-, t i , fifth CO~W activities. s t-%+ These Lcws o cmme were perti- fGtes* G , m n t only far thr! Holy Land but rrot
    • for the countries outside of the Holy and for the table and their place in Land, not even Syria. the "Haychal" is described in the 95th COMMANDMENT Talmud Menachos and Yoma. This To Build the Temple or the Sanctuary commandment is not obligatory upon any individual, but to a committee The 95th Commandment bids us to charged with the responsibility of build a House of Worship, as it is building the Temple. written "And they shall make unto me a sanctuary that I may dwell 9 i COMMANDMENT 6h among them." The call for the build- THE STAVES OF THE ARK ing o the sanctuary was addressed f to Moses on the Day o Atonement f The 96th Commandment reads as after God had already forgiven Isra- foIIows, "The staves shall be in the el for having made the golden calf. rings o rhe ark; they shQ11 not be f Originally there was not to be an taken from it". (Exodus, Chapter 25, especially reserved place for divine Verse 15.) The Staves or the poles worship, a s we read in Chapter 20, were placed through two rings of verse 24, "In all places where I al- gold on each side o the ark. The f lovr my name to be mentioned, I will poles were made o Acacia wood. f come unto thee and bless thee." But They were to remain therein at al l after the Israelites made the golden times, because the Ark was to be calf, thereby demonstrating the hu- ready to be removed at any time, man need for something tangible, without any delay. From this we God made a concession to their may derive the lesson that one weakness ond commanded that an should be so efficient in the arrange- imposing Tabernacle be built and ment o his life and o his habits o f f f that vessels and ceremonials be used living, that a change in ones condi- as visible and concrete means by tion should not prove a hindrance or which to kring out the spiritual in an impediment to the study and the us. The sanctuary was used for the observance o the Torah. f offering of the saQifices and for the peoples reunion on the pilgrimage 97th C 7 holidays. This pilgrimage is called THE SHOWBBEAD an "Aliyah," an ascension. Every- The 97th Commandment bids us one, the Israelite, the Priest and the "And thou shalt put upon the Table Levite, would be inspired spiritually showbread before Me always". Exo- as he approached and entered into dus, Chapter 25, Verse 30. Man lives Gods Holy House. by bread. Because o our zeal in car- f God chose Palestine, the Holy rying out this commandment was our Land, for his Temple because it is sustenance blessed. This is the spir- the center of the world artd Jeru- itual law of measure for measure. salem, because it is t e center o Because we observed the command h f the central country o the world to bring the l i o n offering of water f showing preference for the golden on Tabernacles we were blessedmean with rain Because we brought the Further details concerning the Orner on Passover so in turn was ourbuilding o the Temple and alI of its bread blessed. When we blow the fmeasurements and the building of Shofar. the Rams horn, so in tunthe altar and al its laws are ex- does Gud reme* l unto us &aplained i n the Talmud Mddos, merit of the sacrifice o Isaac, (01 f"Measurements". The design for the which the Shokxr is the m e n n d .Menorcth and for the golden altar The High West d the
    • 98th Commandment 55 of the service for the week as well nating from it, were all meant to as those who were about to serve for leave a n indelible impression upon the coming week were given a piece body a n d soul, as to God, the Giver of the showbread. Although each of all bread, a n d prosperity emanat- one ate of it as much as the size of ing therefrom. Thus in our daily pray- a bean, nevertheless h e was sated. ers we thank God not merely for lov- This w a s d u e to the fact that the ing-kindness, but for that which is for satisfaction in performing the M t - our good. As for instance, God may iz vah strengthened him. Similarly d o give us inoney which may cause us we note on Saturday afternoon, a t to b e haughty or to cause us to dissi- the Seudah Shlee-Shis, where we pate. Such loving-kindness is not eat a piece of bread a n d fish a n d for our good. This is also true in are sated. This is d u e to the joy in regard to :he Rosh Chodesh prayer. the performance of the Mitzvah A number of petitions are contained which seems to satisfy us even phy- in the prayer, but w e close with the sically. Thus the commandments, word," i131Bj that all these were given not for Gods sake but for petitions should b e for our "good". our own, to strengthen a n d to ele- Further details concerning the vate us a n d to give us spiritual joy laws of the showbread are to b e a n d contentment. found in the 11th chapter of the The Showbread is described more Talmud Menachos. These laws were in detail in Leviticus, Chapter 24, extant, of course, in Temple Times. Verses 5 to 9. It consisted of 12 loaves (of fine flour) corresponding 98th COMMANDMEMT to the number of the tribes of Israel. Keeping the It was laced on the Table on the Perpetucrl Lights in OIder Scrbbcrth arranged in two rows, on The 98th Commandment bids us six shelves each. They were left to take care of the perpetual lights, there until the following Sabbath. as it is written in Exodus, Chapter These six shelves were one above 27, Verse 21, "Aaron a n d his sonsthe other so that the air could cir- shall set it in order". The reason for culate through them, leaving the these continual lights in the Taber- bread fresh all the time. Every Sab- nacle a n d in the Temple was to bath the bread w a s removed. When beautify a n d to enhance reverenceit was removed each week, it was and respect. This is the customarymoved gradually from its place way of showing honor. When it iswhilst the new ones were replacing dark, w e get a cramped feeling.the old ones, in order to fulfill the When it is light it is spacious. Whencommandment in our verse "It (the a man walks through a dark roomshowbread) shall b e before Me al- h e walks with measured tread. I h e fwcrys". Near e a c h o n e of these rows is to pass through the same roomthere was placed a golden cup in when it is light h e is no longerwhich there was a handful of frank- cramped a n d confined to his narrowincense, as w e read in Leviticus, steps. The whole room becomes larq-Chapter 24, verse 7, "Thou shalt put er. So our rabbis repeat at all times,pure frankincense upon e a c h row". that God in His goodness gave USThe fragrance from the frankincense, His commandments not for His bene-was to serve us a spiritual refresh- fit, but for our own good, in orderment to the soul. that w e aay be impressed a n d be- The commandment o the show- come better men a n d women. fbread and the frankincense rxxom- The commandment to set the lightspanying it, cmd the fmngrqme e m - in order included also the task of
    • removing the ashes, which was to to perversion of justice. 2.-lhe b e done in the morning and in the EPHOD, which was an apron tied evening. When the oil was depleted, to the back, was to counteract ido- then the wick was removed and a kztry. In Hosea, Chapter 3, verse 4, new one was placed therein with we find the ephod with new oil. If the center light, which the idolatrous fetishes, as fo]lows: Ramban called the "Ner Maaravi", out a n image without a n ephod the "Western Light" went out, then without tercrphim0. 3.-Th it would be lit, not from its side ROBE with its ringing bells, was to lights, but from the fire of the outer counteract t a l e w i n g . 4.-The EM- altar. The other lamps would be BROIDERED COAT was to counter- l~ghtedfrom one another. I othern act bloodshed, reminding US of the words the wick would be bent over, story of Joseph and his brethren, as so as to receive light from the next we read i the Book of- Gnesis, n light, instead of bringing it light fromChapter 37, verse 31. "And they a strange fire. dipped the coat in the b l o o d . 5 - . The other details concerning the The MITRE, or c a p worn on the head laws of the lighting of the perpetual was to counteract arrogance. This lamps are explained in the fifth m q be the r-on for our wecrring Chapter of the Talmud Menachos of the hat. &--The GIRDLE,which is and in the Talmud Tamid. Of course placed against the hwrt, was to these laws pertained O ~ to the time Y counteract impurity of thought. 7 - . of the Temple and referred pnrticu- The GOLDEN PLATE on the forehead larly to the priests. Whoever trans- was to counteract impudence, as we gressed this law and did not set the in Jeremiah, Chapter 3, verse lamps in order according to the corn- 3. &-The BREECHES were to count- mandment violated a positive corn- eract immodesty, as it is said in yerse mandment . 42, "And thou shalt make thein linen breeches to cover their nakedness". 99TH COMMANDMENT V*ents The golden vestments were worn in the court, hut in the Holy of HO- The 99th Ccnnmandment speaks of lies, on the Day of Atonement, o d y the vestments of the Priests, as we linen vestments were worn, the 4 of read in Exodus, Chapter 28, Verse 2, the Plain Priest (Hedyot). The gold "And thou shalt make Holy gar- would serve as a n accusing agent, ments". a reminder of the service of the gold- The ordinary priest wore four vest- en cdf. &e failure to observe this ments, namely the embroidered coat, was punishcrble b ythe h e & , the ccrp and the girdle. excision from heaven:The High Priest wore eight garments.The mitre was in place of the cap 1ahof the ordinary priest. It was l k a ie ntiF.3ambmm41Pf:turban. The additional f u vestments or The 100th C o r ~ ~ ~ ~ a m b mus bids twere; the breastplace, the ephod,the "Not to loosen the Breastplate fromrobe and the golden plate. the Ephod." Exodus Chapter 28, The Rabbis in the Talmud Zeva- v e m 28, The Breastplate and thechim 88B say that each of these eight E p b d w m two o the eight gat- fgarments represented something ments o the High Prirrst. The Breust- fwhich all should shun. 1.-The plate was FJaced in froat, on theBREASTPLATE which. was placed heccrt, and the E p M in back. Theagainst the hectrt was to oount(itr%tct Ephad wus exactly like an oblongbias and m i w i h bad apron, but imteud o Wig worn in hc f
    • front, as an apron is, it was worn in for the head in the midst thereof, and back. Two woven and embroidered it shall not be torn." Exodus, C h a p suspenders were attached to the two ter 28, Verse 32. The robe was worn upper ends of the Ephod. These beneath the Ephod. It had no open- suspenders extended over the shoul- ing on the side. Since the opening ders and down the front as far as was at the top, he had to draw it the upper pcrrt o the Breastplate, to f over his head. The High Priest even which they were attached. On the in his dress was to command respect. upper part of the Ephod was a He who dressed him was to do so girdle which encompassed half o f with gentleness, awe and reverence. the circarnference of the body and O course this commandment pre- f was loined together with the Ephod. vailed only in Temple times and To this girdle two golden rings were referred to male and female. I the f attached, parallel to the two other tear was made intentionally the vio- golden rings, which hung from the lator received stripes. two lower corners of the Breastplate. The two golden rings on the right 102nd C- O and on the left sides of the High The Priests Priest were joined to the rings on the Were To Eat O The Offering f on the Breastplate opposite them by The Priests were commanded to threads o blue so t a it (the beast- f ht eat some meat from the sin and plate) might b e kept in position. guilt, offerings, as it is said, "And He who loosened the Breastplate they shall eat these things where- from the Ephod during the Service with atonement was made". Exodus, Chapter 29, Verse 33. The owners received stripes, since he violated a negative commandment. The pur- did not participate in the eating of pose o this commandment was to f these sacrifices. The eating on the show that everything was to be in part of the Priest was part o the forder in the Tabernacle or Temple atonement which the bringing o the fduring the Temple Service, even sacrifice was meant to accomplish.unto the vestments of the Priests. These sacrifices were calledThus the Breastplate was not to 0vp-1~w f p "The Holy of theshake hither and thither upon the Holies".chest of the Priest. It was to be set The Priests ate o these offerings f to invest these sacrifices with rever-in perfect order, like the setting ofa jewel. The laws of this commmd- ence. They were not to give of them to the dog or to any purchaser. Theyrnent, the workmanship of the Breast-plute and the Ephod, and further were to be treated with a sense of dignity and honor. They were to bedetails, are explained in the MishnahMidos, which deals with measure- eaten in a Holy place. The Priest wasm n s o the Tabernacle and d l its et f not to delay his eating, so that it -vessels and vestments. O course d l f should not become putrid and despi-this was carried out only in Temple cable. If be did not eat his portiontimes. It refers to male and female in the proper time he committed twowho may be guilty of moving the transgressions. 1- He did not eat itBreastplate from it setting. and 2- He did not cause the offering to be for an atonement, He is there- 101a fore punished be@ause of the d e b Th8~odtbsHighpri.rt in atonement which he caused. The 101st Corm;Mnrdzm3Rt b i s us bd As over against the sin and guiltnottatearthenesckoftherobeuf affwhgs, which are the r;r+rsr~m p tthe Mrgh Ridst, "&&dl hauui! abofd The holy o the holies, are the f
    • 104th Commcmdment Thanksgiving offering, the ram of called 773 rhen all the the Naarite, the peace offering, the peop!e would leave the Haichal, for first-born, the tithe of the cattle and it is written, "and no one shall b e the Paschal lamb. These were called in the Tent of the Congregation". 0-53 1 3 1 ~ 7 3 "Holy in a minor He would then cast the incense gent- degree". ly on the coais which were on the golden altar, prostrate himself and 103rd COMMANDMENT then leave. When the spices were THE LAW OF INCENSE crushed the priests sang. Singing The Priests were commanded to begets enthusiasm. As we sing, we offer the incense upon the altar twice work spaedier and the finished pro- daily, in the morning and evening,. duct is much better. It is interesting before the perpetual offering, (see to note that many large corpora- Exodus, 30, 7 and 8,) "And Aaron tions are now introducing- music in shall burn thereon incense and sweet their factories, during working hours. spices every morning," and offer the This has led to increased produc- incense, before dusk in the evening tion on the part of the worker. before lighting the lamp;. The cost of the spices was defrayed from the 104th COMMANDMENT shekel income. The r x e w r a t i o ~of THE Gowm ALTAR the incense and the actual offering The 104th Commandment bids us of it morning and evening were re- not to offer on the golden altar any- garded not a s two commandments thing but the daily incense, with but a s one. The purpose of this com- the exception of the sprinkling of the mandment was to enhance the glory blood on the d a y of Atonement, for of Gods House, to impress and bring it is written in Exodus, Chapter 30, reverence unto the heart of every Verse 9, "He shalt offer no strange worshipper. Of course unless a per- incense thereon". The incense re- son wants to be influenced and in- ferred to is the communal incense, spired no means will d o it. The bought from the half-shekel money spreading of the fragrance of the that every Jew brought into the Tem- incense, was as a refreshment to the ple treasury. One may question why soul. The fragrance was so great just incense was to b e brought on and so strong that one could sense the golden altar, or why for instance, it from Jerusalem to Jericho. The there were seven lamps on the Me- compound forming the incense con- norah and not eight. But if there sisted of 15 species, four are men- were eight lamps in the Candlestick tioned in the Torah, namely sweet we might ask why were there eightspices, stacte, onyscha and galba- a n d not nine. Therefore we acceptnum. (Exodus 30:34) The other eleven the revelation of the law of God.are mentioned in the Talmud. The Once we have a specific command-incense was made b y the High-Priest ment to b e performed in a definiteor any other Priest. The Priest was way we take it for granted that thechosen by lot to bring the offering Master Mind had a cleur purposeof the incense. He was not permitted and we are neither to add nor toto bring it again during his minist- subtract from the commandment. Toration, because he who burned the attempt to add, to subtract, or to byincense b e c a n e wealthy. Apparently to i m p r o e , would imply that God Iswealth was not to be amassed in one imperfect.family but, was to b e spread among The same question was raised in4.The priest was to take a heaping mother way and answered by Rcb-spoonful o incense. The spaon was bi jehuda Hdevi in the K u z d . f
    • "Why, for instance, in regard to the of Atonement). offerings, one, two, or more animak On the first of Adar announcement a r e used instead of three or seven or was made for the people to bring another number?" The answer that their half-shekel. The poorest of the the great philosopher gave was that poor was obliged to bring the when a doctor writes a prescription half-shekel. He was even to borrow he puts in that prescription a certain it from others or to sell one of his number of ingredients. When all the garments a n d give the half-shekel, different ingredients a r e put togeth- "And the poor shall not give less to er, they make their d u e imprint upon make a n Atonement". The half-she- our bodies a n d cure us. So too in kel was given a t one time, a n d not in regard to the specific detaiis men- installments. All had to give, the tioned in the Bible, all of them put Priests a n d the Levites as well astogether in regard to a n y one com- the Israelites, the Proselytes, a n d themandment a r e the various ingredi- freed slaves. Women, slaves, a n dmandment, are the various ingredi- minors were not obliged to give. I fitually, mentally, a n d morally. they had money, however, a n d want- Our commandment refers particu- e d to give, they could do so. If thelarly to Temple times a n d to the person did not have the half-shekelPriests. He who would bring upon coin, but had loose coins, he was tothe altar anything else which might give a "kalbon" extra, so that in ex-b e worthy to b e sacrificed on any changing the coins for the half-altar in the Temple, nevertheless vio- shekel, the Temple treasury was notlates this commandment, a n d is to b e to have any loss.punished with stripes. If one failed to give the half-shekel he violated a positive commandment. 105th COMMANDMENT His punishment was great because The lcrw O The MiShelcel f he separated himself from the com- Every male 20 years a n d older munity a n d was not included in their was to give each year a half-shekel, atonement. whether he b e rich or poor, as w e Today it is customary for us to read in Exodus, 30:13, "This shall read the section concerning the com- they give" etc. The rich were neither mand of the half-shekel on the Sat- to be the object of contempt nor the urday preceeding Rosh Chodesh object of admiration. They were to Adar. O n Purim w e give money asbe on equal terms with their poor a memorial for the Half-shekel offellow-men. atonement. The half-shekel was deposited inme o the many chests in the Tem- f 1 6 h COImwUmMENT 0tp e This would support the daily i. Scmctification o fd holiday sacrifices, provide for the H n s and Feet adrepairs o the Tabernacle a n d Tem- f The difference between nwnpple, for the wood for the altar, for the "Kiddusha" "Sanctification", a n ds d t , for libation offerings used in n, TW ("tahara"), "purifica-connection with the sacrifices, for the tion", is that the former refers mere-showbreud a n d for the bakers there- ly to the washing of a part of theof; for the omer, the two loaves of body, such as the hands, before w ebread for the Pentecost offering, the eat, thus sanctifying ourselves be-red Heifer, the scapegoat, a n d the fore w e sit down a t the table. As ared thread which hung on the door matter o fact, some precede the fof the Temple (which the people m e t of orlVnfl*zst1359 by thewaited to see turn whits on-theday verse from the P h s w or.r- IHW ~ ~
    • "Raise your hands for Sanctification 107th COMMANDMENT a n d bless y e the Lord". ,mnt, The Luw Concerning "Purification", means immersing the ~AnohtbgOil whole body a t one time, as in the case of the ritual bath, the Mikvah. In Exodus, 30;25 we read "And Thus we purify ourselves in our mar- thou shalt make it a n oil of holy an- riage relationship. nointment; a perfume compounded with the art of the perfumer; it shall Every time the priests entered b e a holy annointing oil". The an- the Temple they were to wash their nointing of the Tabernacle a n d the hands a n d feet, as we read in Exo- vessels took place only once because dus, Chapter 30, Verses 19 a n d 20, in their service they had become "Aaron a n d his son shall wash their sanctified. This was to show majesty hands, a n d feet thereat; when they because it is kings a n d gr@ princes go into the tent of meeting they shall who a r e annointed. wash with water, or when they go The oil was not to b e made when near to the altar to minister". needed but was to be prepared a n d The purpose underlying this com- ready a t all times. The oil was made mandment was to enhance me res- from olive oil mixed with the fourpect for the House of God. Though spices, myrrh, sweet cinamon, sweet the priests were clean they had to calamus, a n d cassia (verse 23). g o through this ritual of sanctifica- The spices were crushed a n d boil-tion nevertheless. The Cohan did not e d in a hin of oil, to such a degreehave to do thls every time he minis- that the original amount of a hin tered in the T e m ~ l e . once in the remained.morning was sufficient. The Day of 108th COMMANDMENTAtonement is the only exception to The Eudusive Ues o fthis rule- when before each serv- T h e ~ ~ O i lice there was the ritual bathing. a b o v e we dealt with the positiveWhen the priests went out of the commandment to make the annoint-Temple a n d then returned, they had ing oil. N~~ we shall discuss theto be sanctified once It negative one restricting its use, ascustomary not to Put the hands into w e read, "Upon the fie& of manthe vessels but rather to have the it not be pouredu.( ~ 3:32) ~water poured over them. This t m i s The only ones to be amminted werea sign of more honor r s m . the High Priest, the Priest Chaplain, The Water used for this purpose who a ~ ~ ~ o u n c e d e read in as wcame from a spring or a pool. If the Book of Deuteronomy "He who i swater stayed overnight in a vessel, f a i n t - h m e d or in the first Y e a r ofit was unfit kausehcwe b;e- it mq- m d a g e sh0Uld r e t ~ m o w " , cold hcome stagnant. The Sanctification also the kings o the HOW of w i d . ftook place a follows: The Priest s The H& Ri-e~twas m o i n t e d Omr iwould reach down with hiis hands eY@ whilst the King a-toward his feet in a stonding ~ O S - nointed m h d - Each Highture. As a matter of f& all w d a Priest was annointed on bp~oht-i the Sanctuary was perfOTmed n me"t to his High of&-; but whesn awhilst standing, for it is said, "To King ~~~ his hkher hestand to serve". nut annoinkid. Since royalty wm If one~~ this m m d - rn ~ 3 g d obtained by inheritance there WCTS -on.ment he was punished by excisbm muison &at g O n h 0 Kings, 1,frum heaven. and f ; t b h f2 f i g s , 2 121 4 ,
    • J e h o a h a (2 IGngs, 23, 20) were an- 110th Ww I M N l mm E Tnointed w a s because there was o p We Are Not To Reproduceposition to their succession. As to TbelmCeamthe Kings of the ten tribes, they were In Exodus, Chapter 30, Verse 37not annointed with this oil but by a w e read, "And the incense thousubstitute prepared when needed. shalt make, according to the com-The prohibition concerning the use position thereof y e shall make forof this annointing oil is for all times, yourselves. It shall b e unto theeall places. He who would violate the holy for the Lord". In other wordsIaw intentionally w a s punished with the preparation of the incense fromexcision a n d if unintentiodly h e the same ingredients or of the samew a s to bring the sin offering. weight or of similar proportions for 109th COMMANDMENT private or profane use is forbidden. We Are Not To Reproduce The purpose of all this is to increase our reverence for the mitzvah. The Anoint* Oil The other details of this law a r e The 109th Commandment forbids explained in the fir# chapter of the 11:; making the same kind of annoint- Talmud Krisus. This commandment ing 011 as was made b y Moses as pertains to all places a n d to all we read in Exodus, Chapter 30, times, to male a n d female. He who Verse 22, "And acordlng to the com- purposely violated this command-position thereof neither shall y e make ment was punished with excisiona n y llke it". According to Rabbinic from Heaven, and h e who unwitting-tradition it was marvelous that this ly transgressed this commandmentannointlng oil which consisted ori- was to bring a sin-offering.ginally of only a "hin" (12 "lug" alug 1 a measure o 6 eggs full) s f 11lth COMMANDMENTproved to be sufficient for the an- P o IrE WINE RH r D3nointing of the Tabernacles a n d its The 111th commandment bids usvessels as well as Aaron a n d his not to e a t or to drink anything thatsons. Although. the succeeding High may lead to idolatry, as w e read inPriests a n d Kings were annointed Exodus, Chapter 34, Verse 15, "Lestfrom this same oil it was nevertheless thou make a covenant with the in-never exhausted. When King Josiah habitcnzts of the land a n d they g oanticipated the destruction of the astray after their gods, a n d d o sac-first temple h e hid the ark of the rifice unto their gods, a n d one callCovenant, the jar of manna, the staff thee, and thou e a t of his sacrifice".of Aaron, the ark the Phillistines The root of this commandment is tomade for the G d of Israei, and THE make u s distant from a n y matter rel-HIM OF OIL FOR CONSECRATION. ative to idolatry. W e are not allowedIn other words there is even enough to place anything before an idol foroil for the future. The same quantity the sake o showing it a n y honor or fthat Moses m a d e was never les- glory. W n of idolators which is iesened. Gods blessing went into this not ham to be used for idol wor-4. ship, is d e d P*PnD . Images This p h i b i t i o n ugcrinst r n u k i i me also f a r b i h unto us exceptthe annointing oil refers to all time if signs o annulment have been in- fand cdl p h c ~ t ~ mate and f e d . to dicated, as for instance, the noseHe who transgressed this emrunad- or m y part of the body is broken.merit intentioncdly Fsceivd s k i p , W n is singled out most strongly iecwdbwho because it i the chief 5ource ol their stionally was worship. A particular reference is
    • 114th Commandmentmade in Deuteronomy, Chapter 32, times, once prohibiting us from hav-Verse 38, "Who did eat the fat of ing any BENEFIT therefrom, secondtheir sacrifice and drank the wine from BOILING meat and milk pro-of their drink offering?" As soon as ducts together, and third prohibitingthe liquid drips, after the grapes are u s from EATING them together. Youpressed, it is wine. I a n Israelite f may ask the question-why doescomes in or out of the room occa- the Blb!e say you shall not eat thesionally where the wine is made mixture of meat and milk p~oducts,t h s supervision is sufficient to keep 1nr;tead of " thou shalt not (boil)the wine kosher. If one drlnks even them togelher." This prohibition isa drop of idolatrous wine to spite the different than others. In regard tolaw he receives stripes. In regard to others one is not guilty of breakinga n edible the smallest amount for- the law unless he derives pleasurebidden is that of the size of a n olive; from eating the forbidden thing,in regard to liquids a "revees" or % however in regard to the eating of alog, but as to anything idolatrous mixture of meat and milk productsthe smallest a m u n t is forbidden, as even i one has no pleasure there- fwe read in Deuteronomy, Chapter from but only consumes or swallows13, Verse 18, "And there shall-cleave it he violates the commandment andNAUGHT of the devoted t h g " . receives stripes. This is the reasonWherever a Biblical verse begins why the term is not employed be-with the words JB YDtPiI - ~ ( 7 cause eating means to partake ofa negative commandment is implied something for the sake of enjoyment.as in our verse which is the basis This law pertains to all places tofor our commandment "Lest thou males and females. Further detailsmake a covenant and d o sacrifice are given and explained in theunto their gods, and one call thee, Talmud Chulin.and thou eat of his sacrifice". There are some, however, who think of these laws merely a s hy- 1 W COMMANDMENT 1 gienic. This must necessarily be true,The Sabbatical Year For The Lcmd for the Lord is our physician, and any diet-laws which He prescribes This is a positive commandment must be for the health, longevity,concerning the Sabbatical year. The and well-being of those who live byland must rest every seventh year, them. Yet nowhere in the Bible doa s we read in Exodus, Chapter 34, we find health and cleanliness givenVerse 2 1. During the Sabbatical year as the reasons for the observance ofwe are commanded not to busy our- these laws. The Bible sums them upselves a t all with any work on the in the following words: "Ye shallfield. Previously in the 84th Com- therefore consecrate yourselves andmandment we discussed what was ye shall be holy".to be done with the produce of theland of the Sabbatical year. 114th COMbWHDMENT 113th COMMAND- fire c d the Sabbath m Not ta Ed Meat This commandment does not refer and Miik Products Tegeth%r merely to the makmg o a fire, be- f We are commanded not to eat cause the fourth of the Ten Com-meat and milk which are boiled to- mandments lays down the rule,gether, a s it is written "Thou shalt "Thou shalt not do any mcaner ofnot seethe a kid in its mothers milk". work on the Sabbath Day", which(Exodus, Chapter 34, Verse 261. This of course includes making a f r .This iecommandment is repeated three commcmdment refers especially to
    • the judges. They a r e not allowed to b e disturbed or to be found guilty to ~ u death by means of fire (or t of any wrong.- othbrwise) a n y -person on the Sab- bath. The death penalty of the Beth 115th COMMANDMENT Din (the court) does not supercede THE SACFUFICES the Sabbath, for it is written in our THE BURNT OFFERING verse "Thou shalt not kindle any fire in ALL THY HABITATIONS on Before we take u p the Sacrifices the Sabbath Day". The Rabbis fur- in detail, it would b e well to disciiss ther s a y in the Palestinian Talmud the general explanation for them. that no Courts are to b e held on the Originally, the Book of Leviticus Sabbath because the guilty will was the first book of the Bible the have no rest. What marvelous con- child was taught, when he began to sideration is thus shown to the wick- study the Scriptures. This was done ed, that they a r e not to suffer on the in order to impress upon him the word "Korban," which means sacri- Sabbath. In this way the Sabbath is fice. The idea was that once a child to b e observed not merely in our caught this spirit, it would be easier relationship of man to man. As a for him to remain loyal to his G-d- matter of fact there is a tradition that given faith, even when it entailed even G-d himself does not punish on making sacrifices. the Sabbath. For that reason w e d o The Rabbis observe that the Torah, not usher in the new week on Satur- though given a t the time when hu- day night until it is really dark so as man sacrifices were in vogue among to prolong the Sabbath d a y in be- the nations, forbids such sacrifices,half of the wicked. a n d permits the sacrifice of cattle The question may b e asked - if only. Not nlDil=ia 3 "all the cattle" 1w e are so considerate of the wicked however are eligible for sacrifices. why should he receive the death Out of the ten kinds of animals whichpenalty altogether? The answer is a r e permitted to b e eaten, (see thethat he is a danger to society a n d Book of Deuteronomy, Chapter 14,must surely b e removed out of its verses 4 a n d 5) only the domesti-midst. cated ones were allowed to b e taken Another reason for singling out fire for sacrifices, because the giving ofis to show that for each vioicrtion them was the real sacrifice.for work done on the Sabbath un- MAIMOMDES VIEWwittingly, a separate ?31? There a r e a variety of opinionssacrifice, or nNDn "sin offering" concerning the aims a n d purposes ofmust be brought. sacrifices. Maimonides, in his "Guide As I have in&cated above this for the Perplexed", Chapter 32, main-commandment shows that G-d wants tains that sacrifice was intended toeven the sinners and the guilty ones offset idolatry. This was deemdto find r s on the Sabbath. The fol- et advisable in view of the fad that thelowing illustrates this thought. A king Egyptians a n d Chaldeans amongstcalled his people together one day whom the Israelites were then so-for a feast a n d did not lxx anyone journing, worshipped cattle andfrom corning to the feast, a n d then sheep as gods. The Egyptians wor-pronounced judgment against them. shipped the astronomical lamb in theThe Holy One, Blessed be He, unlike Zodiac circle a n d the Chddeansthe mortal g i g , commmchtd us to worshipped demons, which weresanctify ourselves for the honor of represented b y goats. Therefore thethe Sabbath for our goad, a n d not lamb and the g o d were among
    • the three animals designated as the llMsEmmNones permissable for offerings. This The question may be asked whywas to serve a s a practical demon- should the animal suffer. My answerstration of the fact that the very ani- is that it seems to be the scheme ofmals which was regarded a s deities creation, to have a lower form serveby the idolators, were impotent, and a higher one. Emerson in his essaythat the Creator alone was to be on "Nature" said "a thing is goodworshipped. This was Maimonides only so far as it serves". Thus itview. appears that the minerals and the NACHMAMDES VIEW earth (the C011) serve the vege- But Nachmanides and a host of tables (the M9tY ). The vegetables other religious leaders of thought, serve the animal (the Vi ) and the object to this point of view concern- animals serve man (the 3 7 ). In 313 ing the sacrifices. They say that i f this connection it is interesting to the purpose of the sacrifices was note that in the realm -of medical mere!y to show the surrounding idol science, the rat, the dog, the rabbit worshippers how impotent their ani- and the other animals are used to m d gods were, what reason was experiment upon in order to discover there for Noah, who was alone in the cures and other physical benefits world with his three sons, or for Cain for man. and Abel, alone with Adam and Eve, The commandment concerning the to offersacrifices? Furthermore, why did Bilaam erect seven altars? There burnt offering is found in Leviticus,surely was no occasion on his part Chapter 1, Verse 3, "Ii his olferingto repudiate idolatry? Besides why be a burnt offering, he shall offer itare the sacrifices always described of his own voluntary will". Theas "sweet savour unto the Lord" i f Rabbis say that the burnt offeringthey were intended mainly to count- nJp meaning "that whicheract idolatry? In view of all these goes up" is akin to what we f n idquestions Nachmanides and his f01- Ezekiel saying in Chapter 20 verselowers account for the institution of 32. "And that which COMETH UPsacrifices in the following manner. into your mind shall not be at allSince mans sins are the result of that ye say, we will be as the Goyim,thought, word and deed, the sinner as the families of the countries, tawas enjoyed to bring forth a n ani- serve wood a n d stone".mal and to lay his hands upon it, a s A male was offered becausean atonement for the conduct of his one hud the strength of character tohands. Then the sinner was to con- restrain himself from actually doingfess with his lips so as to atone the wrong contemplated. The sacri-for his improper words and finally fice was to be brought of ones ownthe important limbs of the animdlbrought by the sinner were to be voluntary will for n o one can beburnt, as a symbol of the fad that converted to truth an8weaned awaythe donor of the sacrifice ought real- from f M by farm. &ly to be punished in like manner but Ths Rabbis say that the blood rep-that E d in H s mercy accepts this i resents ones impetuousness d qform of proxy. It is self evident that sins of connuision; crnd tbs fnt rep-sacrifices were to be accompanied regents a s sfuggisfmess CUISWby a contrite heart and repentant SIIf63 Of o m m . Imfore,thg klbodspirit, regret for the past together ~ s b b e s ~ c o k d o s r t h e a i d e o fwith a determination to resovle to d o the altar and the fat is to be BurrPedbetter in the future. on tne b e " l h penitent wtro slnntsd r, ~
    • because o impetuosity should learn f brought it because o the genuine fto acquire coolness and deliberate- sacrifice it represented.ness, and the one who sinned be- The meal offering was to be voidcause o sluggshness and coolness, f of any meat. It was brought to im-should learn to acquire the habit of press the individual with the thoughtzeal, enthusiasm and activity. that just as the flour is burnt and Of course as in the case of al l consumed, so should it be done to sacniices, that which was done to him for his sin.There were three h e ammal should have been in- "Minchas" brought as communal of- ferings, namely "the Omer on Pass-ilicted upon the sinner who brings over", the "Two Loaves o Bread on fthe offermg. This shows how merci- Shevuous and the "Showbread" onful G-d was io us in accepting the every Sabbath. There were nineanimal offering instead o ourselves. f which were personal offerings. (1) The burnt otfering was slaughter- The sinner who could not afford toed in the Temple Court. A Cohan did bring the sin offering o an animal. fnot have to slaughter the offering (2) lhe "Sotahs", the suspected wo-because it was a anfree- mans, offering. (3) The Consecrationwill" offering, therefore it could be offering o e v s q Priest. (4) The of- fslaughtered by a non-Cohan. The fering b~oughtby the High Priest,3~33 132 "the sinew which shrank every day, morning and evening. (5)(bee Genesis, Chapter 32, verse 33) The fine flour offering (not baked),was to be removed, for that whlch (6) The offering o fine flour mixed fwas forbidden to b e eaten was for- with oil (baked). (7) The deep panbidden to be sacrificed to the Lord. meal offering. (8) The offering o the fEverything but the skin and the si- "challas", (9) A baked meal offeringnew which shrank was offered, as o "kichel" (rookies). Five to nine f inclusive were brought in paymentwe read in verse 13, "And the Priest of a pledge or gift. All these wereshall offer the whole". Thls also free from "chometz", except the twomeans that the dfferent pcats were loaves of bread on Shevuous, (whichnot to be offetbd separately.. The were not brought upon the Altar).Priest who transgressed this mange- The meal offering was brought fromment violated a positive command- the hcuse to the Priest in a silverment. gold, or m y metallic vessel. The Priest wotlld then bring it to the 116th C- O Altar, take a handful and offer it T f I E r 4 w u ~ G thereon. The rest was eaten by the The 116th Commandment deaIs Priests. A handful means the amount taken in by the hand, cleared by thewith the meal offering as we read in small finger beneath the fourth fingerLwiticus, Chapter 2, Verse 1, "And and made even by the thumbwhen m y sou1 Will offar a meal of- sweeping over the index finger. Thefering unto f i e lard. Priest who would change the man- The Rabbis point out that in re- ner of the m a offering was guilty elgmd to no ather w1untcn-y offering of violating a positive command-i5hlterrn Vm "Sourused. ment.The-]r dec1m that thisoffe wasb u g h t by tbe p m r mansistsd d y o a 4 qumtity of f 3 mn- l llm WrrttooI%.rI#nm~p~~ctad~.bUtinihseyersdEd Uraugh it en€- The 117th c o m e b i us o t b e ~ w hn o t t Q ~ r l e Q v g n r a ~ y u p o n ~ f
    • 66 118th Commandment altar for it is said in Leviticus, Chap- it is said, l t t llW?n N? 333 Thou ter 2, Verse 11, "No meal offering shalt not offer any of it." This com- which ye shall bring unto the Lord mandment o course refers to Temple f shall be made o leaven; for ye f times and to the Priests, for they shall burn no leaven nor any honey were in charge o the Service. f in any offering of the Lord made by fire." Honey is a general term to 118th COMMANDMENT include not only bees honey but Salt Shall Not Be Lucking also date honey. Any juice from From Any Offeting sweet fruits also comes under the The 118th Commandment is a neg- category o sweetness represented f ative one. It reads a s follows: "Thou by the word, "honey". Honey, be- shalt not allow the salt o the Coven- f cause o its sweetness, is a symbol f ant o thy G-d to be lacking from thy f o excess in pleasure. We are not f meal offering". (Leviticus, Chapter 2, to seek merely sweets and only such Verse 13). The salt used had to food a s will be delightful to the come from the communal treasurypalate and pleasant to the feel of just as the cost of the wood for thethe throat. It is a disgrace for man offering was defrayed from the com-to live to eat rather than eat to live. munal treasury. This was prescribedI we understand the purpose behind f so a s not to detract from the stand-this commandment it will be better ing of the Temple a s the Rabbis say, for our health and for our morals. nnwy c13m rimy 1 ~The Torah is always for the "Golden "In a place o wealth one should f Mean", as the Rabbis point out that not act a s impoverished". (Sabbath,G-d created the world not only in 120). The rich are not to be small orthe spirit of justice but also withmercy. Justice tempered by mercy is petty. Therefore the salt had to comerighteousness. from the treasury o the Temple, so f that the Priests should not have to "Chometz" or leaven was barred look to individuals to donate s d t from the altar because it is inflated, every time an offering was brought.appearing bigger than it really is, Salt is used as the basis of many which is a symbol o arrogance, and f metaphors in the Bible to signify per-arrogance is an abomination before manency and eternity. The followingthe Lord. Another reason given for are several specific instances o this fthe prohibition o leaven on the altar f usage. 1) The covenant betweenis that it takes quite some time for G d and Israel is compared to salt.the dough to leaven before it is This covenant preserves Israel fromready for baking and is therefore disintegration and decay. Thereforesuggestive o sluggishness, whilst f the sinner brings salt with his offer-unleavened bread, "matzoh, is ing to demonstrcrte that he is depart-ready quickly and symbolizes dili- ing from his sin, which is disintegrat-gence. It is interesting to note that in ing, cq.ld that he is bound for theregard to the communal offering, the path of religious rectitude, which istwo loaves of bread on Shevuos, permanent and eternal. 2) Scdt isleaven is permitted. The reason is, referred to, as a means of preservingthat while sluggishness is generdy food from decay. Salt extracts al lfound with the individual, in com- the blood which may be lodged inmunity one usually prods the other. the cells nnd pores of the meat. Both the leaven and honey are Since the blood was merefy to beforbidden to be used in connection spnkled and not offered, thereforewith the meal offering regardless of the meat, in order to be £it for offer-the smallness o the amount, us ing upon the a t r had to be freed f la,
    • of all its blood. In the same way the The laws of the commandment a r eblood of the meat w e eat, must b e as follows: All the offerings were toextracted, in view of the prohibition b e salted before they were to b eagainst partaking of blood, men- brought to the altar. The only excep-tioned in Genesis Chapter 9, Verse tion to this rule is the Libation (wine).4, "Blood s h d l ye not eat", a n d offering. If one transgressed thisDeuteronomy, Chapter 12, Verse 23, commandment a n d brought a n of- "Only b e sure that thou eat not the fering without salt, it is acceptableblood for the blood is the life". In but the Priest has sinned. However,this way Israel has been kept from if it was a meal offering then anotherbecoming a bloodthirsty warlike one had to b e brought in exchange,people. for it is explicitly stated in regard 119th COMMANDMENT to the meal-offering,--"Thoti shalt SALT I THE SACRIFICES N not allow the salt of the covenant of thy G-d to b e lacking from thy The 119th Commandment is a pos- meal-offering". Of course this com- itive one bidding us to offer salt with mandment pertained only to Templeevery sacrifice whether it b e of meat times. The Priest who violated itor of the meal offering for it is said in transgressed a positive command-Leviticus, Chapter 2, Verse 13, "With ment.all thine offerings thou shalt offersalt". 120th c - m As we have said before, the pur- The Offering o the Scmhedria fpose of a sacrifice was to improve Becaw o a Wrong D d S i o p fthe soul of the one who brought it.The bringing of the salt completed The 120th Commandment dealsthe offering because any food with- with the offering which the Sanhed-out salt is incomplete. Thus, symbol- rin had to bring when they erred.ically, every good act that w e per- as we read in Leviticus, Chapter 4,form should b e completed as our Verse 13, "If the whole congregationRabbis declare in the Talmud, "We of Israel sinned through ignorance"s a y unto the one who begins a mitz- by virtue of a mistaken decision ofvah, complete it". This does m y a the Sanhedrin.with mere impulse; it gives us per- The Supreme Court or Sanhedrin,severance in carrying out a good was composed of seventy one jud-deed. ges. Their sessions were held in the Salt preserves a n d therefore it Hewn chamber of the Temple. Thekeeps the offering intact without de- Sanhedrin a n d not those who erredcaying or giving forth a b a d odor, by their decision were to brng the of-or losing its taste. We too, are not to fering, but the people paid for it.muke sacrifices that have no value; However where it was evident thatsuch a r e foolish sacrifices made a s the Sanhedrin was wrong, as fora rule by people who have a mar- instance by mistaking another d a ytyr complex. Many a person offers for the Sabbath, then the sinners a n dsacrifices for things that are not not the Sanhedrin brought the of-worth-while. People will not econo- fering. In d cuses where the San-mize. They will find one place how- hedrin were involved because ofever for economy, and that is char- their mistaken decision, a "Rosh Ha-ity. Every offering .or s a d i c e must Yeshivah," Professor or teacher 04h e a I=PD , "a taste" or a Jewish law, h a d to be with themrrwson. Let us have some "raison when they made their decision. Alldetre" for the sacrifices w e am wil- of the S u n h d had to receiveling to make. "Smicha." ordincrtion, and were not
    • 68 1 - - t to be merely students. The decision The transgressors must bring the had to be clear, namely the San- Y13p nNQn except the unclean hedrin had to say to the people, it person who unwittingly eats Holy is permissible to do so and s , and food, or the unclean person who un- o the congregation or the majority of wittingly goes into the Holy Temple, the people had to think they (the although if this was done wittingly Sanhedrin) were right and acted ac- the sinner comes under excision. cordingly. Nevertheless in these two cases he Similarly today when we see a who sins unwittingly does not have "kcsher" sign and we know it was to bring the ~ 1 nnnn 3 ~ but ill-gotten, we should not scry, "I will brings a f 71-1 nf 1~ nnan - that is, eat and let the one who gave the "hechsher" take the blame." an offering in accordance with his ~h~~ law also refers to a when means. The rich sinner. brings a part of the commandment is judged sheep. If that was beyond the means wrongly by the md, for of the sinner then he was to bring as instance where one of the -mitz- two pigeons or turtle-doves. I this f vdsw sabbath was violated. too was beyond his means, then he of the me s h e d r i n cannot M-was to bring a handful of flour. bath or say that ~ a b b ~ ~ h - There ~ ~ 43 transgressions out o ~ b are ~ ~ - f ante ,should not be kept. That would the 365 negative commandments for be breaking the whole command- which the sinner brings the ment and not one aspect of it. A 1 . Y13? nnnn when he has sinned 1 these jaws were pertinent when we 1" error. Furthermore, whenever we speak of a sin in error it means first, ~ ~ ~ e t h , o ~SU&~ ~ fthe~person ~ notO ~ it~was that e did know course the S d e d r i n was in e&t- a transgression when he performed ence only as long as the Temple the act, and second, he must be in stood. error from the beginning to the end l a l ~ C- tO of the act. It is interesting to note that one may have to bring many THE SET SIN OFFERING offerings for one sin committed in The 121st Commandment deals error. As for instance; he ate "trefa"with the law o the sin offering corn- fat and was told it was "befa" and frnanded to all. Anyone who sinned then forgot and ate a second piece.through error against any of the He must then bring two sacrifices)mown commandments had to bring instead o one, for the knowledge of fa sin offering for it is said in Leviti- *e sin, at any stage of the act,CUS, Chapter 4, Verses 29 and 28, "If the f u m ad separately Ga-anyone sinned through error he &dl ble.bring his offering for his sin whichhe hath committed." This offering I 2 h d CUMMMDMENTwas called y133 n ~ a n "the set , WIwmSORYEVIDENCEsin offering" which was to be t h The 122-d Commmdment mcrke~same for all or common to all. It was it mandatory *~pon to gim testi- usbrought when the sin i done with many and to Wure d things h ~ ~ fintent was punished by excision. All by us whether it ininvolves ocrpitdthese cases refer to the viokrtion o punistuncant, o money c].ahs, as it f ra negative commandment, where cm i written in Leviticus, Cfiapker 4, sact coruses the transgression. The Verne 1, "Bnd if any one sin in thnt~ i o n w u s c o r u s e d b y c m a d ...hebeing a w i t r w s s w h e i t h bof commission rather h m through ha& s e or h w n if b-e did m em tomission. utter it then he shall &in-
    • iquity". This verse, accordng to the do not have to give testimony, nor isRabbis, deals with the sin of one testimony brought against them be-who knows some fads .which are cause of the unfortunate occurrencenecessary for the execution of justice mentioned in the Talmud, in Sanhed-and refuses to disclose them in court. rin; but the Kings of Judah may beSuch a person consciously refrains testified against and may be judged.from helping the cause of truth and A friend or enemy is not 5 1 ~ ~justice to triumph, and the powers of "disqualified" as a witness. How-falsehood and corruption to meet ever, in either case he may not actdefeat. To have evidence and ab- as a judge, because he will uncon-stain from disclosing it, is put by the sciously sway one way or the other,Rabbis in the same category with depending upon the fact whether hereceiving stolen goods, which is a is a friend or a n enemy. The enemymore grjevous sin than stealing itself. will not see the merit, and a friendWere it not for the receiver. the thief will not see the wrong.would find no inducement to steal. Every note must bear the signa-So, too, crime would b e less if all tures of two witnesses, thus makingthose who have some knowledgeconcerning a crime, a criminal, or the loan legal. One of the two signersthe various circumstances surround- may testify concerning his own sig-ing a misdemeanor would speak out. nature but may not testify at theOur rabbis make a distinction be- same time concerning the signaturetween cases involving money and of the other because he can onlythose involving life and other testify for 50% or half of the testi- 091DLS mony. Therefore, when he testifies"forbidden things" in the Torah. (1) as to his own signature he has notIn regard to money matters a person power to certify the other. Otherwisedoes not have to offer his testimony. his testimony would be equivalent toHowever, if he is called by one of two signatures and he representsthe litigants or the court he must only one. We need two, or the signerdeclare all he knows. (2) In regard himself, for the other signature. Andip the other promitions in the Torah, so, if the signature of one is broughtfor instance, if he s a w a man eating f o another place before us, we rmforbidden food h& must voluntarily may establish it, but the Talmud ex-bring evidence. (3) In regard to capi- plains that the establishment of thetal punishment, for instance, if he signature on the document can onlysaw a man slay his neighbor or be effected f o two different docu- rm ments concerning two different buns-strike him, in al such c u s s one is lobliged to bring testimony of hi own actions. A "Henphek, or c -- m dorsernent of the Court, requires theaccord. The purpose of this law is ofcourse, to uproot evil from o w midst - sigrtPtures of the three judges theand to prevent us from violating Beth Din, and i l k our notarized s iea prohibition of the Torah. The basis document.~f this law has behind it a great In regard to testifying as to a sig-social good, which must be evident to nature, even a relative may do s . oarll. The world cannot exist otherwise. This is an exmpticm to all caw?ofT"he Rabbis say in the Ethics of the evidence. He may testify concsmingFtxihers, the world stands uponthe signature o his relative that the fthree things, upon justiae, upon truth Wd w a s s o i d , o r h g m ~ t y b e joinedatld upon ?xae." with catother to establish a docu- TSteKi&pt.iefit doesnotbm4Bte msnt,He~~iaydoscinowthutfiehas .&lCin*OfW reached his mojarity, dttrough he I
    • 70 123rd Commandment may have witnessed the fact a s a fice, for it does not atone. Only in minor. the case of an unwitting sin must There are ten types o people who, f he bring a t313 , a sacrifice. according to the Torah, are unfit to All the other details o this Law o f f give evidence, a s for instance, a evidence are to be found in the Tal- gambler, a minor, a n interested par- mud +Sanhedrin and Shevuoth. ty, etc. Without Torah a Jew has no stand- 123rd C m ing, although he may not have any The Sacrifice for the of the unfitnessess of the ten catego- Bich and EOOI ries. However, if he has manners and busies himself with some o the com- f The 123rd Commandment deals rnandments then his testimony is ac- with the offering o the rich and the f cepted although he is an ignorant Poor. One had to bring an offering man. In other words, the "Talmud called the 171~13 % tn? ~ Chochom" comes under the heading for special sins namely, 1) I a wit- f of a kosher witness until he is found ness failed to give testimony (see unfit in character; and an "Am Ha1- Leviticus, Chapter 5, Verse 1); 2) aretz", an ignorant person, comes I one entered the Sanctuary at a f under the category of being unfit time when he was ritually impure until he can be established as be- or; 3) I he patook o the holy food, f f ing wofthy in character to give evi- the sacrifices, entirely forgetting dence. So also, according to the Rab- that he was in an unclean state bis, people who are despised be- (see Verses 2 and 3 of Chapter 5) cause of their bad manners are un- or; 41 I one swore to do something f fit, as, for instance, those who eat and then violated this oath unwit- in a public thoroughfare, or walk tingly (see verse 4) or; 5) If anyone nude. swore pronouncing with his lips to He who does not testify in money do evil O to do good, (see Verse 4). r matters when he is called upon to In these cases G-d was very testify or does not volunteer to testi- merciful in allowing the sinner to fy in cases involving capital pun- bring an o h r i n g in accordance ishment violates a positive a m - with his means. (See Verses 7 andmandment. The punishment is very 11). G d was merciful, in these cases great, for by truthful evidence is the because of the difficulty to con-world established. Therefore, our trol the tongue or not to come inverse reads, "if he does not declare a n t a c t with people who may beevidence he carries his sin." unclean. One may be scrupulous If he swears that he has no testi- cbout not eating worms, or trefa,mony and this is false, he is obliged but is light-minded about histo bring an offering o T T ~ ilhy f ~I tongue. An "am hauretz," an igno-which we shall discuss in the next rant person, is alwctys regcrrded incommandment. This is one o threef a doubtful state of ritual c l e a d h s sexceptional cases where offerings and to touch his garments wouldare, brought whether the sin was make w e urfc1ea1-1. One is not s ocommitted wittingly or unwittingly. careful in regard to fake testimonyThe other two cases are that of the or neglect of giving evidence thatleper when he is healed, crnd the fl hefp or save his neighbor fromwoman after childbirth. As a rule, destruciion. These wrsgs thaf I hmeone who commits a sin purposely mentioned deal with the trespassesdoes not have to bring an offering; committed unwittingly, with &e ex-he does not get awcry with a mcri- ception of giving false evidmce.
    • But let us understand and take to ing of the rich man. In all these heart that whilst G-d is merciful cases the t > r ~ r;I>~Y 1 ~ 7 p brought. is and allows us to bring a t ~ ~ However, for those who never were p a sacrfice, nevertheless it is in- aware of their sin, their offerings on cumbent upon us to be distant from the Pilgrim Holidays and on "Rosh sin. Let us not say: I will sin and Chodesh" atone. The king, the an- give a n offering and be atoned nointed priest, a s well as the lay- therefor. One may b e pardoned but man would bring offerings in ac- certainly he is not justified in sin- cordance with their financial mecms. ning. Although repentance is pro- He who transgressed these laws vided for in G d s plan for the and did not bring his offering an- world, every time we sin let us re- nulled a positive commandment. member that we then break the will of G-d, our Heavenly Father. 124th COPllMANDMENT Someone stepped on another THE NIPPING OF THE NECK mans corn and said, "Excuse me", When the priest nips the head of and the man with the pained corn the fowl of the poor mans offering, replied, "Dont step on my corn a n d he is not permitted to separate the dont say excuse me", or a s the head from its body a s it is written in French proverb has it, "Qui sexcuse Leviticus, Chapter 5, Verse 8, " . . . saccuse", he who excuses himself And nip off its head from the neck accuses himself. However, when we but (he) shall not divide it asund- repent we must have in mind that er". Nipping means that the priest we shall not repeat the same sin would press his nail against the over again. On the other hand, if one backbone of the neck and cut the is poor and brings the female goat, the bone with his nail until he which the rich had to offer, then he reached the food and windpipe. does not free himself of his obliga- Then he would do the same with tion because G-d does not want him both ar the greater part of the cir- to spend more than he can afford. cumference of either one of these.Thus too, the Torah teaches that This represents the slaughtering ofman should live within his means the sin offering of the fowl for thefor otherwise he will be forced to poor man. This was a substitute for gamble or to steal. If a man is the regular process of slaughtering, used to live on a high scale a n d - vrhen the priest would first havebecomes poor a n d he still wants to examine his knife to note whetherto live up to his accustomed way, it was in prorszr condition, smoothhe will undoubtedly fall into dif- enough for slaughter, so as not toficulty or come into bcmkruptcy, bring pain to the animal. Whilstor do something that is wrong. this procedure would take place theSo also our rabbis have said if one poor man would lose time from hiswas wealthy and sinned, in one of work, therefore t h s process ofthe four cases previously mentioned, n?2ft3 n~pping,was performedand in the meantime became poor, opposite the throat because thathe should bring only two turtle- was the neared to the hand of thedoves or two young pigeons. Ii he priest. Thrs was one of the skillsshould become poorer still, he should c the priests. Thus: everything was fbring merely a tenth o an "ephah" f to b e done so that the poor mano flour and so via-versa, if when f should lose the least possible time.one sinned he wcrs poor a n d later Furthermore the prohibition a-k a m e r c he must not bring the ih gainst tearing asunder the headpoor mans off- but the offer- f o ihe M y was enjoined so that rm
    • the sacrifice should not look ugly, to be put to too much_tp&le or particularly so since it was a poor expense. For that leason he does not mans offering. All other sacrifices have to bring any of the l a g e ani- had to be brought at some particu- mals or even any birds but merely lar section of the Altar, a s we read, a tenth of an ephah of flour, for in the Daily Prayer Book, in his sin offering. If the priest violated ?nt?C tilt*# "Which are the this law and brought oil with the places where the sacrifices were of- poor mans sin offering he would fered" . . . (Mishna Zevachim, Chap- receive stripes. ter 51, namely, at some particular sechon of the Altar, but in the case 126th C m of the poor man, any part of the Fr*w and Altar was fit. This too was done in the Poor Mcms OfferiPg consideraticn for the poor so that hc may not lose time. The 126th Commandment bids us not to mix frernkinceme with the These laws pertained to Temple poor mans sin offering as we read times and were practiced by the in Leviticus, Chapter 5, Verse 11,priests. lie who would tear asunder " . . . neither shall he put any frcmk-instead of nipping the neck from the incense thereon".body of the fowl of the sin offering In regard to all the meat offer-received stripes. ings upon the Altar, oil and frank- incense had to be brought with 125th COMMANDMENT them,--a "lug", or a quart of oil, for Ol and the Poor M n s O f r n i a feig every tenth o a n ephah of fine flour f The 125th Commandment forbids and a handful of frankincense for the priest from putting any oil upon every tenth of a n ephah of flour. If the poor mans sin offering as we there were more than sixty tenths read in Leviticus, Chapter 5, Verse of flour they would not bring frcnrk- 11, "But i he be not able to bring f incense because the effed of one two turtle-doves, then he who sinned tenth would be annulled b y sixtyshall bring a tenth part of a n ephah tenths of frankincense with it. of fine flour; he shall put no oilupon it". 127th COMMANDMENT There are two reasons for this Unintentional Trespussprohibition against bringing oil for Against Holy Thingsthe poor mans sin offering. One is One who unintentionally a p p r o pthat oil is a symbol of exaltation and riates for his own use any holygreatness. Surely then it is not fit- thing was to restore the value ofting to mix the oil with the sin offer- the article and was to be fined 20%ing which was to show humility and of the total repayment. If, for in-regret rather than exaltation and stance, it w m worth $100 h e paidsuperiority. As a matter of fact if the $100 plus $25 which equals $125.oil is mixed with any other liquid, The fine therefore was one-fifth ofoil will always rise to the top. For the total repayment. Then he hadthat reason kings crnd priests were to bring an offering for his trespass,anointed with oil, symboiic of their as we read in Leviticus, Chapter 5,exalted station. Verse 15, "If a soul sinned throu& The second k r i for this prohi- ignorance in the holy things thenbition was to show pity for the poar s h d he bring a rum. . . V m e 16,man and save him time, money a d "And h e shall malce restitution cmdeffort. Gd does not want the goor W put mt3-fifth &eta". & ir~ other
    • words one should have reverence This commandment deals with one for the things that are holy. In the who unknowingly committed some "Ethics of the Fathers" Rabbi Ele- action which if done knowingly azer Hammudui suid, "He who pr~- would be punishable by excision. fanes sacred things. . . even though For instance, if after having eaten he possesses a knowledge o the some fatty part of an animal one is f Torah and good deeds be his, has doubtful whether it was of that part no share in the world to come". which is permitted or of ta pcat ht (Chapter 3, Mishnah 15). In other which is prohibited, until he ascer- words i nothing is holier than any- tains that it was forbidden fat which f thing else and no practice more cor- he ate, he must bring a guilt offer- rect than another, what raison detre ing of suspense. Here we find for the is there for ones own practices?" first time the enunciution of the idea The Bible declares, "one should not that one has to refrain from a doubt- profane his word". Our e t h i d ful action and consider it as sinful teachers point out that in our tele- even before the sin of it is definitely graphic messages each word is established. In a measure a doubtful worth something and on the radio action is worse than an action w i h hc each word that is uttered is heard. is positively sinful, for when In short our words are heard and an individual commits a sinful ac- our utterances are regarded as sac- tion he may one day see the light red and therefore a promise should and repent, whilst one who com- be fulfilled. mits a doubtful act may salve his The failure to pay the fine does conscience with the thought that not withhold the atonement so long perhaps this a t was a guiltless one c as the offering and the principle are after all. The negligence, that causes paid as we read in Verse 16, "And one to doubt whether he sinned, i s the Priest shall make atonement a s n Hence the Torah emphusizes i. with a ram (offering), and the tres- the gravity of a doubtful sin cmdpass (the principal) and he shall be orders one to bring the guilt offer- forgiven". Thus we note that the ing as a penalty for it. The Rabbis "fine" is not included when atone- point out that the guilt offering costsment is mentioned. However, he still twelve times as much as the s n of-iowes the fine which he pcrys later. fering vrhich would have to beIf t i law wcts broken intentionally brought if he had eaten the forbid- hsthen stripes and not a tine would be den fat knowingly. The Torah en- joins us to exercise the degree o f -the punishment. precaution with regard to spiritual l t3 colkmmm- ai matters that we are wont to display GUH.7 OFfEBTNG o SUSPEPISE when money matters are involvd. f The 128th Comatndment decds He who violates this I a w trans- w t the guilt offering of suspense, gresses a positive d ih t . as we read in Leviticus, Chapter 5,verses 17 and 18, "And i myone f la3thsinanddoclnyoftha?tbgswhich Thethe Lord had coznnumded not to be thedane, though he knew it not, yet heis guilty. . . ctnd he s W bring a For known sins we are bidden toram. . . . for a @lilt afk&lg. . . " bring an offering w i h is mlled hc(a cn any s - t tiane, tfie af- rn D m , *sure trespcqrshi redkkd, then be must offering", as we read, "If a d sur sbrlngcrsh -1 and comrnits a trespass against tb;e
    • 74 129th Commandment Lord and lie unto his neighbor in One may offer many sacrifices, that which was told him to keep. . . " but a sin of man against man is not (Leviticus, Chapter 5, verses 21-24.) forgiven till he has made reparation This means when one appropriates and asked for the forgiveness of the some one elses property for his own injured party. Hence our Rabbis de- use under one of the following cir- clare that the trespass or guilt of- cumstances: (1 ) while he is a custo- fering comes after reparation has dian of the property, (2) as an em- been made. ployer who- fails tb pay wages to There are five kinds of trespass his employee, (3) one who does not offerings, (1) for robbery--as we repay a loan or (4) by a n actual have discussed in Part I, (2) for deed o stealing, he is to bring as f profane appropriation of sanctified part o his atonement a "sure tres- f objects, (3) for carnally knowing a pass offering." handmaid who was already sancti- The Rabbis remark that since fied for marriage, (4) the trespass these denials are possible only offering of a Nazarite who has be- when there are neither witnesses come defiled by a dead body, (5) nor documents testifying against the trespass offering of a leper at him, G-d remains the only witness, his cleunsing, (Mishnah Zevachim, and therefore the offender "com- la1 a jn?*t+ Chapter 5, Mishnah mits a trespass against the Lord". Rabbi Akiba considered these seem- 5.) ? he first, thrd, and fourth of these bring the trespass offering ingly superfluous words, "commits whether they committed the sin with a trespass against the Lord" to be of great significance. They teach intent or unwittingly. The second is ihat the man who falsely denied brought when the sin is committed that he possessed his neighbors only unwittingly, and the fifth cant property denied G-d who wcrs wit- be committed wittingly or unwitting- ness to the deposit. Philos comment ly, because it is a disease. The pur- on t h s phrase is similar: "He who pose of thls commandment is to in- deposits anything with his neighbor dicate that man should not think depends upon the good faith alone that because the Bible says "he shall of the man who receives it. There return the stolen thing", he may go are no witnesses present except G-d, and steal from his neighbor when the most unerring and infallible wit- he wants to, and have in mind that ness who sees all the actions of when he feels like it, he will return men." the stolen thing and thus be free We miaht also infer from this that from sin, and will rationcrlize him-any sin hgainst ones neighbor is self into the belief that he has notat the same time a sin against G-d. violated any commcmdment. There-Both ceremonial and social duties fore, the Torah lets us know thatemanate from His will and should with he stolen thing he must addbe obeyed with equal scrupulous- a fifth of the entire repayment as aness. Ceremonial derelictions may fine, and bring in addition an of-be atoned for on the Day of Atone- fering of bewuse he hasment i accompmied by genuine re- f simred. Even if he returned thepentance, but for sins against man, stolen thing, he has trespaarsed therepentance and the Day of Atone- will of G-d. Therefore ars we h ement a r e of no avail until one parci-. said ~eviously, f)wt if a man re-f i e s the injured p r y by making at h - n s the principle a d brought thesuitctbb reparation and asking for d m e m e n t offering but failed to payhis forgiveness. the f n ,he is forgiven, (beause ie
    • the fine h e can pay later but the owner. However the Rabbis de- trespass offering is his atonement). clared, that for the sake of encour- This law applied to men a n d wo- aging thieves to return the stolen men, a n d pertained to Temple times. thing, that, if after there was WlK "abandonment of all 130th COMMANDMENT hope" of receiving it again, the rob- The Restoration o the Theft f ber returns only the original cost of We a r e commanded to return the the stolen thing. The Beth Din ac- stolen article intact, for the Bible says cording to our law has power in in Leviticus, Chap. 5, verse 23, "he monetary matters to do this. shall restore that which he took by If after hope c receiving the stol- f robbery." When this is impossible e n article was abandoned and one then restbration by money is per- bought it from the robber, who was mitted, as for instance I one stole f not known to b e a robber, a n d the wood a n d burned it or chopped it matter became known, the purchas- u p into spindles, or if he stole er does not have to return it to the wool a n d dyed it. However if one robbed one, but the one who is stole beams or logs of wood a n d robbed should go to the robber a n d with them built a chest, this is not have his case with him. However, regarded as a change in form a n d if he bought it from a known rob- he is obliged to return these logs ber then the purchaser must return as they were, to the original owner. the value of the robbed thing to the The purpose of this commandment original owner, a n d the purchaser is known as w e have stressed it pre- a n d not the one who is robbed, viously, namely, that one should not must have his case with the robber. misappropriate his neighbors be- I one robbed something he must f longings a n d s a y to himself, "I will go a n d return same to the original pay it back to him in money." The owner. However, if the original own- smallest amount for which h e must e r b e far away a n d it cost much pay a return for a stolen thing is, money a n d trouble to reach him, when it is worth a "perutah". If it the robber may place the stolen was worth less than a "perutah", he thing in the hands of the Beth Din has not violated the law" a n d he -the court. shall restore that which h e took by I one had robbed a beam a n d f robbery". He hcrs violated the pro- used it in the building of a house, hibition, "Thou shalt not steal." We a n d he cannot remove it from the must always remember that w e house, then he gives the value of must not only be legally correct but same instead of the beam. If one spiritually right. had robbed something of his neigh- According to the Biblical law if bor in a city a n d h e met him in a the stolen thing decreased in value desert a n d wanted to return same whde in the possession of the rob- to him there, the original owner ber, h e must make good fr the loss o does not have to take it because h e involved. However, i its value in- f muy make the claim that he may creased, it belongs to the original meet robbers on the way. The law owner. If the value was enhanced in regard to the amount of the because he improved it, after the robbed thing is as follows: If the original owner was WWD "gave price rose h e must return it, but if, u p all h o p " of ever getting it back, the price o the thing rose because f according to the Bible the innease the robber did something to improve in the value goes to the original it, a n d i this was done after the f
    • original owner abandoned all hope negative commandment. o getting it, then the increased f The Rabbis see in this "ccmying value belongs to the robber. This forth the ashes", a beautiful simile. law pertains to all places and times. "The Altar", they say. "is the human One who transgressed it and robbed being; the sacrifice-the prayers one and did not return the thing, breaks offers to G d , (since the destruction a positive commandment, that "he of the Temple prayers have been shall restore that which he robbed", substituted for the sacrifices) the in addition to the negative com- carrying forth of the ashes-the in- mandment, "Thou shalt not steal." ternal cleansing o the body prior f to ones approaching G-d in prcry- 131st COMMANDMENT er, as it i said in the Book of Amos, sConcedng the Bemovcd o Ashes f verse 12, Prepare thyself to meet The Priest was to remove the thy Lord, 0 Israel. " ashes from the Altar every day, as 132nd C V it is written in Leviticus, Chapter The Perpetucd Fire om the Altar 6, Verses 3 and 4, "And the priest shcrll put on his linen garment, and We are commanded: "Fire shall his linen breeches shaIl he put upon be kept burning upon the Altar con- his flesh; and he shall take up the tinually." (Leviticus, Chapter 6, ashes where the fire hath consumed Verse 6.) Although there was a the burnt offering on the Altar, and heavenly fire in the Tabernacle and he shall put them beside the Altar." Temple, nevertheless we were to This is called ltfrlil n3T ti n . The kindle one ourselves. removal of the ashes completed the The element of fire is the busis: sacrifice o the preceding day and f need for man, therefore it was a therefore priestly garments were daily offering. The blessing thatrequired. When the ashes were car- came from the performance o the f ried forth outside the camp, then, as Mitzvah was neither too little nor we read in Verse 4, " . . . he shall tco much. I there is not enough fput on other garments and he shall fire it makes one phlegmatic. If there6any forth the ashes unto the ccnnp is too much, or not the right kindunto a c b place." In other words. of fire, a s in the case o the children fthe holy priestly garments were o Aaron, it means death. fworn oniy in t e Sanduary. h Morning and evening a large a- The Rabbis take this to imply that mount of wood was put on the Altarone must dress in accordance with and the priests would kindle it, asthe importance o the occasion or f we read. "And the priests shall kin-the function one is to perform. dle wood on the top of ihe Altur." The purpose of this commandment There were three r o w s of woodwas to enhance the glory and th l placed upon fhe Altrrr daily. Uponhonor of the Temple; therefore the the first, the lctrgect row, the per-ashes had to be removed daikg. petual offering wos b m g h t with The removal of the ashes wus o h offerings. Fm p h second 11done when the morning star ap- they would take fire in the pan forpeared; on the holidays it was done the making o the daily irlmrm, fearlier, during the fhird watch of andonthethirdmwofwoodnoth-the night, and on Yom Kippur it ing W G Eput npon it 8*0ept tfte fine, ~was done still e a r l i e r 4 mi&&&. to will our ,2- i THe who did not remove the cLsthes ~dbekeptbwxingu~BeAltucxrcording to the law, m d e d 0 " . - o a
    • I the priests did not kindle the f 135th COhfMANDMENTfire they annulled ti positive com- hs Forbidding Us to Muke themandment . - Rsmcriader o the MePl O f f d m f cbealetz 133rd COMMANDMENT The 135th Commandment bids us TfDsptupehdFire not to make the flour of the meal May Net Be ExtkqUaed offeringchometz in any way, as we The 133rd Commandment bids us read in Leviticus 6:10, "It shall notnot to extinguish the light of the per- be baked with leaven. It is mostpetual fire as we read in Leviticus, holy."Chapter 6, Verse 6, "it shall not be The Rabbis give the following ex-put out". This negative statement is planation for the fact that this of-to indicate that anyone who breaks fering and the s n or trespuss offer- ithis commandment should receive ing are described as "most holy."stripes. However, if fire was taken A meal offering was generally thefrom the Altar to perform another donation of a poor person and wasMitzvah, as for instance, to light the regarded as precious to Gd, as i fMenorah and then it was exting- he had offered h s very soul, (See iuished, it does not come under the Leviticus 2:3) therefore it was con-headmg of the law of the perpetud sidered as "most holy". A sin orfire. trespass offering was brought by a repentant who was of a contrite 191th cmmuwDMe3T s a t . The Rabbis soy that the hiuhT h e I n w ~ t h e ~ o b is not attained evena by sthe level of piety reacheh by r e t - antth6BemcrinderofthsMecdOlfering righteous for, "He that has not After the priests separated a sinned," says Bachya in The Duties - handful of the four for the meal of- of the Heart, "may be iainted with fering it was hambent upon them something worse than s n itself, i to eut the remainder, as we d, namely, selfcomplacency". Hence "All that which k left thereof shall the sacrifice of the repentcmt wasA m n and his sons eat." M t i c ~ ~ regurded as "most holy".9:6) The eating was pcut of the a- la@&tonement. h y priest who tres- fheLarwo~theMecdpassed this commandment violated W e h g o the High Priarrt fa positive cmnmmbent. However,ars to the meal ofharing o the priest, f Every priest had to bring an of-not only the iwmdhd but the whole fering on the &ay that he dedicatedoffering o the 6out had to be himself to s e n e in the Temple. The fbrought upan +heAltar, crs we mad, High Priest had to bring such an"And e v s r y ~ o f f e r i t b g a f the offering every day of his ministry,prierst sh& b6) pphoHy plcale to as we read in Leviticus 6:13, Thissmub; i t W n c R b e s 9 t c m . " aLevi- offering of Aaron and of his sons,t i ~ 6 : 1 6 f o)r t b i s t~ a t whichtbyshallofferuntbtmeLord ~ hthe h Q b r the htmxm being the in the duy when he i amintad." smore must hre he t s;ac- o U i s o u r ~ t h c r t w ~ w erlfide. do o d v e s makes mure d cm im- ~ o n r r g o s ~ ~ t h a m i f w e far t o dB
    • well as that of the community. be easy to detect those who came The High Priest brought a tenth to offer them and thus fhe sinner of an ephod of fine flour into the would be put to shame. The Torah pan, half for the morning and half has regard even for the feelings of for the evening. Three iugin (meas- a sinner and any obstacle which ures) o oil were mixed with the might stand in the way of repent- f flour and baked from each h d (six ance should be removed. Hence the chalahs), making a total of twelve, custom of saying the Amidah or representing the twelve tribes of IS- Shmonah Esrai-the eighteen bene- rael. After it y v a s baked for a little dictions-inaudibly, was thus insti- while it was fried with its oil. It was tuted. We are to imitate Hannqh in then folded like a sandwich and this regard a s we read in the First then the bread was broken into Book o Samuel, 1:13, "She spake f pieces and was then burnt entirely in her heart. Only her lips moved, upon the Altar. but her voice was not heard." If one wants to make a confession or 137th COMMANDMENT a special request, to his Heavenly The Priest Forbidden to Eat Father, he should approach Him Of His Meal-Offerhzg directly without intermediaries. In Leviticus 6:16, we read, "And every meal offering of the priest There is a difference o opinion f shall not be eaten." This is to in- between Maimonides and Nachmo- clude any offering which the priest nides. Maimonides holds that the brought which was to be wholly Cohan in assisting with the bringing consumed upon the Altar. of the sacrifices, (the burnt offering I this offering was not wholly or the sin offering or any of the f consumed upon the Altar it would offerings) carries out a positive com- appear as if the priest were taking mand separately for each kind o f it for himself. Any priest who ate offering. On the other hand Nach- as much as the size of a n olive o monides holds that all the offerings f the flour of his own offering, re- come under the one heading o the f ceived striws. positive commandment. 139th C m 138th COMMANDMENT T e S n Offering Upon h i Concerning the Sin Offering ths lrmer Altar We read in Leviticus, 6:18, "Speak The Riests were not permitted to unto Aaron and his sons saying, -.of the meat of the sin offering This is the law of the sin offering: whose blood was sprinkled upon the in the place where the burnt offering inner altar (which was in the Tem-is slaughtered shull the sin offering ple proper) for it is written in Levi-be slaughtered before the Lord: it ticus 653, "And any sin offeringis most holy." whereof any of the blood is brouqht Our sages in the Talmud Yeru- into the tent of the meeting to makeshalmi, (Yvomas, Chapter 8, Hala- atonement in the holy place shullcha 3) point out that the provision not be eaten. It shall be burnt withmade in our verse, namely that the fire". The Sifri, commenting upon thesin offering was brought where the words "It shulI be burnt with fire",burnt offering was offered in order says, that any offering t a is to be htto save the sinner from being put wholly burnt, may not be eaten.to blush. U there were a distinct There were two d t m , (1) the outerplace for sin offerings only, it would Altar (the cupper one) in the court
    • (outside of the Temple) and (2) the offerings because they satisfied all inner Altar (the gold one) in the the parties concerned. They were Temple proper. unlike the burnt offerings which were entirely sacrificed on the al- 140th COMMANDMENT tar. Nor were they like the guilt or THE GUILT OFFERING sin offerings,part of which was burnt We are commanded in the Book of on the Altar, and the rest given to Leviticus, Chapter 7, Verse 1, "And the priests. Of the peace offering, a this is the law of the guilt offering; part was burnt on the Altar, another it is most Holy". There were five part was given to the priest, and guilt offerings, (1) for robbery (2) the remainder belonged to the onefor profane appropriation of sandi- who brought the offering, so that afied objects, (3) for canndy know- feeling of peace and good will was ing a hand maid who was already established among all concerned-sanctified for marriage, (4) the tres- hence the name "peace offering".pass offering of a Nazarite who has This commandment concerningbecome defiled by a dead body, (5) the peace offering existed in Templethe trespass offering of a leper a his t times and referred to the malecleansing. The guilt offering for the priests, for upon them was the ob-Nazarite and for the leper were ligation to participate in the service.brought of lambs one year old and Any priest who would trespass thethe other three, of lambs two laws in regard to the offering notyears old. The priest who did not only violated a positive command-do the work in connection with the ment, but in addition made the sac-guilt offering according to its de- rifices unfit for use.tailed laws trespassed a positive There are four kinds of peacecommandment. offerings: (1) The peace offerings of the community (called CWT? 9 t T 1 3 l4lst COMMANDMENT most holy) brought on the Pentecost m PEACE OFFERING holiday. (2) The peace offerings of The priests were comanded to en- the individual called 5-93 tT1j: gage themselves in the work of holy in a minor degree), including, the peace offering a s we read in (a) the nncwl mvn holiday Leviticus 7:11, 12, where the actual offerings which are mandatory. (b) work is to be performed, " And this The thanksgiving offering. In Psalm is the law of the sacrifice of peace 107 we are given the four kinds of offerings if he offer it for a th&- deliverance for which the thanks- giving". giving offering or prayer is deemed There are four classifications for proper.crll offerings: (1) 3519 the burnt of- The four letters of the Hebrewiering (2) nmn the sin offering, (3) word c n life, each begins . 9 QWH the guilt offering a n d (4) one of the words which indicate the QDSW the peace offerings. four occasions for the thanksgiving Mow referring to the peace offer- prayer. The n begins the wordings, they were brought from lambs, t7 3 "imprisoned". The 71 n l 9b t s , cattle, male and female, stands for CllD "sickness.large and small. Fowl was never The second begins the wordbrought for one of the peace offer- C "sea". The Dings. The Rabbis i the Midrash n stands for the word ?f 3 s1Tbrcts Kohcmh or Sifru say that "desert".The Shulchan Aruch Oruchthese offerings were c d & d peace- Chuim, Chapter 219, where it gives
    • the mnemonic device for remember- has passed. This is a positive com-ing these four instances also quotes mandment. Having trespassed thethe verse which w e say three times negative commandment - not todaily in our prayer leave over the meat - w e a r e then i l b 7719 c99trn fn obliged (positively) to burn what"And all the c99n living remains, as w e read in Leviticus,shall give thanks unto thee." 7:17, "But that which remained of Today since prayers have been the flesh of the sacrifice on thesubstituted for sacrifices, If one is third d a y shall b e burnt with fire."delivered from a n y of the four The law of 3118 is theabove - mentioned dangerous situ- same as that of "In13 n3~ations, he comes to the synagogue, means that the one who brought theis called u p to the Torah, a n d pro- sacrifice thought he was eating itnounces the n?13il n313 "the in the proper place, but h e was eat-Gomayl Benediction." ing in the improper place; or h e (c) The peace offering Iff thought he was eating it a t the"a vow" or n1?% "free-win proper time, but it was the improperofferings" a n d (d) the peace offer- time.ings brought by the Nazarite when 1441H COMMANDMENThe completes the days of his Na- The Laws Concerning 3135zariteship. o Abomination r l a d 7138 means that the priest NO SACWFlQAL LEETOVER who slaughtered or brought the sac- The 142nd Commandment bids us rifice had a wrong thought concern-not to leave anything over of the ing it. The Bible says conceringthanksgiving offering until the morn- this matter, in Leviticus, 7:18,ing, for it is said in Leviticus 7:15, "Neither shcrll it be accepted (the"He shall not leave a n y of it until sacrifice becomes null a n d void);the morning." This refers to all ofher it shall b e a n abhorred thingholy offerings as well. That which f138 a d a soul who ecrtethone leaves over after the time per- of it shall bear his iniquity." Thismitted to eat the offering i s I n l f means excision as w e read in Levi-forbidden to be left over. ticus, 19:7, 8, "It is a vile thing; it Meat, if it stays over the time shall not b e accepted. But every-allotted for its eating, becomes MR- one that eatetfi it shall bear hiscid, odorous, a n d therefore unfit for iniquity because he hath profaneda sacrifice. the hallowed things of the L r and od The moral of this commandment that soul shall b e cut off from hisis that man should not b e too much people." W e also read in Deuteron-concerned about the future. One omy, Chapter 14, Verse 3: "Theyshould not stint himself to the point shall not eat any abominabieof hcarding, or of being a miser, o r thing." Thus this commandmentof being stingy, worrying all the concerning 3 i s a twofoldtime about the future. negative one. This l a w is one o the most im- f llhd col4MAmm portant in the Bible as fcor as the The Lefk3vetg t be Burnt a sacrifices are c o l l c e d . The pur- The 143rd Conmandrnent bids us pose of all sacrifices is to p&ifyto b u m the holy meat c t r the de man ta such a degree t a his htallotted time for the eating &emof thoughb will b e correct and that he
    • will not repeat his mistake. There- burned with fire." It is not becom- fore when a person is about to ing to offer unto the Lord anything bring a sacrifice and his thought that has become unclean. ccncerning it is impyoper, it is If the meat became unclean in ?139, abhorrent or abominable. the Temple Court it was burned It is then mere butchery. The irn- therein. If it became unclean outside proper thought makes the animal of the Temple Court, as in the case just as unfit as if it had a physical, of the peace offerings (where they permanent blemish. were permitted in the whole city of What a marvelous moral may be Jerusalem), it would have to be derived frcm this law of 7139 burned (in the home of the owners) I we have bad thoughts it means f anywhere in Jerusalem. The bones that we will blemish our neighbors. of the holy meat that h e no mar- He who premeditatedly or pur- row and that became unclean did posely ate of the meat (the size of not have to be burned, excepting a n clive) was guilty of excision. If the bones of the Paschal lamb. he ate of it unwittingly he brought He who trespassed this command- the fixed sin offering of a sheep. ment did not burn the meat that The sacrifice which is not the same became transgressed a for the rich and the poor is called positive commandment. the fixed offering a n d is always a i?W "a sh,eep." 147th COMMANDMENT 115th -C The Lcrws Concerning 35n Holy Food That Became Unclean Forbidden Fat we are bidden not to eat holy There are two kinds of fd,o n e -food that became unclean as we 35n -which is forbidden, andread in Leviticus, 7:19, -And the the other - ?aim - which isflesh that toucheth any unclean permitted. The forbidden fat can bething shall not be eaten.u so also removed a s a garment or as a skin.i anyone became ritually unclean f The permitted fat breaks itself u phe is forbidden to eat meat tb into pieces. Concerning the forbid-is ritually pure. den fat- l?n w e read in Levi- ticus, 7:23, "Speak unto the children The purpose of this commandment of Israel saying, Ye s h d eut no fatis, as we have said before, that the of or sheep or goat.Hsacrifices are for the p w of The Bhle wants us to know thathaeasing o w reverence for all thd we what we The observantis holy, m d devoted to His Name. Jew becomes a better man by vir-GeeMaimonides NEWmM tue of his observance of the Dietary3:46.) One who trespasses this law hs.P U P ~ ~ Y * and a piece of the We are up of body and*holy food that m eBibiid~ whilst he & in ansfate is pwlished with stripes. m- -d. m e n we -ot restr- our- selves from t e forbidden food then h the body cannot d o the good work that the-soul yearns to ds. We cxll?be know from our experience that when the lusts m e low the spirit is high. MmtB8BBZL6d Therefore we ought to be gmteful We are oonmrcrnrjed to burn holv to G-d, for Nis laws cd diet whichmeut -that kxxmrie u n b XLS we tend to tlphft and ennoble us.d i M c u a , 738, It. sawlf be n The prohibition aguinst 3%
    • prohibited fat, refers only to the (other than liver) should b e soaked three types of animals, the ox, the for one half hour. This,is done for sheep and the goat. Their embryo the two-fold purpose; (1) to remove does not come under the prohibition, any original blood on the surface, because it is regarded as a limb of and (2) to mrlke it soft and prepare the mother. The forbidden fat is it for the working of the salt. It is found upon the large stomach, the then to be salted for one hour. kidneys and the flank. However, Neither very thick nor very fine salt if there is meat upon the fat, it is is to be used because the thick saltpermissible; for the Bible speaks of will not penetrate and the thin salt the fat "upon" but not within the will be absorbed and lose its powerflank. There are, in addition to these, of extraction. Thereafter the meatveins and skins that are also for- is to be taken and shaken so thatbidden because of the prohibition the top salt is thus removed andagainst fat. The butcher or his as- then rinsed in water. The only sub-sistant, therefore, must b e expert stitute for salting meat is broiling.and trustworthy concerning the re- One who intentionally partakes ofmoval of them. The fat around the blood as much as a n olive-full, willupper and the lowest i n t e s t i n e t h e be punished with excision. I onefrectum, are also forbidden. purposely took a piece of meat be- One who trespasses the lcrw in- fore it was salted and extracted thetentionally, and was warned but blood therefrom and drank of it asnevertheless eats a piece of forbid- much as a n olive-full receivedden fat (as large as an olive) re- stripes. I he did so unwittingly he fceives stripes, and without warning is free from punishment.excision. If he eats it unintentional-ly he is to bring the fixed sin offer-ing. Priests Hair Not TO Grow Too Long 148th COMMANDMENT LAWS W - BLOOD The Priests were not to enter the Sanctuary with long hair. Thus we According to the Torah we are read in Leviticus, 10:6, "Let not thewhat we eat, therefore not only are hair on your heads grow long." Thewe forbidden to drink blood but we purpose of this commandment is toa r e not allowed to eat of any blood show reverence for the Sanctuary.thirsty cmimal. Blood is the very We find in the Book of Esther thatlife of the ctnimal, therefore if we it is unbecoming to enter the Kingsdrink or eat its blood we take on palace in mourning or in sorrow.the animal instincts. Therefore we The High Priest was forbidden a t"salt" the meat to extract the blood. all times to have his hair grow long We are bidden "And ye shall eat because he served in the Templeno manner of blood whether it b e of frequently. The length of time whichfowl or of beast," (Leviticus, 7:26). causes the hair to grow long is 30This law does not apply to fish. days, as in the case of the Nazarite. The only part of the animal where Anyone who trespassed it was guiltysalting is insufficient is that of the of excision. The Service performedliver, for t h s only broiling is per- by the priest did not become unfitmitted to extract the blood. After thereby. I h e merely entered the fsalting, whatever comes from the Temple with long hair (but did notmeat is not original blood but blood perform any Service therein) hejuice. The law is that all meat trespassed a negative commandment
    • 152nd Commandmentand received stripes but not exci- would h a sign of irreverance. ,esion. However, if he compieted his work while he was a n i1 that does f8 150th COMMANDMlWT not make the Service unfit. I the f CONCERNING TORN GARMENTS priest broke this law and went out The priests were not permitted to during the Service he was punishedenter into the Sanctuary with torn with stripes.garments as we read, "Nor rend 152nd COMMANDMENTyour clothes," Leviticus, 105. We are The Priests Were Forbidden to Drinkto show the highest respect in en- Wine or Strong Drinlr: Beforetering the Temple. The measure of Services.torn garments is the same a s that The priest was not permitted tofor mourning, namely a hand- enter the Sanctuary or the Temple ifbreadth. Anyone who trespassed it he imbibed intoxicating liquors. Soand performed Services is punished also is it a n injunction to a judge orby excision. I he merely entered, f a rabbi who is to answer or decidehe is punished with stripes. religious questions that he should not partake of any intoxicating liquor The High-Priest was forbidden to on the day when he is to carry outobserve any of the rules of mourn- his duties lest his answers and de-ing because he did not belong to cisions become perverted a s we readany individual or family. He be- in Leviticus 10: 9 and 1 1:longed to the people. They neverdie. "Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou nor thy sons with thee l5Ist CoNJMANDMENT when ye go into the Tabernacle of LEAVING THE the Congregation lest ye die," "In The priest was not permitted to order that y e may distinguish be- leave the Sanctuary whilst he was tween holy and unholy, between busy in Service for it is written in clean and unclean." "And that ye Leviticus, 10:7, "And y e shall not go may teach the children of Israel all out from the door cf the tent of the the statutes which the Lord hcrth meeting lest ye die." If in the family spoken unto them by the hand of of the High Priest, however, someone Moses." We find that in regard to died, and he becomes a n ;31H "one the prohibition against wine there is whose dead has not been buried," the death penalty. For a n y other even then he may continue to per- intoxicating drink the penalty is form the Service. However, any other stripes . The penalty of death occurs priest during that period would de- only when one served in the Templefile the Service if he served. in a n intoxicating state. If the priests were permitted to go The amount of wine that the priest out from the Service it would appecrr was forbidden to drink lest h e might that something is higher than the become intoxicated was the size ofService of G-d. It would also show an egg-full (not mixed with water).disrespect. Even though the aver- It was not to have been forty daysa g e priest w s forbidden to perform a in ferment. Just a s the priest is for-crny service whilst he was in the bidden to go into the Temple and tostate of mourning for an ~31H the serve while intoximtd so also a n yperiod of mourning before the doad person whether a pri-t or an Israel-is buried, nevertheless whilst h e was ite is forbidden to teach when he isnot to continue his work, he was not intoxicated. This prohibition was in-tb leave the Sanctuary b e c a s e that tended to do away with d c i a l
    • 84 153rd Commmdment ardor, and to counteract the notion We are always to differentiate be- that in order to be stimulated one tween the secular cmd the religious, has to drink intoxicating liquor. between the pure and the impure. It However, he may read the Torah is significant that our verse intro- he may declare things that crre evi- ducing the ~ ~ ~ a n $ m i ? n fbegins dent, a s for instance, blood is for- with the "These the bidden. things which ye mcry eat".The Rab- 153rd COMMANDMENT bis point out that "the living things" Q~* h d i C h of xos& are to be understood u "the life- s Cattle and Beast I giving things" because a nation which adheres to these dietary laws We are commanded to investigate certcridy enjoys religious immortal- or to seek out the indications or the ity. M~ is he eats. signs that make for a kosher cattle or beast. They are, the chewing of Every species of cattle and beast the cud and the cloven-foot as we that chew the cud have no teeth in read in ~ ~ ~ 119, i ~ ~ ~ ,their upper jaws. All animals in the i t unto the children o Israel saying, these world that chew the cud have the f are- the living things ye may cloven hoof except the camel as we eat among all the beasts that are on read in Verse 4, "Nevertheless this the earth.u 3, "Whatsoever one ye shall not eat that cheweth the hoof and is holy cloven-footed the cud, the camel because he chew- and cheweth the cud among the eth the cud divided not fhe hoof, he beasts th& ye may eat." These marks unclean unto you". So also every say the ~ a b b i s show that they are cattle that has a cloven-hoof chews , not cmniverous animals ccnd that the cud except the swine, the lln their flesh does n d producein a s we read in Verse 7: "And the the combative nature, is en- svine though he divided the hoof gendered in those who do not and be cloven-footed yet he cheweth stain from pdaking of not the cud, he is unclean unto you". fxnim&. The Rabbis in the Talmud Chulin, A divided hoof m o t serve as a 59" say that the Torah was not the paw, hence an animal having t i result of Moses mind but was a hs ch-deristic d- not prey upon revelation f o G-d Almighty b e rm other The chewing of the cause no human being could be a cud, chewing the food perfect biologist and perfect in d l over and over ag&, indim- a sciences, and branches o knowledge f absence of gluttony a d blood- and declare for instance, that therethirstiness. is no animal in the world other than According to MCdmOnides to m&e the camel that chews the cud or thafthe for the & ~ g u i ~ g ~ g every animal that has a cloven-hoof n shiwesn kosher a d --kosher ani- chews the cud except the swine. Hem&, as k t w - k * 4 might be proven in future ages to benon-kosher fowl, fish a d locusts i incofiect. h En same mry the E b s ba "Mitzvah" a positive e o m d - d d d in regcad to the 5kdhAicalment. yedn that theze would be enough ThKKl&ut OW mligi~n the son- p h ~ ctt the end o;f the @ y e ecept o " H d k r h " is ftmbmntrrl, to provide for the sixth, seventh clnd - fW e mate "HQYd01ah"on Scthudcrg the begimhg o the eighth yeur o f fnight to &ae &t Iretween ths the ecommic cy& A c c w b g to the~ Q n d t h e s i x w o r ~ ~ ,of &sixth-betm3enthsMyaadthe Slxdd-airJy . bts*
    • o the six years o the seven year f f to be split and ~ D W y~lw n cycle of growth. "cloven-foct" means not only split Certainly M ~ s e scould not have but it had to be split through and been in addition to being the perfect through from the top o the hoof to f biologist the perfect agriculturist. Let the bottom otherv~ise is an unclean it us take the Ten Commandments as animal. ill2 "Chewing another illustration. No better or the cud" means that it brings up the more cogent or more succint set of food from the intestines back to its laws has been promulgated since mouth and then chews it again to the Torah was given. This should grind the food. The purpose of this make Moses the perfect Law-giver. commandment is as we have said All the moral laws in the Blble upon previously that man is what he e t as which no improvement has ever spiritually as well as physically. been made should have Moses in The Rabbis have a symbolic refer- addition as the perfect moralist. The ence to the particular forbidden ani- laws o leprosy which are followed f mals mentioned in this chapter oftodayby scientists in leprous counties the Bible a s the camel, the coney, would indicate that Moses would be the hare and the swine. Nebuchad- the perfect scientist. In other words, nezar of Babylonia they compared we must come to the conclusion that to a camel. Nebuchadnezar wasthe Torah is the word of G-d, perfect cruel and ruthless and trampelledand true in every aspect of life. upon us but employed soft and gent- There are ten species that are ko- le words while doing so. His actionssher among the cattle and the beasts. were in striking contrast to his words.Among the cattle, the ox, the sheep Persia and Greece are comparedand the goat. There are seven a- by the Rabbis to coney and a hare,mong he beasts, namely the hart, and Rome to the swine. The swinethe deer, the robuck, the wild goat, is the "boar o the w o o d spoken a f fthe pygrg, the antelope and the by the Psalmist (See Psalm 80, versemountain sheep. (Deut. Chapter 14, 14). It stretches out its divided hoofVerses 4 and 5). giving one the impression that it is It i important to know which ko- s kosher while in reality it is the mostsher animals are classified among unclean of all the animals forbidden -beasts (the deer and the six others) by our dietary laws.as well as among cattle, pcrrticulurly In Hebrew Ytn "chcair"with reference to their fat and the means "restoring", for it will ulti-covering of the blood when slaugh- mately restore all the doctrines cmdtered. truths which it has taken from others 151th to their original owners. "On that Fctrbiddhg Us To Eat day the Lord will be One and a* &bds name wilf be One". We reud in Leviticus, l l:4 "Mever- 155th cmamrmwmt h e b s this s f r d ye nut e t d &em a m Diah@&q Signs for Fidlthat ehetveth the cud, or o them ft a divide& the hook as the camel, ht Mahonidies points out thcd web e c w he cheweth the cud but are commanded to make sure be-divided not the haof; fre is undean forewe pariake of fish &.at it is hccsunto you". -One who eats of any the distinguishing k d e r signs whichunclean ank& b w m t remive the Torah indicated namely, f n and o issttips. rtCry,lW%m "pr& at scales far it is written in Leviticus hoof*,xtxmlls tila the b had 11:9 These sbclll ye cut o all that f f
    • are in the waters whatsoever hath him to spoil his soul through hi3 fins and scales IN the waters In the food. G-d wants us to be a man with seas and In the rivers them shall ye a soul a n d not an animal nor a n eat of all that have any fins and angel, but man. This law prevails in scales IN the seas and IN the waters all places a t al times and refers to l of all that live IN the waters and of male and female and he who trans- any living thing which is IN the wat- gresses it and has not made sure ers they shall b e a n abomination that the fish h e eats has the &tin- unto you". Verse 11: "You shall eat guishing signs has violated a posi- of their f,lesh. Verse 12: "Whatso- tive commandment. ever hath no fins nor scales IN the waters they shall be a n abomination 156th COMMANDMENT unto you. Not To Eat Unclegn Fish The fins are the wings of the fish that enable them to lift themselves up In the Book of Leviticus, 11:I 2 we out of the water. The scales are the read that "Fish that hath no f n nor is coverings for the body. As a matter scales IN the waters they shall b e a n of fact i thore be one scale the fish f abomination unto you". The signs is kosher provided it is under the for kosher fish have been described jaw or the t d or the f n . I it is is f above, namely, scales and fins. The upon any other part of the body the reason for the prohibition against fish is not kosher and must have at eating the fish that does not have least two scales. All fish that have these distinguishing signs is that kosher scales have f n . However, if is they a r e detrimental both to body the fish has fins it does not necessari- and to soul. ly mean that it has scales for there This law prevails in all places and are many kind of fish that have fins at all times and refers to male and but do not have kosher scales. Ko- female and he who transgesses it sher scales a r e those that are easily and intentionally eats a piece of removable from the body when unclean or non-kosher fish, receives scratched with the knife or with the stripes. If he eats same unwittingly nail of the hand. Those fish whose h e is free from punishment. In gen- scales are inseparable from the body eral the Torah forbids every kind of may not b e eaten. Such is the case shell fish which as a rule is di-ease- of the sturgeon. The scales of the breedng or pain-giving or unheal-sturgeon are bucklers, large fish thy.shields. There are some fish thathave scales but do not attain them THE 157th C o M M A N D ~whi.lst they are small but m a w r The Law o the Unclean Fowl fwhen the; get large, such fi& a r e The 157th Commandm2nt dealskosher. with the prohibited birds and fowl as There are also some fish like the we find in Leviticus 13:11, "And thesemackerel that have s d e s on th@r ye shall have in detestation amongflesh IN their waters but lose them the fowls; they s h d not be eaten,. . ."when they a r e taken out therefrom. The Bible then goes on to list 25Such fish are Kwher for the Bible varieties which are prohibited. Thescrys that kosher fish must have fins Bible does not give us as in the caseand scales IN the waters. of the cattle the Kosher and non- The purpose of t i and the other hs Kosher signs of ths unclean fowl fordietary luws is to indicate that man any fowl other than be 24 mentionedis what h e eats. G-d dcas not want on the prohibited list is kosher. Since
    • 157th Commandmentnot every one of us is sufficiently that has these two kosher signs.educated in orr~ithology, knowing the There a r e some who say that the24 prohibited species mentioned in raven has two kosher signs in addi-the Bible, our Rabbis have set down tion to the fact that it is not a birdin the Talmud certain signs which of prey.indicate kosher fowls. I they possess f All wild birds which inhabit thethese signs one may eat of them. NO wilderness are among the prohibitedbird of prey is permissabl3 for food. ones.A bird of prey is one that thrusts its Any bird that has the three kosherclaws in the bird it catches and ex- signs, namely, the larger toe, theudes a poison into the trapped bird food crop and the gizzard with thelike a hawk, for instance. A bird of easily removable inner skin, is cer-prey is a carnivorous bloodthirsty tainly kosher because there is noanimal. No bloodthirsty animal is bird in the world that posseses thesekosher. three signs :hat is a bird of prey. It Even among fowl which are not may be eaten immediately withoutbirds of prey there are those that are any further investigation.forbidden unless they have the f01- To sum u p - (a) If a bird haslowing three kosher signs, namely three kosher signs one of which is (1) one toe must be larger than the that it is a bird of prey then it isothers. (2) It must posses a crop for prohibited. (b) I it has two kosher fits food. (3) It must have a gizzard signs and one of them is that it iswhose inner skin is easily removed. not a bird of prey we must make sureIn other words we have two general that it is not a raven. (c) I it has al f lrules laid down, one in prohibition the kosher signs we do not have toand the other a permissive one, one investigate whether it is a blrd ofreferring to the bird of prey which prey because no bird of prey pos-is always forbidden and the other to sesses the three kosher signs. (d) Ifthe signs which in addition to the the bird is surely a bird of prey thenbird not being a bird of prey make it is certainly prohibited.it kosher. If one is doubtful whether Our rabbis have said that no birdthe fowl is of the category of the should be eaten unless there is abirds of prey it is forbidden. In other tradition accompanying each spec-words we must be sure that the bird ies, testifying that it had been eatenis not a bird of prey before we look in comunities which were observantfor the other three signs of the second a n d which were under the g u i d a n egroup which makes it permissable of rabbis well versed in the Talmudto eat. and in the Codes. In other words, if Accorchng to some of our rabbis any one of these G d fearing, learnedthere is a special class of birds that communities had a tradition that aare not in !he category of birds of certain bird is in the kosher cabgoryprey and possesses in addition one we are not to examine any furtherof the t h e e kosher sigrrs. This bird is or to set ouiselves u p as more right-kosher but we must make sure that it eous than the tradition. The reasonis not a raven c r any speciesof a for this is that those who were nearerraven for the raven similarly is not in time to the Toruh set down thea bird af prey and possesses one of meaning of the Toruh and are morethe three kosher signs. The mn is e reliable than we, because they wereone of the 24 prohibited br s men- id closer bothin knowledge a n d in tra-tioned in the BiHe. The rorven is the &tion than we are. Any one whoonly species o the prohibited birds f pmpose1y eats a prohibited fowl or
    • 88 159th Commandmentbird receives stripes. that are unclean and their carcmses or dead bodies are defiling, causing 158th COMMANDhEIV those who touch them to become rit- To Investigate For The Signs Of ually unclean for if is written in Kaah6r Lorosts Leviticus, Chapter 1129, "All these The kosher signs for locusts are are they which are unclean unto you indicated in Leviticus, Chapter 11:31, among the swarming things that "Yea these may ye eat of all winged swarm upon the earth: the weasel, swarming things that go upon all the mouse and the great lizard after fours, which have bended legs above its kinds, and the gecko and the land the foot where-with to leap upon the crocodile and the lizard and the earth." There are eight different sand-lizard and the chameleon." The kinds o permitted locusts which f purpose of t i comqdment is the hs were eaten without having had to same as al the other of our laws of l be slaughtered. They had to have diet, namely, prohibited food is nei- a) four wings that covered most o f ther good for the body nor the soul. the length and breadth of its body, Some of these laws tax our under- b) four feet, c) two additional knees standing. Let us remember, however for hopping from place to place that there is no human being in the upon the earth and d) to be known world who knows all wisdom. There a s a locust. He who transgressed are some hidden things even unto this law violated a positive com- the wisest and the best among us. mandment . According to our Rabbis there are Since the exact translation of the 50 gates of wisdom and Moses, our. Elblical names for the various kinds great teacher, was given the privi- o locusts which are kosher was for- f lege o knowing them all with the f gotten, it was decided that none of exception o one. When the Torah f them should be permitted to be eat- explicitly gives us a reason for the en. This practice holds good up to commandment we begin to set our- the present day. Whenever there is selves up a s equals or superiors in a doubt a s to their permissibility of mental strength and thereby as a. any object, it is to b e considered as rule stumble into pitfalls. The classicprohibited. If there arose a suspicion illustraticn of this fact is King Sol-that a certain food was poisonous, omon. The Bible in prohibiting thewould it be considered i l l o g i d to king tc have many wives said thatabstain from its consumption? Now if he did, then he will fall thereby.if we fully believe that anything Solomon said-I a m strong enoughprohibited by the Torah is d y to withstand any temptation and ofdetrimental to our body and soul, it course was ensnared thereby. Sois self-evident that we should avoid also the Torah said the King shouldmything that has even a tinge of a not have too m m y horses, lest he goprohibition in it. Thus one should down to Egypt. Solomon said I willnot eat in a r e s t m t unless he is - be abb to withstand the temptationabsolutely certain t a the place is ht to go doymtoEgypt, amd of coursemanaged in accordance with the in the end we read, "And Solomnnletter and spirit o our holy Torah f went d m to Egypt" (Seef K 10:29). Anyclnorwhohasabehvhgmind lSsUrO -C feels a d knows that Gd, the Father -LrmoftbeDghl- o f a l i ~ x i l l n o t m m m u n d ~ ~ thinghrrhi$credwmexo~ptbr~~ Them u e eight a-eeping tfiings g o o d d t h e i r ~ f i t , a n d i n ~ r
    • to keep all evil from them. Therefore tion; as, otherwise the distinction if some of the commandments do not betweer. metal or glazed-ware and seem to be clear to us or under- earihenwaie vroilld have no mean- standable we cctn be assured that ing. In ~ n ec + ~ rcase, the infection i they a r e wise and for our good. could not be re.n~ovedby washing, Therefore G-d commanded us to ob- hencs it had to he broker?." serve them. This should be said in A carcass of the size of a lentil is regard to all the laws of ritual purity. sufficient to cause uncleanliness. A Wisdom and the over all of happi- lentil is chosen because there is no ness is within the Mitmahs. A1 that 1 creeping thing smaller than cr lentil we know is the simple meaning Flesh alone of a creeping thing does which our superficial minds can not cause uncleanliness. The kidney, understand. Let us then realize that the liver, the tongue, and eggs of a all the prohibitions in regard to food creeping thing, for instance, do not and those in regard to the laws of cause uncleanliness because they do purity are in truth all good, and that not contain bones and veins as well a violation of them harms the soul as flesh. and makes us spiritually sick or as All those who became unclean by the rabbis would put it, become virtue of contact of the eight creep- mentally closged foi the highest in ing things were forbidden to eat of spirituality. The body and the soul any holy food or to enter the Sanct- are joined together therefore the uary until they take the ritual bath physical can have a n effect on the and wait until he sun sets. Then they spirit and the soul. may eat of the Holy Food, for ritual The laws of this commandment purity is next to G-dliness. are as follows: The eight creeping things mentioned in the Bible us 160th W r w m Mw M W unclean and causing others unclean- The Law Regarding Foods & Liquids liness possess this status only when We m e commanded to be careful they are dead, as we read in Leviti- in regard to ritual cleanliness of our cus, Chapter 11, verses 31-33, "Who- foods and liquids. In case a deadsoever doth touch them, when they carcass of a n ariimal touches food he dead, shall be unclean u t l the ni oi liquids they become unclean as even. And every earthen vessel, we read in Leviticus, Chapter 11, whereinto any o them falleih, what- f verse 34, "AH food which may be soever is in it shall h e unclean; and eaten, thaf on which water cometh ye s h d break it". Any of these car- s h d be unclean". In other words if c a s s e s ~ called are 7lW3tD;l 3N a dead creuture fell into a n earthen "the father of uncleanliness" which vessel where& there is food,the food in turn makes a n individual or V ~ S - becomes unclean only if it had ats e k touched by it unclean. if the one time been moistened; the oc-vessels are of earthenware the car- casional moisture becomes a con-ccrsses make them unclerin not mere- ductor of impurity for all times. Therely by being in z~ntact with the walls are certain general rules that theof the vemek but even i they are f Rabbis laid down i regccrd to food nwithin Zhe atmosphere or the hollow becoming u. n - Fit, it must be~f the v e s d . This shows, Dr. Hertz mms food (not food for animals).scrys in his M e comments, "that &and, the food mmt be H nthe concept of impurity coincided to from "uPHx)~~ the p u n d . Any-some extent with infectim and thcrt tt.nng thatgrows carmet be madedifferent grades cd liQbdity $0 infee unclean. Third, no i d can receive
    • uncleanliness until water has been cleanliness". Any part o its flesh, a s f over it for then only is it fit and large a s an olive or more, causes the proper for food. (So too is it in re- person (body) or vessels (metallic) gard to tithes and chalah. They are to become unclean by contact. Earth- not to be given until they are com- enware becomes unclean even i thef pletely winnowed and the chalah flesh did not touch the vessel but has been made into dough, ready was within the atmosphere of the for food, otherwise it is theft in the vessel. However, i one carried any f hands o the Priest). Not only does f part of the unclean carcass (the size the produce have to be washed and of an olive) he and his clothes be- prepared for food a s we do in regard come unclean. It makes no difference to certain fruits cmd vegetables, but whether the carcass was of a per- they must also be washed to remove mitted or a forbidden -animal that dirt or sand before they are eaten. died. However the slaughtering o a f The water or any of the seven liquids kosher cattle or beast cleanses it mentioned in the Bible used for and its carcass does not cause any cleansing food must be acceptable uncleanliness. I the kosher animal f to its owners and regarded by them dies o itself it becomes a carcass. f a s a cleaning force. This law pertains This is the general rule in regard to to male and female. Today, because slaughtering. A kosher animal be- of our sins we do not have the Holy comes a ilL732 a carcass if it Temple, these laws have been an- was not slaughtered properly or died nulled. However, i one wants to f a natural death or was shot; it be- conduct himself according to these comes trefa only i the animal has f laws he may. been slaughtered properly and we find that it has some physical defect 161st COMMANDMENT which would cause it to die within I Regard to Unclemrliness o n f 12 months (fowl within 21 days), but Carccrsees the slaughtering of the non&osher The carcass of an animal becomes animal does not keep it from becom-ritually unclean and causes unclean- ing unclean and causing u n c l e d i -liness as we read in Leviticus 11:39, ness."And i any beast, o which ye may f f 16hd CONMANDMENTeat die, he that touches the carcass Forbidding Us to Eatthereof shall be unclean until the Creeping Thingseven". The matter of becoming un-clean is not prohibitory but rather We read in the Book of Leviticuspermissive. But i one become ritual- 11:4 1, "And every swarming (creep- fly unclean and carries out the means ing) thing that swarmth (creepth)o restoring himself back to ritual upon the earth is a detestible thing; fpurity then it is as Maimonides it shall not be eaten". 42, "Whatso-points out, a "mitzvah". When one ever meepeth upon the belly, andbecomes unclean there are a number whatsoever creepeth upon all foursof things he must do. He must leave or whatsoever hath mcrny f p t , eventhe Holy Camp, (that is the environs all swarming things that swarm uponof. the Temple); he must not eat of the earth, them ye shall not eat; forHoly food and so forth. The carrying they are detestiile things". Theseout. of these detaitsis the "mitzvah". verses as Dr. Hertz polnts out in his The fundormental law o this com- Bible Commentaries, "continues the fmandment is that a cctroass becomes exposition o the Dietary Laws which f 1 8 "the p e n t of un- had been interrupted with the regu-
    • 16h.d Commandment 91 lations concerring defiements. It f0l- YE SHALL NOT EAT for they are lows on verse 23 and refers to the a detestlble thing." Hence fruits or smaller insects, like worms and vegetables must be carefully in- slugs". The smallest amount that spected by the Jewish housewife or causes uncleanliness of the eight cook, to make sure that they are free specified creeping things is that of of any kind of vermin may be the size of a lentil, because none of lodged within the recesses of edibles the eight creeping things intended for the table, Our bodies a s than a lentil, however in regard to ,u as our souls must be spared all other creeping things like the from contamination. snake. for instance, the smallest lf the creeping thing leh the edible piece their that makes them and returned to it, it is still-forbid- forbidden is that of the size of an den. The laws of this commandmentolive. These measurements or refers to all edibles or dried iruit thatsizes have come down to US US qjtba i l f ~ t ~ 335n a s traditions from ? take On worms as in the casethe days of M~~~~ at sinai. who H~ lentils or peas or dates or figs, forknowingly ate a piece of flesh, the instance. Of course this refers to thesize of a n olive of the creeping things edLbles after they been up-mentioned in verse 29 and 30 re- rooted from the ground. If one wantsceived stripes. ~f he ate it to eat the edible with the worms, hethen he is free from bringing an of- does not violate the law which says,fering or the unwitting sin. When "Thou shalt not make yourself de-one does something unwittingly spicable". I there is a doubt a s to fwhich if he had done so wittingly whether these worms in the edibleswould bring on "excision", - death were there before or after they werefrom heaven, then for such a n un- removed from the earth, i the fruits fwitting violation of the law he must and vegetab!es were unused for 12bring a n offering, otherwise a s in months, then they are permitted to beour case here the unwitting sin is eaten without further investigation,entirely forgiven. (since worms cannot exist in edibles for more than 12 months without 163rd COMMANDMENT becoming mere dust).~h~ h w Coacernhg Wo- Bred And SO also our sages say that in Vegetables amd Fnaita wor~nsthat are found in the intest- ines of fish a r e forbidden because WE are forbidden to eat any kind they come from without. However i fof creeping things that are born in worms are found between the skinvegetables and fruits. This prohibi- and the flesh of the fish or in thetion refers only to the time when they flesh of the fish they are permitted.leave the edibles a n d are upon the It is not a case of a creeping thingground. Therefore w e read in Leviti- upon the earth. These found in theCUS, Chapter 11:4 1-42 "And every intestines of a n animal are forbiddenswarming (creeping) thing that swar- because they come from without, someth (creepeth) UPON THE EARTH also i they are found in the brain fis a DETESTIBLE THING". "Whatsq of cattle they are forbidden for thereever goeth upon the belly and what- is nothing in the animal that is per-soever goeth upan al fours and l missable to be eaten without beingwhatsoever hath many feet, even all sluughtered and worms have a sew-swarming (creeping) thinqs that rate life and are not made k w h byswum (creep) upon t k earth TIEM "schechita". They are as a separate
    • llmb plucked from an animal. The upon the earth," now we are to dis- only exception has been made in cuss the creeping things that are regard to an embryo which is per- DEl "in the waters" as for missable without additional slaugh- instance, the leech. Thus we have a tering as the Germmorah derives it special comandment in regard to from the verse "from that which is IN these swarming little things thbt the cattle mayest thou eat". The swarm in rhe waters, other than the embryo is part o the -al, f and if negative commandment concerning alive needs "schechita" and is ko- the unclean fish. Of course these sher, but not so with worms. They swarming things do not come under cannot be made kosher through the category of fish. "shechita". So also our sages per-nutted water in vessels to b e drunk 165th COMANDMENT that become wormy or in pits or in Laws Copc8tning Creeping Thingecaves. In other words all waters that Born Without Parentagewere gathered together and man We are commanded not to eat o fbends and drinks therefrom are per- any creeping thing that is createdmitted. Our rabbis infer this from from dirt, as we read in Leviticus,the words of the Bible "and in the Chapter 11 Verse 44, "Nor shall yeseas and in the brooks" that which is defile yourself of any manner oftherein mayest thou eat but not that swarming thing that moveth uponwhich is forbidden and put therein. the earth". Upon this verse the Si-In nm9 and isSnl frah, says that this is an injuctionthey need nllW3 qt l3b for in- against eating any of the creepingstance a s fish, but in water other things which come into existencethan ~ ~ 1 3 and ~35m without any parentage. In otherliving things may be eaten, and the words, no mcmner of creeping thingswater may be drunk, without investi- may be eaten. Maimonidies pointsgation. out where the word P7w is used it refers to a creeping thing THE 164th CO-MENT that is born from male and female Laws C O P C e c - g Tinge and where the word WDl is In the waters used it refers to a creeping thing Just as we were commanded not which is born out of dirt, rot, d m ,to eat of the creeping things of the or of an infested environment.earth so too are we also commanded Pf one eats of any of these creepnot to eat of the creeping things in kg things no matter how small it is,the waters for it is written in Leviti- he received stripes.cus, Chapter 11, Verse 46, "This isthe law. . .of every living creahxe - 166th ccmw4rm-that moveth in the waters". . ."Yq The Lcrq c-=-iw theshall not defile yomzelvm nor be Ritual of a Womendefiled by them". The Rambarn Mai- AibrGivisglMhtoaChildmonidies points out the cli&mmx After &idbirth a wcmcm i ritually sbetween P w and VDl unc1ean in her huslmd for a certain p is "a cr~f3piny thing in period o time. This meats when a fthe water and ten,T is "a creep childisborn, cdterrsevtandapintheingthingupoartfaed."TbwinEba3 c u s e d a b o g , a n d o d t e r i o ~previous w t we k!amed d Q y s i n t h e c m a o f a g i r 3 .conoeming hefm%ping tfiing m 9 &m~ishoubdbecz,blllW~
    • the riutal bath may be taken as we Scriptures. He indicated to them that read in Leviticus, Chapter 12, Verse either our laws are divinely inspired 2, "And if a woman have conceived or that they are the product of a seed and born a man-child then shall people endowed above all other she be unclean seven days accord- peoples with positive genius for ethi- ing to the days of her separation for cal, social and moral values. He said, her infirmity she shalI be unclean". "The cradle of humanity is not in Up to now we have been dealing Greece; it is in Palestine. Those who with the laws. of defilement of the d o not regard these books as the animal world. The Rabbis in dis- word of G-d and His divine religion, cussing this fact in the Midrash, must admit that Israel is a superior point out that physical capacities of people in the History of the world!" human beings rank lower than those We shall discuss later on in greater of animals. The animals are free from detail the reasons and the great most of the disabilities with which value of cur laws of family purity. human beings are afflicted. They are The Catholic Church sanctions mar- less dependent upon parents than riage, the Jewish religions sanctifies human beings are. Therefore, phy- it. sically speaking, they are entifled to Israel Zangwill in his book entitled priority. Even a t creation they pre- "The Voice of Jerusalem" (pages 31- ceded man. Estimated in regard to 32) points out how marvellous is the mental a n d spiritual qualities, man. "sex-regulative side of our religion". is of course the crown of creation. He said, "Now too, a t last marriage No other people possesses laws laws of Leviticus and the Talmudic concerning the sex relationship be- Tractate that amplifies them are tweenhusband andwife as the Jewish being studied-with admiration for a people do. We may well say in the code that could interfere even be- words of Scripture, "And what nation tween Beauty and the Beast. There is there so greai that hath statutes is here a vast new field for research and judgments so righteous as this which ha; barely been touched. The Torah which I set before you this secret of Jewish immunity from cer- day. Only take heed to thy self a n d tain diseases is a t last %ing sought". guard thy self diligently for this is One of the greatest practical au- your wisdom a n d your undemtand- thorities on medicine, Sir Tames Can- ing in the sight of the nations which tile, is reported as testifying that we shall hear of these statutes and say have never upset one of Moses lcrws -surely this great nation is a wise in regard to hygiene, scrnitation or a n d a n understanding people". Deu- m e d i d science, that all that the teronomy, Chapter 4, Verses 6-8. scientists of today, with their micro- The Greeks called the Jews the scopes and textbooks, did was to pM~~0phes-s the East. L.eo Tolstoi of prove that the ancient Lawgiver was said, "The few is that sacred being right, and that we had been trying who has brought down from Heaven hitherto to cure disease instead of that everkrsting fire and has illum- preventing it as M c m s did. To the ined with it the entire world. He is same effed is a work entitled "Mo- the reggiaus s o m e , spring and ses, the Founder o Preventive Med4- f fountain out of which d the rest of j cine", by Captain Percival W d , the people b e drawn their beliefs M.R.C.S.,L.R.C.P.,adoctw and m~giod"Cardinal Fawlhabr rehrrned from fighting diswse at .the pkfcd the fokwiny a l M w be- frmt, whsm he t l i s w d the hy-$ fare the N d & b of-th Hebrew gienic: vdue o the M d c Code. f
    • The reason that woman must wait Sanctuary and for all things that are fourteen days after a female is born holy. a s over against seven days after a male is in order to prevent any con- 168th COMMANDMENT tact between husband and wife leav- ConcemiDg the OfferingWomen ing in its wake some certain dis- Brought After Childbirth eases. This is due to the fact that there is much more blood and waste A after matter being emitted in the case of a lamb a year as burnt a girl a s over against a boy. Mai- and a Young pigeon 0 a turtle-dove mondies points out that males or a s a sin offering. If she were a poor females are born in accordance with woman she brought instead two tur- who conceives first. We can say that tledoves or two young pigeons, one there is pre-natal influence in con- a burnt offeringand the other a s ception from the story of the flock of a sin offering a s we read in Leviti- Jacob bringing forth speckled off- cus~ Chapter l2 Verses and *I by virtue of the pre-natal in- "And when the days of her purifica- fluence he intended for them. tion are completed. . .she shall bring The laws concerning this com- a lmb. . ." rnandment are a s fo]]ows: A woman I"gersol1 who tried to find who gives birth to a becomes fault with the Bible, criticises this ritually unclean even i the child is f requiring a born without any omission of blood. after childbirthto bring a sin offering. ~h~~is so, also whether the is What sin did she commit? The ans- born alive or sti]]-born or wa wer is as given by the rabbis in the aborted. Talmud. When a woman is in great onewho violates any of these pain she swears that she will not laws is of excision from hea- become a mother again. This would ven. defeat the purpose o creation and f do away with motherhood. She 167th COMMANDMENT however, usually resinds her resolu- A Ritudy P e m n Was tion a s soon a s she recovers. Not Penniited To Eat of the As an atonement for the rash Holy Food thoughts during her childbirth she A ritually unclean person was not must bring an atoning sacrifice. In permitted to eat of the holy food in regard to this sacrifice a different Temple times until he first took the order prevails than is the case with ritual bath and the sun set. If his other sin offerings. Everywhere the uncleanliness required an atonement sin offering precedes the burnt offet- offering he was not to eat until he ing, for the burnt offering is not ac- brought it a s we read in Leviticus, cepted from one who is not "persona Chapter 12, Verse 6, "And when the srata" with the Holy One Blessed days cf her purification be fulfilled, Be He. It is only after the sin has she shall bring a bumt offering". The been atoned fot by the sin offering transgression of this commandment . that the penitent is restored to Divine was punished by excision from Grace and permitted to bring a heaven. If one violated this corn- burnt offering. But in this case the mundment unwittingly a burnt of- "sin" is a natural and pardonable fering in uccordance with ones one, and the mother is therekrre in necms was offered. Divine grace even with her $in". The purpose of this commanhnt Hence her bumt of-g to to beis to increase our reverence for the offered first. Her odhs too abcult k
    • domestic relationships, while she is the former brings the ills of the in travail, are considered as invalid. latter. Either those involved or their Any oath on the part of husband or offspring are eventually visited by wife infringing upon the rights of a consumptive form of leprosy. The the other contracting party is ethic- Rabbis in beholding such cases used ally inadmissable and therefore in- to exclaim "The parents have eaten valid. Her sin offering is merely nom- sour grapes and the childrens teeth inal. Now that sacrifices are in a are set on edge", (See the Book of state of suspense, it is customary Jeremiah, Chapter 31, verse 291, or for the husband to be called to the they would express themselves in the Torah, in the Synagogue, after the words of Lamentations, "Our Fathers birth of a child and to make some have sinned and are not, and weoffering for charity. The mother visits have borne their iniquities". (Seethe synagogue as soon as conval- Book of Lamentations, Chapter 5,escence and circumstances permit, in verse 7). Neglect of the laws oforder to render thanks for her re- purity has the germs of punishmentcovery, and to offer prayer on behalf inherent within it for it frequentlyof the new-born child. automatically brings on veneral and The purpose of this commandment cancerous diseases. On the otheris to give thanksgiving to G-d on the hand, those who observe these laws,part of the woman who has been become immune to many diseasesdelivered and presented with a child. which befall those who do not ob-The offering was brought on the 41st serve them.day in the case of a male being born The Rabbis ascribe the rise ofand on the 81st day in the case of a leprosy to additional causes, namelyfemale being born. slandering and talebearing. When A woman who did not bring her one slanders his neighbor he is theoffering violated a positive com- cause of making friend part frommandment. friend, therefore he is smitten with leprosy, is sent out of the camp, and 169th COMMANDMENT isolated from any human intercourse. The Leper Is To Be Brought To In this commandment all the signs The Priest For Diagnosis conceming leprosy are included. As When a person showed signs of to the color of the skin, which causesleprosy, he was to be brought to the one to be leprous, there are 4 dif-Priest to be diagnosed. The Priest ferent types of whites. Two are re-would then dedare whether he is or garded as nf >N as "original!is not unclean as we read in Leviti- and two are regarded as n7751ncus, Chapter 13, Verse 2, "When a the "off-spring" or lesser, not asman shall have in the skin of his white. These four colors of whiteflesh a rising, or a scab or a bright are compared by the Sages to (1)spot. . .then shall he be brought unto pure white shorn wool ( m wAaron, the Priest or to one of his a rising) and (21 to snow-white (thatsons, the Priests". The person af- is fi>?I> a bright spot)flided is not to regard this malady and (3) to the color of the whiteas accidental but rather as a provi- chalk of the Temple which is nl??lndential affliction. The Commandment (the offspring of nlnl andconcerning leprosy is placed im- (4) to the white of the skin of an eggmediately after the chapter dealing (that is the offspring o nHw fwith the laws of purity, for cm; the Any one o these four colors of l e p fRabbis point out the disregard of rosy malce a person unclean. If it is
    • darker than the skin o an egg it is f some spot, and (the bald spot) simply a dark spot and the person changes its color. Ths is called is clean. pn3 which means-"the hair The purpose o this commandment f falls out". The spot must not be less is to impress upon our minds that a than the size o a bean. If the hair f particular Divine Providence reigns gets yellow as gold or the spot where over every human being. All mans the hair falls out increase, then the ways are known to Him, therefore person is leprous. Any one may look we are to take to heart this evil at the plague and report same to the sickness and to try to figure out what priest but the priest is the only per- seemed to have caused it. We are son who can declare him unclean or to go with our leprosy to the priest clean. The Rabbis say that this was to atone for our sins, for in the pre- prescribed so that the priest a s a sence of the religious teacher, there religious teacher, should exhort the may come unto us thoughts of re- sinner to repentance. He should ex- pentance. plain to him that behind natural The laws. of this commandment are causes and natural cures there is a a s follows: The leprosies which we Divine Judgment on moral grounds said above make a person unclean and that in the future he should ap- must appear to be deeply within the ply a bridle to his tongue and should skin although they do not have to keep it under proper control. The be physically below the skin but laws of leprosy pertains to men and must look to the eye, a s i it were f to women and as long a s the priests below the skin just like the sun are expert in seeing and diagnosing which appears to be deeper than the them. He who does not come to the cloud. The leprosy must not be less priests to show him his leprosy, has than half the size of a lima bean, violated a positive command. to make one a leper. There are three signs which make 170th C- Oa person unquestionably a leper, (1) ~C.ring The R e m o d ofW sc& white hair on the scab, (2) wild flesh In the leprosy and (3) the leprosy in-creased in size. If one possesses any One is not allowed to remove theof the first two at the outset of his scab of leprosy for it is said in Levit-malady, the priest immediately pro- icus, Chapter 13, Verse 33, "But thenounces him as unclean. If the l e p scdl (scab) shall he not shave". Inrosy does not have white hair or wild other words the hair upon the placeflesh, the leper should be shut up for of the stall or scab shall not be re-seven days. If there is no change in moved. The reason for this is thathis ccndition during these seven the priest s h d be able to recognizedays then he is he is shut up again by virtue of the color of the huhfor an additional seven days. If dur- whether the stall is an impurity o fing that period white h i h grown, ar The ~ ~ P T O S Y . reason for this corn-or wild flesh has come upon it or it mandment is to toindicate to the onehas increased in size then he is de- who is afflicted tkat he must bearclwed unclean. There is no i s o l a n his d i c t i o n and not try to M i v e .for more than two weeks. There is The laws of lhis commca3drnent caeno leprosy in any hidden part of the as follows: Thi? hairs m e removedbody, as for instance in the nose or around the swlJ. before tbe ger~ondmouth. If ones head or beard is impriwxmnt, shutin or kdaiicln.plagued, it becomes leprous, by the order t see when he o ah.=falling out of the hair fram its roots i n tfPe ar%cnnb week ofi s o l e
    • the scall has spread. Anyone (not others to be isolated from society. necessarily the priest) may remove For this he in turn is removed out- the hair for him. side of the camp of Israel. Others This law pertained to male and looking upon him should also take :emale, to all places a n d to all times this lesson to heart. Scripture says, where there is a n informed priest to "G-d does not desire wickedness." dagnose whether the person is l e p G-d does not make one guilty be- rous or not. One who transgressed cause he wants to make hlm guilty, the law and shaved off the s c d re- G-d wants orlly that man should be ceives stripes. good. Therefore it is man who rides and brings unto himself his 17lst COMMANDMENT future as he departs from the right The Demeanor o the Leper f path. -The illustration that is given is the one who walks on a straight The leper was to deport himself road, removed from any stones or it is written in Leviticus, Chapter 13, any stumbling blocks is safe, whilst Verse 45, "And the leper in whom he who w a l k along a road that has the plague is, his clothes be a fence with thorns on both sides rent, and his head bare, and he shall and he goes right UP to the fence, is put a covering upon his upper lip lacerated. It cannot be said that G-d and cry out, Unclean, uncl- ". wanted hlm to walk on the danger- ous path but man himself chooses it. Today in the Orient lepers wear a bell for the same purpose. This was G-d has only shown us the correct done according to the rabbis for a way. No man adhering to our relig- of reasons. (1) In this way ion was ever found to be immoral, passers by were informed so that unraoral, dishonest or unethical. No they should not be defiled by touch- man when adhering to the ceremoni- ing him. (2) This was &o done to als of our religion has ever at any elicit their sympathy so that they time been in the path of wrong do- might pray for him (see T h u d ing. It is when one turns aside from Meed, Kcrttan 15A). (3) Furthermore the Torah which is the Golden the leper sewed as a practical lesson Means that he gets in wrong, whe- for others to abstain from the sins ther he eats trefa hurting his physi- for which he was suffering. cal system or breaks the Sabbath The w o ~ d leper is in the mas- for breaking down his spiritual equili- culine form. Although the female brium or violates any of the ethical or moral laws of our H ~ l yiaith. sufferer left the and lived Sniptures puts it,-..Ye shall fiare- apart, she was not required fo tearher garments cmd uncover her head fore keep my statutes. . .which if a (Sifra). In some ways the customs man do he shall LIVE by them."of the leper ore Ue those o the f Leviticus, Chapter 18 verse 5.~ ~ w The 1-r r . was t o Nothing bad comes from Heaven.himself as in the midst of a living It is m a who creates for h i m l fdeath, not 4~h y s i d y but spirit- p destruction. E d does not commandU ~ for Y was cut off from the life us to build bombers a n d war-planes,of the commMity. instead He wants us to use science The p m of this c a m d e n t for healing, for good. When we adwas W h leper should take tc c n r r to Gds expressed Will, otayhecrrt in his isd& that this h m then G-d removes His face, as itcome aburat iasuuse i slandering or n were, His 3MtCtil His h v i -speahing agpbsi gey~* he s - h c e , is removed, then W s
    • ;1791)~ protection is withdrawn it is brought to the Priest a s we read and man has great troubles. When in Verse 49, "If the plague be green- man sins, G-ds protection is with- ish or reddish. . .it is the plague o f drawn and when G d s protection is leprosy and shall be shown unto the removed, upheaval and trouble are priests." The garment or the cloth had sure to come unto him. After the to be at least three fingers square punishment which we bring upon to be regarded as large enough to ouselves, G d , as the Psalmist ex- be leprous. I it was dyed it could f plains, commands His angels or His not contain a leprous impurity. One messengers to protect us as before. of the three things may happen to the Let us take to heart, understand garment. (1) It may need isolation, and know that the Holy One, Blessed (2) that part o the garment which f be He, is One. He does not change had the leprosy may -be removed for all His works are in wisdom. It is after the 1st isolation and (3) the we who change from the good to garment or cloth must be tom when the bad. It is we who either receive it is NDD unclean. This His instructions or reject them. It is must be done when the leprosy be- we who cause ourselves to become comes larger after the first week or leprus, because we have failed to it continued to have the scrme color heed to His laws in regard to slan- o green or red after the second week f der. o its isolation. If it changed from f The distinction between the leper red to green or from green to red or who is shut in for further investiga- i it changed to any other color then f tion and the certain, sure leper is in it is called 71ZD clean. the letting of the hair grow, and in The Rabbis point out that the pla- the rending o the garments. The f gue on the house and then on the shut-in does not let his hair grow, nor garments, was merly a call for re- tear his clothes. One who became pentance, before the plague shouldwell after he was declared an abso- attack the person himself. I the per- flute or certain leper is obliged t~ son took to heart these signs fromhave his hair cut and bring the of- Providence, bestirred himself andfering of the (chrping) birds. An mended his ways, then he savedabsolute or certain leper is forbidden himself from having these ailmentsto greet one. He is permitted to come upon his body. But i he dis- flearn, wash and have conjugal re- regarded these providential signs,lations. These lcrws pertained wher- then his body became afflicted, inever priests are sufficiently informed order that he might be brought to ato decide whether the leper is clean proper sense of repentance.or unclean. The leper who did not He who breaks this law violatescomport himself in accordance with a positive commandment.the above, transgressed a positivecommandment. THE 173rd COMMANDMENT Laws Conceraing the P u d i d a 172ad C O l M M A N D m o the Leper i The Leprosy of Garments The leprosy must be purified and We read in Leviticus, Chapter 13, atoned for whether it be in the per-Verses 47 to 59, "And when the son or in clothing, material or aplague o the leprosy is in a garment house, through cedarwood, hyssop, f. . .and the Priest shall look upon the scarlet thread and two birds andplague. . ." The leprosy must hnve running water, in Leviticus, Chapterthe color o red or green and must 14, Verses 2 and 3 "This & l be f dbe the size at least of a bean before the law of the leper in the day o his f
    • cleansing. He shall be brought unto priest instructs him to bring. Birds the Priest. . " are utilized for this offering because We find that the leper was brought they have a natural urge to use their to the priest for the purpose of being vocal organs and hence may serve urged to repsnt. Upon recovering as a reminder to the sinner that he from the disease he was brought to talked too much and thus became the priest again. This time he was to guilty of slander. There are two be fortifiedwith the good resolutions classes of talking, one is sinful and which he made before he was cured. includes gossip, slander and tale- People are apt to behave like Pha- bearing; the other is meritorious and raoh, who, when visited by a plague, consist of praying, studying the To- ca!led Moses, and cried 9nRlsn rah, offering words of encourage- "I have sinned", but a s soon a s the ment, praising the virtuous. Jhere- pressure of the plague was relaxed fore the penitent is instructed to he changed his mind. Therefore bring two birds, one to typify sinful when the leper who became well, and the other meritorious speech. was brought to the priest, he was The reason for the taking cedar- reminded of his suffering and re- wood, scarlet thread and hyssop, pentance, and it was pointed out to (Verse 4), on the part of the Leper is him that his recovery was due to that the cedar, which grows very Divine intervention in consideration high, is used here as a symbol for of his repentance. haughtiness and arrogance, which The Rabbis stress the Hebrew usually lead one on to slander. The m~il lt3 "From the leper", remedy symbolically indicated here which is to lndlcate that the cure is that he should humble himself like came about from no other cause but the worm from which the scarlet dye from the leper himself. Experiencing is taken and like the hyssop which is the grievous .suffering Lrhich attends the most diminutive of the trees. leprosy he rapented and thus the The Rabbis tell the following anec- cure came from the depth of the dote: A certain preacher who waslepers own soul. eager to draw attention to what he There are three kinds of purifica- bad to say, hit upon a noble idea. tion mentioned in the Torah and all Instead of going to the synagogueof them included water. There are he went to the market-place shout-three different kinds of waters of ing, "Who wants to buy a n elixir ofpurifications. (1) Running water in life?" When he succeeded in draw-general as used in the case of the ing a crowd around him he exhortedMikvah, the ritual bath, (2) The wat- his hearers to a noble way of living.ers, the cedarwood, and the hyssop A certaln sage, Rabbi Yanai, whilstpurify one who had been near or in studying in his room heard this ped-touch with a dead body, and (31 dlars cry. He sent for him and of-Fountain waters that we use espe- fered to purchase some of this life-c a l for leprosy. In the latter wat- ily giving material. The peddlar preach-ers, the cedarwood, the hyssop and er replied, "You and your like do notthe scarlet thread as well a the s need it". When the sage insisted,two birds were dipped. The reason the preacher came up to him, drewfor the commandment in Verse 4 that from his pzcket a book of Psalms and2 live birds m e to be taken is that read to him the 13th and 14th versesthe lesson is more deeply implanted of Psalm 34. "Who is the man thatin the mind o the sirmer by the sym- i desireth life, and loveth many daysbolism o the offering which h e f that he may see good? Keep thy
    • tongue from evil thy lips from speak- Dr. Schecter one said, "The Catholic ing guile". He then showed Rabbi Church sanctions marriage, Judaism Yanai the identical lesson from the sanctifies marriage". Judaism, for the 23rd verse of the 21st Chapter of protection of the woman stands be- Proverbs - "Whoso keepeth his tween the beauty and the beast; be- mouth and his tongue, keeps himself tween the womans health and the away from trouble". The Hebrew passions of man; and separates them word for trouble "tzoros" is phonet- for a period of time until the woman ically similar to the Hebrew word for becomes well and goes to the Mik- leprosy "tzoraas". Rabbi Yanai ex- veh. Then she is both spiritually and claimed "I have read these verses physically prepared once more to many times but I never realized what enjoy her conjugal relationships. a strong similarity there is between The leper is not onIy to feel phys- the literal and metaphorical meaning ically clean and pure by virtue of his of these two words until this peddlar ritual bath but should also have in broughi it to my attention". mind to renew once more his works The Rabbis say that slander and for good and feel like a new talebeanng destroy three persons, child starting write upon a new the one who speaks evil, the one slate. about whom it is spoken, and the The leper was to bring two live, one to whom it is spoken. They give clean, undisciplined birds (symbolic as a classical example the story of of hls own speech. One of the birds Doeg (See the First Book of Samuel, was to be slaughtered as a contrast Chapter 21 verses 8 to 10 and Chap- to the other bird whlch was allowed ter 22 verses 9 to 20) to llve thus representing a state of Slander has been compared to a n death from which the leper has es- arrow, by the prophet Jeremiah in caped and of the new life to which Chapter 9, verse 7 and by King he should look forward. (Hertz) Davld in Psalm 57, verse 5. The The other-bird was to be sent to Rabbis say that it is like a n arrow the wilderness as we read in Verse 7 and unlike a sword, because it kills "And shall let the living bird into the or rums ones reputation a t a dis- open field" symbolic of the new free- tance This acounts for the severity dom of the leper. After this the of the punishment meted out to those Priest was to cut all the external hair who indulge in it and the immunity of the entire body of the leper ex- enjoyed by those who are at a dis- cepting the hair within the n w tance from this malevolent practice. which was not visible, as we read in After the ritual bath a person is to Verse 8, "And shave off d h s hair." i feel as pure as a new born. This After that h e was to wush his clothes feeling does not and cannot come and take the ritual bcrth. Then he over one by means of bathing in a was to count seven d m duringbathtub. The bathtub is a mechanical which time he was forbidden to en-process imitating natures flow of joy conjugal relationship for it iswater. It has well been said that said in Verse 8, "But s h d dwell out-man made the city but G d made the side his tent seven days". On thehamlet. As soon as man touches seventh day the West was to shavethe hamlet man willy-nilly lowers its him a second time in the same wcrynatural value. as the first and he was again to take So too those who go to the Mikveh the ritual bath and became perfectlyand bring with it a religious feeling C-, arxf WUS permitted to t ~ ~ c hleave it spiritually uplifting. The M e any vesgek or hrrman Wig. After
    • the bath he could eat of the tithe, two hairs uncut it is as if he did and of the heave offering if he were n o h n g . The first haircut he took a Priest, after sunset. If he brought when he recovered from the leprosy his atonement offering he was per- and the second was taken after he mitted to eat of the other holy foods counted the seven clean days after in the Temple. The slaughtering of he became well. This was followed the birds, and the sprinkling of the by the ritual bath, the setting of the blood had to be done during the day. sun and the bringing of his offering. All the other acts in connection with This law pertains to males and fe- the leper could be performed either males, to every place and every time by day or night. The same priest where there are priests who are suf- who proclaimed the person as un- ficiently informed to know how to clean or leprous, upon him fell the judge the case of leprosy. The leper duty to declare him clean. who transgressed the law and did He who transgressed this com- not have his hair cut after he became mandment and did not carry it out in well. annulled a ~ositivecommand- accordance with these regulations ment and was coAsidered unclean. annulled a positive commandment. 175th COMMANDMENT 174th COMMANTIMENT Concerning Mikveh, The Ritual Bath Concerning the cutting of the Hi ar The leper was to take a ritual bath, of the Leper and immerse his whole body therein, After the counting of the seven as we read in Leviticus, Chapter 14, clean days on the part of the leper Verse 19, "And he shall bathe his and .after he brought the chrrping flesh in water and he shall be clean".birds as ap offering for his speaking The ritual bath is a least 1 cubit too much, then he was to have his long, 1 cubit wide a n d 3 cubits high. hair cut twice. We read in Leviticus; However, as to the running waters ofChapter 14, Verse 9, "And it shall be a brook there is no specific measure, on the seventh day that he shall so long as it is sufficient to cover theshave ail his hair, off his head and whole body or sufficient for vesselshis beard and his eyebrows, even that become ritually unclean to beall his hair he shall shave off". Our immersed therein. To remain in a nsages say there are three times when unclean state is unthinkable. To be-cutting of the hair is a mitzvah, a come ritually clean is to purify onescommandment, namely (1) in the soul as well as ones body.case of a Nazarite, (2) a leper a n d (3) The leper did not become rituallyin the case of the Levites, (once in 30 clean until after the sunset as it isdays). The Levites hcrir was not to written, "He s h d b e brought to thegrow too long so t a he should not water to be unclean until evening htappear unseemly in the serviue of and then become clean". One is toG-d. The root of this commandment bend down in the water so that noi that one feels reinshed, reborn, as p r of the body remains unbathed, s atit were, a hcdr-cut. So the leper when however, if one wore a loose berth-he 33eoume p h y s i d y refreshred was ing suit f 3y73 then it isto feel a spiritual up#&. satisfactory as in the case today The laws o the comm-ent f m e when a woman is at the sea shorethat the leper wa8 b mrl20vet aIl the and there is no m v e h in town, shehair upon the whole body for it is mxry take advantage of this law. I fsaki in our IRWse* *And even ali his wine, milk, blood or fruit juiceshair he M l shave off". I h e left fall into the ldilnmh and d o not f
    • change the color of the water then (3) The offerings mentioned in this it is satisfactory regardless of the commandment, namely, the burnt of- amount that fell therin. Needless to fering, the sin offering a n d the guilt say, all rings, pins, hair ornaments, offering which h e brings on the 8th bracelets etc. should be removed. d a y permitting him thereby to enter The teeth are to be clean so that the Temple a n d to eat of a n y of the there should be nothing between offerings of the Temple. them. Fcrlse teeth are to be removed. The law concering this "korbon" All the nails are to be manicured. or offering is that n o one else may This law concerning the bath pre- bring it for him unless h e is conscious vails a t all times a n d a t all places of the fact that it is offered in his a n d refers to males a n d females behalf. upon whom it is incumbent. 177th COMMANDMENT 1 76th COMMANDMENT The L w Concerning the Plagues on The Bringing of the Offering For - - Houses The Leper We read in Leviticus, Chapter 14, Every leper who after h e became Verse 34, "When y e come into this well a n d counted seven days there- land of Canaan which I give you after, brought three offerings, (1) a for a possession. . .(35) "Then h e burnt offering, (2) a sin offering a n d that owneth the house shall come (3) a guilt offering together with a a n d tell the priest saying: There lug, (pint) of oil for it is said m Chap- seemeth to me to be as it were a ter 14, Verse 10, "And on the eighth plague in the House ". First of all d a y h e shall take two he-lambs with- we note here that the Torah legis- out blemish, a n d one ewe-lamb ot lated for the time when the Israelites the first year without blemish. . . were to be in their land a n d inhabit a n d one lug of oil". If h e is poor the houses. When the Israelites ap- then he brings less expensive offer- proached Canaan, the natives hid ings as w e read in Verses 21 a n d 22. their precious valuables in the walls These offerings a r e called 7DlRt3 of their house, hence this plague 3153 which means that the which necessitated the overthrow of leper is not forgiven a n d may not the structures, w a s a blessing in disguise. The plaques were only inenter the Temple or e a t of the sacri- the Israelites houses. This was aficial offeringsof the Temple until his miracle, for w e receive thereby with-sacrifices a r e brought. There a r e four out bloodshed the possessions w e different classes of people upon needed.whom this obligation rests, namely, The Rabbis in the Mishna Negaim,the leper, the man or woman of run- Chapter 12, Mishnah 5, deduce fromning issue a n d the women after con- (verse 35) the lesson that the laymanfinement. So that w e may understand be h e even a great Jewish scholarall that has been said heretofore lets should not usurp the right of author-recapitulate. ( 1 ) Every person who ity. Since the priest w a s appointedbecomes clean from his ritual un- to d e a d e questions of leprosy a n dcleanliness a n d takes a ritual bath was authorized to pronounce themay thereafter e a t of 7WyC verdict "clean" o r "unclean", it was"the tithe". (2) After the sun sets on not proper for the layman to antici-the 7th d a y he may e a t mm 1 pate the decision b y speaking in a"the heave offerings" but he lacks term of certainty as for instance, "ithe full atonement which comes with have seen a plague". He should
    • 178th Commandment rather say, as our verse indicates, bearing leprosy. It must have four "It seems to me that there is as it walls built upon the earth and must were, a plague". It is also interest- have stones and wood as part of its ing to note that in a dark house we composition. are not to open windows or to bring In the verse concerning the lepro- in a candle-light to see the leprosy. sy of the house, the City of Jerusalem This may be interpreted to mean as well as the cities of outside of that only in the natural way may Palestine did not have the law of we see the sins of others but we leprosies pertain to them for it is are not to bring a search-light or written In Verse 34. And I ~ u the t use a n y other means to detect our plague of leprosy in the land of your neighbors shortcomings. possession. Jerusalem, the capital All the furniture was removed city was not divided and did not from the house before the inspection, belong to any one of the tribes. Per- to save it from being defiled, should haps, city of Washington has no the house be condemned. state law because it does not belong When the Cohane or priest came to any of the 48 states. to the house he was to see whether This law pertains to men and wo- the plague was as large a,; two men in the Holy Land and to the beans. time when there are priests who The color of the leprosy must be are fit to decide these matters and either green or red or a combination when the Temple exists. The priest,of green and red. There upon the who transgressed any of these lawshouse must be locked for seven days violated a postive commandment.as we read in verse 37. On theseventh day, i the leprosy became f 178TH COMMANDMENTdarker or the size was less than two The Laws Concerning the Impuritybeans, then the priest removes the of Issues (Chronic Discharges)sign of the leprosy and the house One who has a running issue be-is clean. However, i he finds it f comes unclean and makes othersthere a t the end of the seventh day unclean as it is written in Leviticus,then he removes the stones all Chapter 15, Verses 3 to 1 1, "Speakaround the plague, and removes the unto the children of Israel and saycement and plasters it around and unto them: When any man hath a ncloses the house for another seven issue out of his flesh, his issue is un-days as we read in Verse 39. clean-(and makes everything with Then, after the second seven days which he comes in contad unclean).i the plague reappears then it is a f The issue to become unclean mustmahgnant leprosy and the house have the color of barley-dough-wa-must be demolished, as we read in ter or the yellowish color of a beatenVerse 43. egg. One does not become unclean It was miraculous that Israels mless there have been two suchhouse should b e the only one smit- issues and they must occur in oneten with leprosy. G-d first attacks day. This is called X . 7 . If a dayour material things to cause us to intervenes between them it is notrepent. If that fails, then later our l but 773. The 3t must then i l?physical beings suffer, if that fails, courlt seven days and take the ritualthen He removes us from this world. bath (unless the discharge became The house must be the size of a t chronic).least four cubits b y four cubits be- The purpose of this command-fore it ccm be designated as a house ment is to point out to us that such
    • 101 l8lst Commandment is the result of eating or drinking too and he who trespassed it and did not much or indulging in immodest or bring his offering tmnsgressed a luxurious living, The discharge positive commandment. should serve as a warning to h m to i return to normal standards. If this 180th discharge becomes chronic it shows ThekConsedngthe that he has not learned the lesson. Undeadiness o the Flow o Seed f f If the discharge happens only oc- The flow of seed is unclean and casional~, he is called a ? Cly3 l makes others unclean as it is said which means that is was accidental. in the Bible in Leviticus, Chapter 15, He must take a ritual bath thereafter Verse 16, "Then he shall bathe all his a t any time of the day. flesh in the water a n d be unclean Because of our sins we are not until the even" . . . 17, :And every in possession of the Holy Temple garment whereon is the flow of seed and we do not have any of these shall b e washed with water a n d lawss of cleanliness or uncleanliness be unclean until the even". The pur- prevailing. However, we m e to lead pose behind this commcmdment is normal lives, not to do anything in that this uncleanliness comes about excess in pleasure in eating or in only through lustful thoughts. drinking, which if in Temple times Because of our sins w e do not one became unclean in this way hcrve the Temple a n d we cannot go and went into the Temple or ate of through the ablutions necessary for the Holy things before he cleansed our purification. In this mse one himself, he annulled a positive com- should not keep himself back from mandment in addition to being guil- praying or putting on tefflin because ty of the punishment of excision. of his uncleanliness. 179th COMMANDMEWT 181st COMAMDMENT The Offering o the Man f The Lctw Concerning the Unclean- with the Rumring h u e lines o the Menstrual f If one was already cured from his (Nidah) Woman running issue he had to bring We read in Leviticus, Chapter 15, offering as we read in Leviticus, Verse 19, "And if a woman have a n Chapter 15, Verses 13 and 14. "Then issue and her issue in her flesh be he shall count seven dcrys for his blood she shall be in her impurity cleansing and wash his clothes" . . . seven days a n d whosoever toucheth "On the 8th day he shall take to her shall be unclean until the even". him two turtledoves or two young Here the Bible de& not with a pigeons a n d come before the Lord malady but with a natural pheno- unto the door of the tent meeting . . . menon and an experience shared by 15, "And the Priest s h d make all women. atonement for him for the Lord for The Creator, Blessed 3e He, in His his issue". infinite wisdom has endowed women These offerings are called with the natural propensity of be- which mxms that until coming purified every month, so thatthe offerings are brought, his atone- possible ensuing life muy becomement is not complete. The purpose purified. It is therefore commandedof this commandment is to humble that during the period a n d processt e person t a h e mcry decide to h ht of purifimtion, which reaches its con-conquer the lusts of his body cmd summation t h o u g h immersian in theprevail against physical temptatiom. "Mikveh", the ritual M, sexestheThis law prevailed in Temple times should not only not cohabit, but
    • 183rd Commandment 105 should not even be too familiar with when she touches flowers will cause each other. them to fade. Thus there is some The families who conscientiously hidden something that we must b e observe these laws of "Family distant from at such times. The Blble Purity" endow themselves and their makes the distinction between the offspring with racial immortality. laws of running issue and the laws The menstrual woman becomes of regular menstruation. The rabbis unclean and causes others to be- however regard both of them as come unclean. menstruation. Our law today pro- Further details of this law will be vides that husband a n d wife must discussed when we come to the next be Separate from each other as far where this matter is dealt a s conjugal relations are concerned, with at length. This law prevails at for twelve days. Five days must all places and at all times and one elapse before the seven clean days who transgresses it and did not de- are counted. The details of this lawmean herself properly in regard to will be discussed in the next Sedrah, her uncleculliness transgressed a Please God. One who violates thispositive commandment in addition law violates a positive command-to the penalty of excision which is ment in addition to punishment ofentailed therein, as we shall read in excision which is involved therein.the next Sedrah, Please G d . 183rd COMMANDMENT 182nd COMMANDMENT The Offering Brought After the The Lcrw Concerning the Running Running h u e h u e of a Womm A woman who was healed from A woman with running issue is a running issue had to bring an unclean and makes others ritually offering as we read in Leviticus, unclean just as in the case of a man Chapter 15, Verse 29, "And on theas we read in the Leviticus, Chapter eighth day she shall take unto her 15, Verse 25, "If a woman have an two turtle doves or two young pig-issue many days not in the time of eons and bring them unto the door her impurity or i she have a n issue f of the tent meeting. 30, "And the beyond the time of her impurity; she priest shall offer one for the sin of-shall be a s in the days of her im- fering and the other for a burnt of-purity." 26, . . . and whatsoever she fering and the priest shall makesltteth upon shall be unclean, a s the atonement for her before the Lorduncleanness of her separation", 28, for the issue of her uncleanline&.""But if she be cleansed of her issue, The sacrifices brought by a WO-ther? she shall number to herself man with running issue is differentseven days, and after that she shall from that brought by a man. In thebB c k ~ n . " case of a leper the sacrifices for a One may stand in awe a t the dif- man or a woman were the same be-ferent laws of our Holy Bible. The cause the symptons of the sicknessesaverage person p e s h m is shocked were a s the same. However, in the loa t times that t e Bible speaks so h case of a man with running issue itopenly in regard to such personal is different, for with him the secretionmatters. Scientists are now more a n d is white and with a woman it is red.more corning to hail the Iaws of These laws pertcnned only to Templefamily purity as found in our faith times and one who t r a n ~ m e dsupremely and souad. It is a known them b y not bringing the proper of-fact that a memtrud womcm who, faring when he or she became well,
    • - 185th Commandment violated a positive commandment. stroyed its sanctity still hovers over 184th COMMANDMENT the ground. It is Holy ground. The Priest May not Enter the 185th COMMANDMENT Temple at Any Time Concerning Services on the Dcry of We are bidden in Leviticus, Chap- Atonement in the Temple ter 16, Verse 2 a s follows: "And the The High Priest was to perform all L--d said unto Moses; speak unto the work in the Service of the Day Aaron thy brother that he come not o Atonement* including the sacri- f at all times into the Holy place . fices, the confessions, the sending that he die not . ." This is the warn- away of the scape-goat etc. Aaron ing given the High-Priest against was commanded to refrain from go- entering the Holy o Hol~es f even on ing into the Holy of Holies except the day of Atonement, except for on the Day o Atonement,and then f service This is also a negative com- only for Service. The awful exper- mandmsnt forbiddng any priest ience of his sons who went in and from entering the Temple except for did not return alvie is given a s a n his Service illustration o what may happen f The High Priest is peri:litt-d on the when there is disobedience a s we Day of Atonement to enter the Holy read in Leviticus, Chapter 16Verse cf Holies only four times, (1 1 for the 23, "In this way shall Aaron go into bringing of the blood, (2) for the the Holy place . . . "in this way" and bringing of incense in its pan, (3) for in no other way. The purpose of the removal of the pan with the in- this commandment is to show that cense and (4) for the bringing of the G-d in his lovingkindness and mercy 5173 1 7 79 the personal offering of 13 over his creatures has set aside ONE the High Priest a s an antonement for day during the year for complete himself and his family. If the High atonement for sinners to repent and Priest went in a fifth time he would return to Him. I there were not f be punishable by excision of death this cleaning o the slate, a s it were, f from heaven. This shows how we each year our sins over a period of must reverence our Holy places. This years would be too many and there lesson we may learn today, namely would be great destruction in the that a spirit of reverence and proper world. Therefore, has the Holy One, decorum in the Synagogue should Blessed Be He set aside one day be dominant. Any priest who went during the year for atonement forinto the Temple not for Services, but "at-one-ment" with Him. On themerely to prostrate himself was pun- Day of Atonement the following of-ished by stripes. As far a Israelites, s ferings were brought, the morning (ono-Wiest) are concerned, when and evening offerings, and the MU-they brought their atonement offer- saf offerings.ing, the 7l>Y17 VpW it was in the In case the Day o Atonement hap- fcourt. Even today one is not permit- pened to fall on a Saturday then twoted to enter the court of the Holy additional offerings were brought.Temple ground in Jerusalem al- The Bible says that the High-Priestthough the Temple is destroyed, as was to bring an offering "for himselfwe read in Leviticus, Chapter 26. and for his house." The words "forVerse 31, "I will bring your sanduar- his house" refers to his wife as theies into desolation"; it does not say, Talmud says lW131nwN "A mans"I will bring into desolation the Holi- wife is his HOME.ness o your sanctuaries." In other f The High Priest was not allowedwords though the building is de- to officiate on the Day of At6nement
    • 186th Commandment 107 unless he was married a n d his wife and that man shall b e cut off from was alive. The High Priest would among his people." make the following confession: "0 This chapter commands that the G-d, .I have sinned, I have committed sacrifices should b e offered in one inquity, I have transgressed against central place. It was feared that the Thee I and my household! In his offering of sacrfices outside of the confession, the High-Priest used the Divinely selected shrine might lead ineffable Name of G-d, the 4 lettered to disrupticn and end in dlsintegra- name, the Tetragrammaton, in its the life of our people have proven true pronounciation; whereupon the how dangerous it is not to have one assembled priests and people in the national centre. By establishing a Court prostrated themselves to the separate place of ownership outside p o u n d a n d exclaimed, 7733 D ~ - 7 l l 3 of Jerusalem Jerboam causEd the 7 1 ~ 7 1 y 7n 3 t y l17) "Blessed be breaking up of the unity of Israel His Name, Whose glorious kingdom which finally resulted in its succumb- is forever and ever." ing to the onslaught of the surround- The High Priest was to take care tion. The historical developmenis in also of the incense and to see that ing nations. The separation gave the lamps were properly cleaned. rise to different customs and different Five times on the Day of Atonement manners which helped to alienate he would take the ritual bath, and one p a r t of the people from the change his garments. His hands and other. Fratricidal wars like that offeet were washed ten times during Judah against Ephraim and Ephraim the day by means of the faucet d against Judah followed and eventu- fthe laver. After the service there ally both sides were weakened andwas a n impressive joyous proces- fell a n easy prey to the mercilesssion on the part of the people in- conquerors, of Syria, of Assyria andhonor of the High-Priest. They were of Babylon. This is a lesson for ushappy in the thought of their atone-, in modern times. Today with thement and forgiveness. Today, how- introduction of Reiorm, (through theever, there is no Temple or Priest- Conservative party, which is the en-hood but the Day of Atonement is tering wedge for departure from tra-spent in praying, in confession, and dition and authority), and the ultrain new resolutions. reform movement consisting of a When the Day is over, we too variety of sects, we have split Israelshould leave the Synagogue in a into parties. This splitting up of Juda-happy mood, trusting that we have ism into various sects, all of thembeen forgiven for our sins against separated by varying degrees, fromG-d. For our sins agcrinst man, only historic (orthodox) judaism, is thepersonal restitution to, and forgive- gravest detriment to the perpetuationness by, the injured one can atone. of our people. 186th C O He who brought a saeifice outside ~ ~ of the proper place is a s i he spilt or f the hghter- shed unnecessury blood. The sacri-hg &ly -.q Outaide of fices were meant to uplift the individ-S~ciuary. ual. If it was merely a formal act We are commanded in Leviticus, committed outside of-the Temple itChupter 17, Verses 3 a n d 4, "No man was regarded as a sin. To slaughterof the House of Israel who slaughter- a n a i a unless for a higher pur- nmled an ox or a lamb or a goat outside pose as for atonement or for food orof the Holy place hath shed blood for h d t h is according to the Torah
    • sheddina blood and destruction. covering o the blood pertains to fTherefore it is apparent that the jew- every fowl and to every beast thatish law is opposed to hunting as a was slaughtered outside o the Tem- fpast-time. It is inhuman, cruel and ple. It also pertained to an amnia1p d u l . For that reason he who called "koy" (probably a kind ofviolated this lcrw was punished by bearded deer or antelope) concern-excision from Heaven as we read ing which the rabbis say it is doubt-"And that man shall be cut off from ful whether it belongs to the genus ofamong his people." cattle ,mil3or beasts o chase. i f l l 187th COMMANDMENT Even the blood upon the knife of the Concerning the -ring Shochet must be covered. We must Of the Blood put upon the ground dust over which the blood is to flow and then be The B i l e in Leviticus, Chapter 17, covered with dust. In regard to the Verse 13 commands as follows: "He dust, any dust is permissnble, even that taketh in a trap and catcheth gold-dust for the B i l e refers to gold- any beast or fowl that may be eaten, dust as dust. I an outsider saw one f he shall pour out the blood therefrom slaughter a fowl or a beast and the and cover it with dust" (hot hard blood was not covered he is obliged earth.) In other words after slaught- to do so for the commandment reads ering fowl and beasts the blood must "unto the children o I s r d which f be covered. The purpose of this com- includes all the children of Israel. mandment is given to impress upon This law pertains to all places and us that in view of the fact that it is all times. It is incumbent upon men brutal to look upon the blood of the and women and he who transgresses s a n animal. Blood is the symbol li of life and is to b e treated in t e h this law and does not cover the same reverent way as we do a dead blood o the beast or the fowl has f body. The covering of the blood is broken a positive commandment. s m l r to the burial of a corpse. iia David Hoffman put it, the exhorta- tion to act reverently in regard to the blood of an animal was not liable Not only are we forbidden from to be forgotten i connection with n all sexual intercourse outside of mar- animals that w2re adhitted a s sacri- riage but as we read in Leviticus, fices. However, some reminder was Chapter I8 Verse 6, "None o you f was necessary in the case of these s h d approach to any that i necrr of s animals that were not brought as k n to uncover their nabdness, I am i sacrifices. It wouId promote coarse- the Lord". Our Rabbis a s under- lo ness in our being and engender a stand this commandment to forbid spirit o cruelty in our souls to treat f kissing, embracing or even touching lightly blood spilt in the course of the bare skin of rehives of the o p slaughtering an animal. Thus in re- po$ite sex. Phis d i n g of course a p gard to the sacrificial offerings the pbes to non-datives as well. The blood was given as an atonement high Jewishstand& of f a d y purityand it was sprinkled upon the a t r le. is thus assisted by preventing theThe Tozuh then made no further dis- stirringtppof~ual~~lt$~~fCtinction corscernirlg these tmimcrls as possible. In this w m has Jewishoutside of t e Temple. Fowb how- h fdmi&life&pm~&tectever, were not as a rule bruught us Thr?chae* dd c e s . The law concerning the atfheptascrnd~vrrkdhozasliPeof
    • the Jew. Unfortunately promiscuous day in the Calendar the paramount sex relationship are becoming more duty of purity and self-control. And prevalent within the Synagogue and there is but little doubt that obedi- certainly in our social relationships. ence to these behests has been, by It seems to be good etiquet+e when Divine Providence, on? of the most visiting another mans home to kiss potent factors in the preservation of his wife. It is certainly against the Israel (Herman Adler). l a w and the spirit of the Jewish re- Our Rabbis point out that one ligion. We are simply imitcrting the should be interested only in the acts of the Egyptians and the Can- beauty of ones own wife and not anites, but the Bible says, PilntpRll to find beauty in another mans wife. u S n NS "Neither shall you walk That is why the Rabbis forbid one in their statutes. Mine ordinances to gaze upon a womans hair dish-shall ye keep . . . which if a man do eveled or to hear her voice in song he shall live by them." Leviticus, or to flirt with her so that his pcrs- Chapter 18, Verses 3, 4, 5. sions may not be stirred, neither by "We are f a t l y becoming Pagans act nor expression. Therefore ac- whose "practices" and lcrws are con- cording to the Jewish religion a mantrary to reason, conscience and the may not be alone in privacy with a divine w l " (Wogue). il woman other than hi wife, whether Impqity in marriage, incestuous she be old or young excepting apromiscuity among near relations, mother with her son or a father withand other abominations are unpard- his daughter. These laws prevail a tonable sins, blighting the land d ail times and a eveiy place and are tits inhabitants with defilement. In incumbent upon females as well asgraphic brevity and comeliness, the males. One who with intent breaks 18th Chapter of Leviticus s this law, after being warned not to other passages o similar= f transgress the commandment, re-more delicately and at the same time ceives stripes.more seriously, such matters cannotbe spoken about (Ewald). 189th COMMANDMENT Marriage is a primary religious The NaJtkeh o the Father. f duty, according to Jewish law. The Jewish husband should love his wife We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, as himself, and honor her more than Verse 7, "The nakedness of thy father himself. I will work for thee, I will shalt thou not uncover." If one honour thee, I will support thee, as transgresses this law the person isit becometh a Jewish husband so to punished doubly, first for homo-sex-do, is to t i day the husbands vow hs ualness and secondly for union w tihin the "Kesuba," the Jewishcontract the father. One who trmqresesof marriage. The affectionate con- ths law is to be stoned.sideration shown to the wife, how- Many o my rectders will perhaps fever, as well as the domestic purity blush a the following commund- tc d devotion that m the giary of e me- t be explained but I must oJewish worn&, are both largely repeat the words of Ewald, "In gra-the h i t o Zhe 1uws and warnings in f phic beauty and d e the 1 t 8~h ~these chapters of L m gvi Chapter o LBviticus (this OW chap f This 18th CUS ter) surpcsws ull o k m g e s offonns one of the similar import more d e l i d y cad atDay of A t a n e m . The selection h same time more seriously, such~nrodo~pro~adbytfie mattem ccnutot be spolten about". de-sirek, incak&e an tha most solemn All unions between the sexes that
    • are repellent to the finer feehgs of with a stepmother as we read in man, or would taint the natural af- Leviticus, Chapter 18 Verse 8, "The fection between near relations, are nakedness of thy fathers wife shallsternly prohibited. Primary prohibit ye not uncover: it is thy fathers na- ed marriages are: (a)blood-relations kedness." (Hertz) As marriage makes-mother, sister, daughter, grand- man and wife one, (see Genesis,daughter, fathers sister and mothers Chapter 2, Verse 24), so a stepmo-sister; and (b) cases of affinity-the ther was regarded as a blood rela-wives of blood-relations and of the tion of the nearest kind. The reasonwifes blood-relations. All unions be- for this is that an immoral act to-tween persons belonging to those wards a stepmother is a disgracefulgroups arc clas;cd a incestuous act toward ones father, whether it nF1y They have no binding be during his life time or after hisforce whatsoever in Jevrish Law, death or even if they be divorced.hence no divorce (Get) is required The world is greatly benefited, whenfor their dissolution. Th? i x x e i ille- s parents are respected we listengitimate (mamzer). to what they say. A parent will rarely The Rabbis have expanded the mislead a child religiously and mor-"primary" irito "secondary Prohibit- ally. These laws refer not only toed Marriages," nlUw ; e. g. as Jews but to Gentiles as well. Theythe mother is forbidden, so is the refer to al times and al places and l lgrandmother and great-grandmoth- one who transgresses this command-er: as the step-mother so is the ment with intent is stoned.&and-fathers wife; as the daughter- 192nd COMMANDMENTin-lcrw, so is the grandsons wife. The Nakedness o Thy Sister fMarriages of the secondary Prohibit-ed Degrees must b e dissolved by a We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18,divorce and the chlldren are legiti- Verse 8, "The Nakedness of thy sister,mate." the daughter of thy father or the 190th COMMANDMENT daughter of thy mother. . . thou shalt The Nakedness of the Mother not uncover." This commandment does not refer to a stepsister, (a A son should not uncover the na- child of the fcrthers wife born fromkedness of his mother as it is writ- another marriage). Such a marriageten in Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verse 7, is perfectly permissable."The nakedness of thy mother shalt These iaws prevail a t all timesthou not uncover." This is not only and a all places. One who trans- tdisrespectful to the father but to the gresses them premediatedly deservesmother as well. It cheapens her excision.standing. One who transgresses this This law refers not only to thelaw breaks two commandments, one children of Israel but to al mankind. lbecause of his mother and the other We have defined "sister" to meanbecause it is the wife of his father. not only a full sister but a half-sisterIt makes no difference whether the a welI. Others have defined "sister" s father is alive or not; she is always as one born from the same mother.his fathers wife. This command-ment pertains to all times cmd all 193rd C- Oplaces and one who transgresses ii l"keNot*ofis to be stoned. Thy S a d s Dmght€v 19lSt In Leviticus ,Chapter 18, Verse 10,T h e ~ d T h y F ~ s W i f eread, "The nakedness of thy sons we The Jewish religion forbids a union daughter . . . thou shalt not uncover".
    • 199th Commandment This commandment prevails at all shalt not uncover her nakedness." times and at all places and one who Upon this verse the late David Hoff- transgresses it premediately was man makes the following comment guilty of being burned. which appears in Chief-rabbi Hertzs As murriage with a step-grand- Commentary on the Bible, "Descentdaughter in Verse 17 of our Chapter from the same mother was longis forbidden, this verse seems super- deemed a closer degree of relation-fluous. "The Rabbis understood tihs ship than descent from the same fa-verse a s referring to the daughter ther (Gen. xx, 12). Consequently, v. 9even of an illegitimate son or daugh- might have been misunderstood toter. apply to either thy sister (viz. of the Marriage with a daughter is not same mother) who is the daughter ofexpressly forbidden; because, in thy father, i.e. a half-sister from theview of the prohibition of the grand- same mother but different father.daughter (see verse 17) it is self- Union with a half-sister from theevident." (Hertz). same father but different mother might thus have been thought per- 194th COMMANDMENT missable. Hence the need of a clear The Nakedness of Thy prohibition of the daughter from the Fathers Daughter same father by another mother, a s In Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verse 10 is stated here." we read, ("The Nakedness") of thy This law refers to all times and tofathers daughter . . . thou shalt not all places and one who premedit-uncover for it is as thine own na- ately violates it is guilty of excision.kedness. All the laws pertaining to this 197th. COMMANDMENTcommandment are similar to the pre- The Nakedness of Thy Futhers Sistervious ones. and 198th COMMANDMENT The verse, "thine own nakedness" The Nakedness of Thy Mothers SisterMoffatt explains to mean "they are It makes no difference whether thepart of yourself ." =runt is from the mother or the fathers side as we read in Verses 12 and 13 195th COMMANDMENT of Chatper 18 of the Book of Leviti- The Ndcedness of Thy Daughter cus, "Thou shalt not uncover the na- The Rabbis point out t a whilst kedness of they fathers near kins- htthis commandment is not stated in man," 13. "Thou shalt not uncoverthe Blble it is of course inferred. As the nakedness of thy mothers sister;we said previously, if union with a she is a s they mothers kinswoman."grand-daughter is forbidden then so 190th C O M ~ ~ D M E N Tmuch is it with a daughter. The pun-ishment, for brealung this Command- The Nakedness o Thy fmen, is based upon a 3 l W n7Tf Fathers Brother"an inferrence from a similarity of We read m Leviticus Chapter 18phruses in the Bible." Verse 14, "Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy fathers broth- 196th w ET MN - er." One who violates this command-Phe 1Yakecbim o the Daughter of ment is guilty of two trcmsgressions f m l Fathersw f ife according to the Talmud in Sanhed- We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, rin: 1, Homo-sexualness and 2,Verse 11, "The nakedness of thy against relationship with near rela-fathers wifes daughter, begotten of tives. In this case both the Uncle andthy father, she is as thy sister, thou the Nephew are to be stoned i they f
    • violate the law with premeditation. Verse 16, "Thou shalt not uncover received warning and acted in the the nakedness o thy brothers wife." f presence o witnesses. If there are no f This prohibition also holds even ii witnesses present both are guilty of his brother divorced h s wife. How- i excision. ever, the Torah makes a n exception where the obligation was placed up- 200th c- o on a man in Biblical times to marry The Nakedness of the Wife of Thy his brothers widow should his bro- Fathers Brother ther have died without issue. It As we read in Leviticus, Chapter makes no difference whether the 18, Verse 14, "Thou shcrlt not UP- brother be o one father or o one f f proach to his wife. She is as thine mother or whether he be a n illegiti- aunt." "Union .with the wife of a mate child, nevertheless he is call& fathers brother is an offence against at all times a brother. two persons whom marriage had 203rd COMMANDMENTmade one flesh (see v. 8). .For that The Uncovering of the Nakednessreason, her nephew could not many of a Woman rmd Her Daughterher after his uncles death. The Rab-bis declare mcnriage with the wife It is written in the Book of Leviti-o a mothers brother equally illegal." f cus, Chapter 18, Verse 17, "Thou(Hertz). I this commandment is vio- f shalt not uncover the nakedness oflated premediately and before wit- a woman and her daughter." Thisnesses, both parties are to be pun- refers only in the case where oneished by strangulation. If there wcrs married either o the two first. In fa union premediately with the wife that event, he liad the mother, or theo his uncle after the death, he is f daughter, whoever was the latker,guilty of excision. are to be punished by fire because the first one, whether it be the no- aolst COlmmNDMEM ther or the daughter who was mar- The NcddmEs Of Thy ried to the man, did nothiny that wcis Daughter-kr-k wrong. If one had union with either One may have no union with his one after the death o the other theii fdaughter-in-law whether in the life- the punishment is by excision.time of his son or after his death or M)Qth coIkl?uummeven if they be divorced or even i The Nakedness o a Wornam aad ffer f fhis son be a n illegitimate child, crs SOPS Daughter (Grcmddcrughter)we read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, We r e a d n Leviticus, Chatper 18,Verse 15: "Thou shalt not uncover Verse 17, "Thou shdt not uncoverthe npkedness of thy daughter-in- the nakedness of a woman and herlaw. She is thy sons wife; thou shalt daughter." This law a s in the pre-not uncover her nakedness." This law also refers not only to vious commcmdment refers only to the case where one of them is mar-the daughter-in-law but also to the ried to t e man. Both malefactors hgrand-daughter-in-1 and unto a are to be punished by fire. If one ~i Ugenerations. I this 1 f - is trans- them died, and i the s n was corn- f ig r d premediately and there a e mitted pmeditately, then they are rwitnesses then the punishment is b y both to be punished by excisionstoning. !mbdCO--T e Wedhusss of Thy &&beds Wife h We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18,
    • 205th CO?4MANDMENT warned against the violation of the The Nakedness of a Womcm and law, he receives stripes for breaking Her Daughters Daughter a commandment. I this law was f (Granddaughter) violated unwittingly, then he brings We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, the set sin offering. Verse 17, "Thou shalt not take her 207th COMMANDMENT daughters daughter to uncover her nakedness." The laws concerning The Lcrws Concerning the Menstrual this commandment are the same as Women the previous one. We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verse 19, "Thou shalt not approach 206th COMMANDMEIW cnto a woman to uncover her naked- Concerning the Nakedness o a f ness, a s iong as she is impure by her Wcmcm cmd Her Sister uncleanness." According to our law, We read in the Book of Leviticils a woman remains in her menstrual Chapter 18, Verse 18, "And thou s i a e for five days. Thereafter, she shalt not take a woman to her sister counts seven clean days and then to be a rival to her to uncover her goes $0 the Mikveh, the ritual bath. nakedness, beside the other in her Israel Zangwill who was not a n lifetime." In other words, a man may clthodox Jew, in his book called "The not marry his wifes sister even if he Voice of Jerusalem," on page 31 has has divorced his wife. She may not the following to say, "Now, too, a t be her rival in her lifetime. Sisterly last the marriages laws of Leviticus love would then turn to strife and and the Talmudical Tractate that hatred. G d is the master of peace amplifies them are being studied and certainly wants his people to with admiration for a code that could live at peace, pcnticulurly two sis- interefere even between Beauty and ters. However in case of her death, the Beast. There is here a vast new G d forbid, it was permitted. The field for research which has barely Rabbis regarded it even as the right been touched." thing to do because no other woman Dr. Hertz, Chief Rabbi of Great can show the same affection to the Britain in his Commentary on the orphaned children as the sister of Bible, on this verse, quotes the fol- their mother. lowing, "While recognizing the SUC- The laws of this commandment red ncrture of the estate of wedlock, refer to the sister whether she be Judaism prescribes continence even irom the mothers side or the fathers in marriage. The Jewish ideal of side and even if she be a n illegiti- holiness is not confined to the avoid- mate shier; the prohibition holds. ance of the illicit; its ideal includes This law also refers to one who the hallowing of the licit (Georgeawaits the Levirate marriage or Cha- Foot Moore, Professor of The Historylitzah, in which case her sister is of Religion at Harvard University).forbidden to many her brohr-in- "It ordains the utmost considerationlaw unless her brother-in-law who for the wife not only throughout theintended to marry her steps out of monthly period of sepcnution (nid-the picture and allows another bro- dah), but also during the seven fol-ther to marry her or give her Chu- lowing days of mnvalesce11~8a dlitzoh. P X i law refers to aD places recovery (tuharakt), which are term-and d times and if they a r e violated inated b y ritual purification through lp m r n e e 2 y then the rnan is 2 - tot& immersion either in a f o u n t a h bble t tacekbon. H - o om if these or a gathering o living wuter fme witnesses present a d he is xi, 3 ) By the reverent guidance in 6.
    • 207th Commandment these vital matters which these laws Moses, especially to that portion, afford, Jewish men have been taught pertaining to married life. respect for womanhood. As for Jew- Orthodox Judaism has detailed I ish women, they were, on the one "Laws of family purity." These laws hand, given protection from uncurb- were intended to protect the woman ed passion; and on the other hand, and to bring into the relationship taught to view marital life under the of husband and wife, periodically aspect of holiness the newly-wed state o happiness f Every daughter in Israel should and domestic felicity. strive not only after physical but Dr. Hertz quotes the following, also after ritual purity and her "Even more noteworthy is the dif- reward will be longevity and im- ference in the proportion of a cer- munity from many a feminine dis- tain form of cancer-among Jewish ease. When faith alone is presented and non-Jewish women respectively as the reason for some religious ob- (Sorsby, Cancer and Race, 1931). servance, it is sometimes discredited. The Mosaic Code again stands out Statistics and figures are demanded, as an astonishing example of in- and we have them in a bulletin ne- spired wisdom and foresight which titled, "The Rare Occurence of Can- should appeal with redoubled force cer o the Womb among Jewish WO- to the enlightened minds of today. f men," issued by Dr. Hiram N. Wein- Discipline and self-restraint are per- berg, Chief of the Medical Staffof the haps the lessons most needed for the Mount Sinai Hospitals Womens Dis- present times (Lieut.-Col. F. E. Free- ease Department. mantel, Chairman, International Can- Dr. Weinberg states that of the cer Conference, London, July 1928). 30,000 cases taken care of by his For a brief account of the tradi- department from 1909 to 1918, 28,000 tional laws of niddah and taharah, being Jewish and 2,000 Gentiles, he see Dayan Lazarus, "The Ways of found 20 women suffering from cun- Her Household." cer of the womb. Of these 13 were These laws prevail at al times and l Jewish and 7 Gentiles. This means at all places and those who trans- that there was one case of every gress them premediately are guilty 2,154 Jewish women as against one of excision. The following story is o every 285 Gentiles, with cancer. f told by the Rabbis, in the Talmud In concluding this report, Dr. Wein- Kda: One day as Rabbi Biezer, the berg tries to determine what these son of Hy~xmus, Rabbi Joshuah, the I figures indicate. He points out that son of Chcmcmia, and Rabbi Akibah 1 the attendant circumstances in both were sitting together, there m e d groups being the same (the Jewish before t e a child distinguished hm and Gentile women being of the from other children by its impud- poorer class, for they would not have ence. Rabbi Joshuah said, "He mustused the dispensary and hospital have been born of menstruity." Thewere they able to pay for private mother was questioned; A child bornmedical attention), the question from such wedlock is not culled an illegitimate child 1arises, to what cun the immunity of a " M I , 1the sex-organ to cancer, among Jew- but is a 1 He does not have 10ish women be attributed? What is jewish blW "good pedigree."there in the mode of life of the Jewish In the animal world we look forwomen which is different from that of p e d i m . If pedim h a m m gthe Gentiles? He concludes t a the in the animal life so much the mare htd i f f e m lies i n fhaf the is it valuable in the life ofJewish women, adhere to the Law of beings. TheFe is need to
    • upon or;r young people to keep the cannot be observed. When we see pedigree of Israel in its pristine-pure our children spiritually burning then state. in order to drown out the voice of conscience w e employ such words 208th COMMANDMENT as,careers, progress, modernity, 20th WOBSHIP OF MOLOCH century. Alas, we ought to bow our In Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verse 21, heads in shame for this 20th century, "And thou shalt not give a n y of thy --our modernity. seed to set them apart to Moloch." 209th COMMANDMENT The commandment against idolatry had already been given in the FERVERSION second of the Ten Commandments. In Leviticus, Chapter 18, Verse 22, Our verse, however, singles out the w e read, "Thou shalt not lie with worship to Moloch because it was mankind as with womankind; it is the worst a n d a t the same time the a n abomination." This shows the one to which the peoples of then depths of depravity from which the savage world most adhered. Our Torah saved the Jewish people. This verse also says jJTtD1 "some of practice of homosexuality is preval- thy seed" but not "all." I one f ent even today among the Ishmael- brought all his children for such ites, the Arab world. worship even death penalty would We a r e bidden to promote, a n d not atone. Some s a y that the people not to retard the worlds population, used to bring one or more of their as w e read in Genesis, "Be fruitful children to Moloch because they a n d multiply." The laws of this com- were assured b y the Priests of the mandment a r e that both involved idol, that the rest of their children in this sin, are to b e punished b y would prosper. The laws of the stoning. This commandment prevails commandment are that h e who a t all times a n d a t all places and is would be guilty of worship to Moloch to be observed not only b y Israel vras to b e stoned. This command- but b y all mankind. ment is not only binding upon Israel but upon all mankind as well. 210th COMMANDMENT Moloch was a large metal figure Mads Cazndty With Any B e d with outstretched arms. Into its arms which were hot, the child to b e In Leviticus Chapter 18, Verse 23,sacrificed was, according to some we a r e commanded "Thou shalt not placed therein, a n d according to lie with crny beast to defile thyself others, was waved over the fire. I n therewith." Anyone who commitsorder to drown out the agonized this crime after having been warned cries of the victims, the Priests would is punished b y being stoned, he a n dbeat upon their drums until the the animal. This prohibition pertainsshrieks o the children ceased. Later, f to all places a n d all times.however, a human manners became smilder, this ceremony w a s modified 21lth C O ~a n d made less inhumctn. Womens Carnality With Any Beast H o m i l e t i d y speaking, w e parents We r e d in Leviticus, Chapter 18,in a spiritual way are guilty o giv- f Verse 23, "Neither shall a n y womaning our children over to Moloch, fo stand before a n y beast to lie downstrange fires, whether it be in send- thereto; it is perversion." It is a v o - iling t e to Trefa d e g t s s or to hm ation of the Divine scheme o Cre-fmT academiee; or to indllstlis t y u ation.or professions where t e Sabbath h These almost incredible bestiali-
    • 116 212th Commandment ties, are but too well attested in the apt to honor the mother more than customs, and legends of the ancient the father, because the father is lessand medieval world. They are not popular wit11 his children in view ofunknown in modern society. The the fact that he is usually srticter, andBibles "uncompromising condemna- then too his love is not as demonstra-tion of these offences Ied to their tive as the mothers, therefore theextirpation in the midst o Ismel, f Bible, in regard to honoring the pcrr-and eventualIy to their moral out- ents, places the father before thelcrwry among all peoples that came mother a s we read in Exodus Chcrp-under the sway of the Hebrew Scrip- ter 20, Verse 12, "Honor thy FATHERtures." and thy mother." The punishment for breaking this However, the parents, if they socommandment after warning having desire may forego the honor duebeen given to the woman, is that she them.and the animal are to receive the It is also interesting to note thatdeath penalty by stoning. This com- one who strikes his father or hismandment pertains to al places and l mother is put to death by strangula-all times. tion whilst on the other hand i he f curses his father or his mother his 212th c - death penalty is severer, namely by Mcm Should Fear His Mother stoning. The reason for this being and Fcrther that striking is a physical sin whilst We read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, &sing is a spiritual sin. Therefore Verse 3, "Ye shall fear every man his for the latter the punishment is mother a n d his father." The Sifrah greater.asked the question, "What is meant The laws of this Commandment are by fear and reverence?", and the an- that reverence must be shown to-swer is, One should not sit in their ward our parents even if they smiteplaces or speak preceding them and us Even if they spit upon us weone should not contradict them." may not cause them to be abashed."Honor" is shown by providing for rlevertheless, our Sages point outtheir food, drink, dress and other re- that a parent is warned not to hitquirements. his gruwn-up child because in doing In my "Bible Comments for Home so he may be guilty of transgressingReading," you will find the following th2 command, "Before a blind personcomment upon this verse. The term thou shalt not put a stumbling block,""man" used in this connection does because the child is tempted to hitnot exclude "woman," for the verb back and his sin will then have beenused is the second person plural "Ye caused by the parent.shall fear." The reason the term ftHN The father, as a matter o fad is f"man" is llsed, is because it is ROf put into Cherem for provoking suchalways possible for the woman (on an act on the part of his child. Oneaccount of marriage) to do her full must show reverence to his parentduty by her parents. (See Talmud even if the parent loses his mind. I fKiddwhin 30b). physical force must be used, i a par- f The Rabbis point out that since ent is crazy, then if possible, theone is apt to fear the father more child should emplay someone ekethan the m o t h , because Ere is the to do it. Even an iiligetiniute childstricter of the two, the Torah places is obliged to honor and reverencethe mother first, and says, "Ye shall his gxxrents. The only time a ckiMfear every man his M O T m and his doesnotha~etoobyhisparentLfather." On the other hand m e is * @ n & e p x r e n t & d s h b M
    • any of the commandments. The rea- Bad thoughts are not regarded a s son for this being that both the par- deeds with one exception, namely ents and the child are called upon to thoughts concerning idols or strange observe the commandments. That is worship. The law forbids us to why immediately after this com- give regard to the means that lead mandment we read, And ye shall to idol worship, and he who trans- keep my Sabbaths." These two com- gressed it, as for instance, by kissing mandments are placed side by side an idol received strirxs. in order to teachthat the fear o par- f ents must not exceed the fear o f 214th COMMANDMENT G-d, and that nothing contravenes The law Concerningthe Merking Gds law. A child must lace his o Idols f duty to G-d before that to h$ parents We are forbidden to make any (Talmud). In my Bible Comments idol a s we read in Leviticus, Chapter for Home Reading we read the fol- 19, Verse 4, "Nor make yourselveslowing: "Though the Torah enjoins molten G-ds; I am the L--d your G-d."us to pay extreme regard to the wish- The Rabbis in the Sifrah add thees of our parents, yet there is one word c q n ~ 5In other words idols .case in which parents may and are not even to be made for others.should be disobeyed and that is Vessels for an idol, as for instance,when they order the breaking of the for incense and so forth are forbid-Sabbath or any o the Divine com- f den for usage, or profit i they have fmands. In such instances the author- been used once for idolatry. Theity of the parents is over-ridden by Bible is vehemently aginst idolatrythe higher authoritiv of G-d whom because it has always lead to im-we and THEY are bound to obey. morality and world destruction. The(See Talmud Yevamos 5b and Baba laws concerning idolatry pertain toMetzia 32b). all places and all times, to male and This commandment pertains to all female. One who makes an idol fortimes and all places and is incumb- an Israelite or for an Idolator re-ent upon males and females. He who zeives stripes once. If he makes ittransgresses it breaks a positive com- for himself he has violated two com-commandment. mandmentg 1Eqln N and ~ 3 5 , and receives stripes. twice. 213th lumNmMiOIDOLS 215th COMMANDMENT Not To Eat That Which Remedns We recrd in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Of T e S a d i c e hVerse 4, Turn ye not into the Idols-I am the L--d your G-d." The We rezd in Leviticus, Chapter 19Prophet said, "Woe unto them that Verse 6, "It shall be eaten on the draw iniquity with cords o vanity, f same day ye offer it and on the mor- and sin as it were with a ccnZ rope." row; and if ought remain until the(Isaiah, Chapter 5, verse IS). S n is i third day, it shall be burnt with fr. ie"at first only as weak as a cord, but Whenever holy things become unfitwhen left unchecked it develops into then we have the negative commcmd-the strength of a rope. First it is as ment not to e t therefrom. This in- athe Hebrew original renders it, a s dudes ail holy things that become"nafhingness," then idol, the "no- d i t by "remaining VI7.3 beyondthingness" become venerated. Thus the proper time" f r eating. Then it oevery bad practice or tendency is odorous, rancid and unfit for sac-shoddbedmckedtightatthebe- r f c a meat. This also includes 5 f f ~ iiilSina$tg. which means that one had a wrong
    • (inappropriate mental disy;osal) or something which according to the improper intention connected with Torah rightfully belonged to the the bringing of the offering, a for poor. It was DUE them. Thus today instance, one who brought the sac- our annual contributions are redly rifice thought that he was eating it not gifts. They are called DUES. in the proper place but he was eating They are DUE to the community. If it in the improper place or he thought this was withheld it was regarded a s he was eating it at the proper time actually defrauding and robbing the and he was eating it at the improper poor, who, in such a case could go time. This is abhorrent because we to the Beth Din, the Court, and de- may not slaughter an animal unless mand their rights. it be for a worthy purpose. "I am the L--d your G-d." This This negative commandment not clause was appended to indicate that to eat of the remains o the sacrifice f the came G-d and was after a certain time is to mentioned the and that the Owner here to show that both 3 therefore had no right to withhold and ~ U Bare two separate the part which belonged to the poor.negative commandments because Our Rabbis point Out that eventheir punishment is indicated in two the For theof may comedifferent verses in the Bible. The word and partake o the comer of the field f"flesh" does not include the embryo that belonged to the Jew. It is inter-or the crop, or the sinews or the esting to note that the owner o the f field cmnot pick his poor man. Inhoofs, or the feathers in regard to regard to that which belong to the while it is included in the Vlll hiest, he may choose his la, term 5118 because what he gives to the 183 These laws are further explained is a gift whilst what HE GIVES toin many places in the Talmud. Their the poor is their due. is alsoprohibition pertained only during interesting to note that ~ - has corn- dTemple times and referred to male mmded us to leave a comer of theand female. And one who h w g r e s - field so that the poor man may bowsed them and ate a piece of food as where to come. How much thatlarge a s the size of an olive of in13 corner of the field is to be is notwith intent was guilty of excision and stipulated in the Bible. However, theif he ate it unwittingly he Was to Rabbis have said that it should notbring the set sin offering. be less than 1/60th of the size of the 216th COMMANDMENT field. Laws Concerning The Comer of the Well may the world stand en- Field tranced at the Jewish notion of We are bidden in Leviticus, Chap- 3373 , charity. The Prophet has wellter 19, Verses 9 and 10, "And when said, nNDn D a N l ? I D 3 "the love ofye reap the harvest of your f a d thou the Gentiles is a sin." In othershalt not wholly reap the corner of words, the charity of the nations is athy field . . . thou shalt leave them sin. Why, you may ask. The answerfor the poor and for the stranger, I I think is that the Gentile notion ofam the L--d your G-d." Instead of charity is based upon love. Love is"thou shalt give, etc.," the Bible an emotion and therefore unstable.says, "Thou Shalt leave." The Rab- Love may be bIind and prejudiced.bis say that G-d wanted the people The Jewish conception of c h d t y isto realize that the part of the harvest not based upon love but upon just-which they had left was not a DON- ice. Charity belongs to the poor-ATION from the rich to the poor, but It is an injustice to rob them of what
    • 219th Commandment is due them. The Prophet Malachi but also the negative command not asked the question, "Can a man rob to harvest his whole field. G-d?" a n d the answer is, surely, if he fails to give his tithes to the poor. 218th COMMANDMENT Until recently the nations of the The Laws Concerning the Glecmings world have been interested primarily We read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, in safeguarding the rights of the pos- Verses 9 a n d 10, "And when ye reap sessing classes. Judaism more than the harvest . . . thou shalt not gather 3200 years ago has made the poor a the gleanings . . . thou shalt leave partner to the possessing classes. them for the poor and the stranger. The laws refer not only to the pro- When one reaps with a scythe (the duce, but include corner of the field natural way,) a n d he misses two of fruits as well. The poor may collect straws, he should not go back and as soon as the produce or the fruit cut them, as two straws are regarded is one-third of its growth. I by f as gleanings. Three or more a r e not mistake the owner of the field har- regarded as gleanings. However, if vested all, he must return a t least this happened by accident as for 1/60th to the poor. What we call instance , he hit the straws with hisproduce meum that which is grown hand a n d two of them fell. Ourfrom the earth from the air. Dye is religion frowns upon charity thatnof included in produce because it comes through accident, or throughis not food. Figs are excluded from sickness. Charity is the normal hu-the law of the corner of the field man way of giving a n d not a n ab-because they do not ripen a t a cer- normal gift. You remember the ad-tain time. A poor man cannot htrow a g e playing upon the word, 237his garment over the corner of the "gold." It says N973 In133 37field and say, "It is mine." So sim- This means "he who gives when heilarly if one finds something he can- is well," his gift is like gold, for thenot throw something over it a n d say, first letters of the adage spell 137"It is mine" until he actually takes which means gold." only when h ehold of it a n d possesses it. Our rabbis is sick, or in trouble, his gift is assay that a man is obliged to increase silver, a n d he who gives through histhe size of the corner of the field if it will only after decrth, his gift is asis very small or i the poor be many f brass, the cheapest of all.or i f h e was blessed with a large Produce that is found in holesbounteous harvest. These laws per- made by ants and gleanings a r etain to male a n d female, a n d to mixed u p with the harvest. TherePalestine only whilst the mqority of is a doubt then as to the produce,Israel dwells therein. whether it belongs to the owner or 217& COMMANDMENT to the poor. In matters of charity,The laws Concerning the Corner where there is a doubt, the benefit is o the Field f given to the poor. However the nether part certainly belongs to the One may not harvest ull his seed, owner because it must have beenas we read in Leviticus Chapter 19 brought there by the a n t sverse 9. "Thou shalt not wholly reapthe corner of thy field." This com- 2 9 h COMMANDMENT 1tmandment stated in its negative as-pect means that if one harvests all The larocra concerning Gleaningshis field, h e h a transgressed not Here we have the law of the gleun-only the positive cogmandment to ings stated negatively "Neither shdtleave fa^ the poor and the stranger thou gather the gleanings of the hctr-
    • vest," (Leviticus Chapter 19 verse 9) take the gleanings until the owner they must be left for the poor. begins to get the grapes off the vines. 2 m COMMANDMENT 222nd C O ~ M E N T The Gleanings o the Viiyards f The law o the F d e n Fruit f We read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, We are bidden to leave for the Verse 10, "And thou shalt not glean poor a n d the stranger the fallen fruit thy vineyard . . . thou shalt leave of the vineyard at the time of the them for the poor and the stranger. gathering of the grapes off the vine, The term "gleaning" referring to the a s we read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, vineyard means the same as Peah Verse 10, "Thou shalt leave them for (the corner of the field) and the scrrne the poor and the stranger, I am the rules apply to the gleanings of the L--d your G-d." vineyard nl551y a s do to Peah, the comer of the field. 223rd COMMANDMENT T e Luw o the Fallem Fruit h f 221t COMBWUDMENT s We now have the negative com- The Laws o the Gleanings f mandment concerning the vineyard N~~ we have the commandment that one should not gather the fallen concerning the gleanings of the vine- fruits of the vineyard, but leave them yards stated in a negative way, as for the poor a s we read in Leviticus, we p a d in Leviticus ,Chapter 19, Chapter 19, Verse 10, "And neither verse 10, "And thou shalt not glean they gather the fallen fruit thy vineyard." Ofcourse the term The differen* be- ttgleaning~ specific for vineyard is tween gleanings and the fallen fruit as the term -peahol is for the corner is as fouows: Gleanings represent of the field. other words;glean- that which remains on the trees but - ings mean the comer of the vineyard. fQllen fruit tefers the time when One gdhers, a n d one or two grapes This is the opinion of the R a m b a , (Maimonides.) However, the Ram- from the basket to the ground. ban, (Nachmonides) differsand S ~ S If it be three gropes then it is re- that gleaning does not refer to the garded luster and d = ~ndcorner of the vineyard but the word come under the category of D7B the fruit.r, However if onePeah vineyctrds as as mtentionally threw a whole clusterfields. Accordng to him the glean- of grapes on the ground, then itings mean the small grapes which shows that it is 7 3 ~ n that h eshould be left for the pocr in ad&- meant it to hme* pmp ~ ~ . ~ l ~tion to the corner of the field. The erty... H wet ~if one lxlt a ~ ~ ~small grapes are those remain under the vine SO fhot the singleon the stalk which has no am,- must therein it is re-grapes hanging ChVn born garded as sted@ fr- the poor.the trunk. You ccmnot fool Ga. The owner If one failed to leave the gl-gs thought that only if single grapesfor the poor the court force the fall to tbe grortad they b1wg toowner to give them to the Poor o to r the poor. However, he wmed topay for them. I the vine is made up f beat the law and tried ho make sureentirely of gleanings (grapes upon that ha grapes would fall to thethe trunk) it belongs to the F ground. No, as soon as the straybecause the Bible says, "Thou grapes leave the tree even b f a enot glean thy vineyard." On the they kll t the p u n d , they belong oother hand the poor may not come b to Zhe poor. The l m o the fcdlen f
    • fruit are similar to the laws of Peah, ment, then Absalom said unto him. . . the corner o the field. f See, thy matters are good and right; but there is no man deputed of -the 224th king to hear thee. Absalom said YE SHA&L NOT STEAL moreover, Oh that I were made We have the commandment con- judge in the land that every man cerning stealing in the Sedrah Mish- which hcrth any suit or cause might potim. Here, however, we have the come unto me, and I would do him warning against stealing as we read justice! . . . So Absalom stole the in Leviticus, Chapter 19 Verse 1 1, hearts o the men of Israel (11 Sam. f "Ye shall not steal." The Rabbis have xv, 2-6). qone one step further and have said It is forbidden to buy anything that it is forbidden to steal in order from a thief because in that way we to tease or to annoy one and then strengthen the hands o the sinners. f return the stolen thing. Such pradi- So also where we may think that cal jokes are absolutely forbidden. the possessors o certain crrticles f So also have they pointed out in the stole them from him a s for instance, Sifrah that the s p e e d term for steal- wool or milk or goats from the shep- inq used in the Bible includes not herds. We are also forbidden to only stealing that brings on a bene- purchase from women or from slaves fit but even stealing that was done or from children, except such things only for annoyance. Some even scry as are known to be theirs. So also that when one steals merely to dis- we may not purchase from watch- turb his neighbor he should receive men of the fields, wood or fruit except stripes. In view of the fad that there in places where it is known that they is punishment involved ior stealing, are representing the owner. no w - 9 hcnring been given for Further details concerning this law this punishment therefore the oom- may be found in Baba Kama, Chap- m a n e e n t is repeated here as a ter 7. This prohibition prevails in warning that if one steals he will be all places and at all times and per- fined. tains to male and female. He who "Everything that has the appear- steals must pay double for his theft. ance o stealing is strictly forbidden, f In this way he is punished for a like lest a man become habituated to the amount which he intended to take act of stealing (Shulchan Aruch). from his neighbor. However, there Especially reprehensible is nV n3-32 are two exceptiohs made, namely i f "stealing the good opinion of others" one steals another mans ox or sheep by any manner of misrepresentation. and then slaughters it and s l s it, el (Mechitlta, Mishpatim). then he must pay, as the Bible indi- "Let a man earn the good opinion cates, four times the amount for theof his fellowmen, but let him not oxen and five times for the sheep.steal it" said Samson Flaphuel (See Exodus, Chapter 21, Verse 37).Mirsch. A dassical excnnpIe is cd- In the Talmud in 3aba Kamma 97b,forded by Absaloms manner of in- we find the following reasons givengrati4h-q himself with UR who felt for the difference in the fines to bediscontent d the laws delay, sug- imposed. Rabbi Meier says thatgesfing thaf if Ir, were king, things since an ox is a working crnimal thewould be d i k e & . And Asubrn fuss involved when a n ox is stolen isrose up ecwiy, and stood beside tha greater than when a sheep is stolen.wuy of the gate 4 it was s: thut o, Hence the thief should pay a heavierw h any man had. a suit wM& penalty. Rabbi Joch~nan Zakkqi 3enstEbUM come t the king king j d g - o says that since the ox can w &
    • 122 225th Commandment a s quickly a s the thief while the dition, a guilt offering, as a n atone- sheep has to be carried on the ment for his offense. shoulder, the penalty for stealing a The Rabbis remark that since sheep should be a little less than for these denials are possible only when stealing a n ox. Whenever the penal- there are neither witnesses nor docu- ty is to be double or four or five ments testifying against him. G d times a s in the case oi the ox and remains the only witness, and there- the sheep which includes the fine, tore the offender commits a treas- it is only when witnesses have come pass against the L--d. We might also to testify that he has stolen. However, i he should confess before the wit- f infer from this that any sin against nesses came and testified then all h e ones neighbour is at the same time has to pay is the amount that he stple a sin against G-d. Both ceremonial and not the fine. This is the law in and social duties emanate from His regard to all cases where fines are will and should be obeyed with involved, namely, Tiba 3333 3liC he who confesses when fines are in- equal scrupulousness. To a certain volved is free from paying the fine. extent, social duties are more serious Furthermore, fines are only imposed than ceremonial ones. in Palestine. Ceremonial derelictions may be atoned for on the Day of Atonement 225th COMMANDMENT i accompanied by genuine repent- f Ye S h d Not Deul Fcdsely ance, but for sins against man, re- This commandment deals with pentance on the Day of Atonement money matters. To lie is a violation are of no avail until one pacifies the of our commandment in Leviticus, injured party b y making suitable re- Chapter 19, Verse 11, "Ye shall not paration and asks for his forgiveness. deal falsely" which includes in ad- We have here only the punishment dition a denial concerning any ma- indicated. Of course there can be terial demands made upon one by no punishment where there has been others. The Sifrah points out that we no previous warning. have already the commandment The warning is first indicated in concerning f d s e swearing in Leviti- our commandment in our verse, cus, Chapter 5, Verses 21-26 where "Thou shalt not deal falsely." one appropriates someone elses Furthermore, one who deals false- property for his own use under one ly and -denies possession of another of the following circumstances, - mans goods and denies that he lied, while he is custodian of this p r o p he is unfit to serve as a witness. The erty; as an employer who fails to Rabbis go further and say that i one fpay wages to his empioyee; as one lies in order to take money away who does not repay a loan ;or by from another even if he did not the actual deed of stealing. There swear but only made a denial, he is was not witness present in any of unfit to be a witness.these cases. Now if the rightfulowner puts in a claim for his belong- The whole matter of lying is mostmgs, and the offender denies this serious and obnoxious and the Rab-claim but later realizes that he did bis in the Talmud s a y a mans "Yes"wrong by doing so, he must return must be his bond; it must be righte-the article intact. If the ccrticle is ous a n d so too a mans "No" mustno longer Intact, then he must crdd be true and righteous. They go fur-a fourth, which makes it a fifth of ther on to s a y that He (G-d) who ex-the total, a n d he must bring, in ad- acted retribution from the genera-
    • 227th Commandmenttion of the Flood d l exact it of the 227th COMMANDMENTman who does not stand by his word. NOT TO SWEAR FALSELY "The seal of G-d is truth." The liar We are bidden not to swear falselyis a n outcast from Divine fellowship. as is written in Leviticus, Chapter 19,Man also punishes him because he Verse 12, "Thou shalt not swear byis not believed even when he speaks My name falsely so that thou pro-the truth. fane the name of thy G-d: I a m the Further details concerning this law L- -d." In the third of the Ten Com-a r e to b e found in the Treatise She- mandments we a r e bidden not tovuoth. This prohibition refers to all take the name of the Lord, our G-d,places a n d to all times, to male a n d in vain, and we have the punishmentto female. indicated. Our commandment is as a warning for there is no punishment 226TH COMMANDMENT in accordance with Jewish law un- Ye S a l Not Lie One to Another hl less there b e a warning given. Many If one lied in that he had another a man has made it his life mission persons possession or money, he to avoid being forced to take a n violated the previous commandment, oath. "Ye shall not deal falsely." I in f Our commandment here bidding addition to lying he swore to back us not to swear falsely refers to such up his lie, he violated our command- a n oath that 1 a voluntary one sment of Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse There are in general three kinds of 11, "Thou shalt not lie one to an- oaths (1) An oath that the court de- other." Our verse goes on to warn mands of the witness, (2) The oathone against the penalty of lying, as that is placed upon the defendant is pointed out in the Sifrah. We concerning money matters and (3)have already the commandment the qlB2 ny2w , "the oathwhich deals against swearing falsely of a n expression" of the lips whichbut the warning against that com- means just what one voluntarilymandment is in our text. This whole takes upon himself without beingmatter is given full explanation in commanded so to do - e. g. A manthe Talmud Treatise Shevuoth. Any swears, I have eaten or I have no:one who swears falsely concerning eaten, or I will throw a stone into thethe taking of another mans money sea or I will not throw a stone intoor g o d s trespasses two negative the sea These oaths are not re-commandments (1) "Thou shalt not quired However these voluntaryswear b y My name falsely," Exodus, oaths do not refer to performance ofVerse 20 a n d (2) "Ye shall not lie a commandment as for instance, aone to another." Leviticus, Chapter man may not then say, I swear I 19, Verse 11. shall put on Tefflin because he is bidden bv G-d to carrv out all the The laws concerning this com- Mitzvahs since Sinai. The soul ofmandment pertain to all places and Israel or the souls of Israel were pre-to all times and he who trespassed sent at Sinai and it is incumbentit purposely, received stripes. This upon each and every one of us tois the only case in the Tor& where carry out the commandments of G-done received stripes for violating a given a n d included there. There-negative commmdmeni that did not fore no one may take a n oath to denyinmlve any action except mere or affirm a commandment. As aspeech. The seriousness o the of- f matter of fact, as soon as a personfense is so grecrt t a an exception ht takes an oath to perform a Mitzvahwas made in this cuse even according to Maimonidies he
    • is to be punished with stripes be- The Torah in many places repeats cause he did not h m e to use G-ds these ethical laws in order to im- name in vain. He is ips0 facto com- press upon us the intensity o the f manded to carry out the Mitzvahs sin and to restrain us from evil doing. without using G-ds name in an oath It is not Gds tyranny that causes so to do. I a man swore to do good f Him to give us many negative com- to others and it was possible for mandments against doing wrong but him to do it and he has not done it rather His love for us to keep us from then he has violated the oath of sin and rewarding us for abstaining102 and is guilty and receives from evil. A s a matter o fact, o u fpunishment. The oath o f *ID2 law in the case o capital punish- fI must stress is a voluntary one. No ment, for instance, requires that wineone asked the person to swear that be given to the criminal before hehe was going to do qood to another is executed. This w& to show thatand therefore he o his own accord f it is not revenge or tyranny on thetook the oath, therefore he must re- part o G d s law that requires the fceive punishment, i he violates f execution, but rather to cctrry outsame. the commandment "And thou shalt The prohibition against taking an rid the evil from thy midst" to getoath falsely refers to all times and rid of the sinner for the sake ofall places, to male and female and society.one who broke his oath with intent This prohibition prevails at alland was warned by witnesses that times and at all places czd one whohe would be punished, received transgresses it and oppresses hisstripes. However, he who broke his neighbor and withholds that whichoath unwittingly, in Temple times does not belong to him breaks awas to bring an offering in accord- negative commandment. However,ance with his means. this negative commandment is joined to a positive commandment, namely U 1 -C 8h to return the money or thing which THOU SHALTNOT OPRlES is in hi hands and a s k forgiveness One may not withhold that which because he teased or angered him does not belong to him whether it concerning the matter. be through deceit or through any other method o postponement. We f 229th - c are to make our payment as soon as THOU SHALT NOT BOBwe can, otherwise the real owner We are bidden not to rob, namely gets so tired by the postponement not to take something publicly whichand the deceits that he, finally, does does not belong to us for it is saidnot come to take that which belongs in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse 13,to him. This is an unethical ad on "That shalt not oppress thy neighborthe part of the one who withholds nor rob him." h the previous com-that which does not belong to him, mandment we discussed the questioneven though he does not deny that of oppression which meant to with-he will return it to the owner. This hold that which a man had belong-is certainly against both the law and ing to someone else, w i h he did hcthe spirit of the Torah a s we read in not steal nor rob but merely post-Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse 13, poned papment or the return of the"Thou s a t riot oppress they neigh- hl d e . However, in this mmnlcnad-bor." Thus one who acts in such a lllentwedealwithonewhombbedway a s described above is tanta- anather pubhdy d face?fullyczs itmount to an 0 7 . i said i Leviticus, Chapter 19, s n
    • Verse 13, "That shalt not oppress thy thing from a person known to be cr neighbor nor rob him." O course f robber, then the buyer must restorz we must never forget the difference the goods or make money repayment between theft a+ robbery. Theft for the thing robbed. O course the f means stealing stealthily and rob- buyer may have a Din-Torah with bery means to do so publicly and the robber to be repaid fll!ly. How- forcefully. The punishment for theft ever, i the robber was nc?t known to f is by far greater than that for rob- be such, then the buyer may return bery because theft implies the fact the robbed article but the original that G-d does not see the act. This owner must pay for it, because the commandment concerning robbery is buyer was innocent when making one which is accepted by pure rea- his-purchase. In the case where the son, namely that the robbed one is robbed person lost hope o recovery f weaker than the robber and i this f and at the same time the article was were permitted to go on, humanity sold to a third party, then it remains and civilization would be destroyed. and belongs to the third party und According to the Torah, this nega- the robbed person may have a Din- tive commandment refers to the rob- Torah with the robber. bery of a Pruta, (something that has T h s prohibition refers to male andmoney value). However, the Rabbis +mint out that it is wrong to rob one female alike. One who transgrezsesof anything because it makes one it has broken a negative command-religiously and spiritually unfit. The ment but does not receive stripeslaw is, that one who robs another of because it is a . negative command-anything is obliged to return the ment which can be remedied bything itself to him, as it is written,The robbed thing which he has rob- a positive commandment, "And hebed." No matter how difficult it may shall return the theft," (or its value)be for one to return that which is Levit. 523. I one denied that he frobbed, he should make every effort robbed and swore falsely then heto do so. However, if it is impossible must pay a fine o one fifth which fto do so, then he should return the - -value of the thing robbed to the orig- amounts to one fourth o the princi- final owner. ple, as for instance, he robbed one The Law further states that i f one of $100, he pays $125 (and in addi-was robbed in a City and the robber tion must bring a guilt offering).wants to return the thing to him in awilderness the owner may refuse to Muntake it there, because he mcry be The Wages d a HiredThee Shuil Not Abide Withheld up once more in such a place,or it may b e difficult fr him to bring o I one has the money he may not fit back to the city in safety. If one delay the payment o wages for it is f said in Le-Aticus, Chapier 19, Versereturns money without the o ~ ~ n e r sknowledge, he has fulfilled his obli- 13, "The wages o a hired servant fgation. Not so however is it with shall not abide with thee all rightanimals becase the owner will not until the morning." I he has not the fknow which nnimal was taten and money he should pay h i later.therefore will be unoble to keep Where a man works u night the tstricter watch over i t H e b of a M e says the time for paymentrobber are? Dhliged to m t m ~ any- shall be all day as we read inthing which their pmnts fobbed ar Deutcro~^omy, Chapter 24, V e m 15,make r e s t k h . I m e bught anp "Wa7 the m e day thou shalt f
    • give him his hire, neither shall the However, we have it as a general sun come down upon it; for he is lcrw in our religion that payment poor and setteth his heart upon it; must be made within thirty days. lest he cry against thee to the L-d One is obliged to make pcryment as a n d it be a sin unto thee." Although soon as the demand is made for we we have here two verses, they d o read in the Book of Proverbs one not imply two commandments. The should not say to his neighbor, "Go second verse from Deuterononly is and return," and I will pay some merely a compleemnt or the other other time. half of the commarfdment. Thus these As a rule where a n oath is imposed two verse make provision for the the person who tak5s oath does not worker who works either during the pay. There is an exception in regard d a y or during the night. to a n employee or .a hired servant He can fast a whole day but no (even if he is a minor.) If he takes longer. Therefore his pay should not a n oath that he has not been paid be delayed any longer. The Holy he is believed and the employer One Blessed be He desiies that must pay. This refers only during everything that He created should the period of work because during exist. Delaying ones sustenance that time the employees mind is on hurts the body therefore one is com- getting paid whilst the employers manded to pay the hired servant mind is busy on other matters and immediately so that he may be pro- may have forgotten. However, after, perly supported. Thus we under- the whole d a y (24 hours) has wssed,stand why the limit has been set for the employer is believed. If one a day. Man fasts for a day, but transgresses this commandment byshould not be forced to fast longer. failing to pay a h i e d servant onThe same law applies if he hired time, he breaks the commandment,ones utensils or animals, payment "In the same day thou shalt givefor the hire must not be delayed. I his hire", and the negative com- fone was hired by the w e d or the mandment, "Neither shall the sun g omonth or the year and the c o n k & down upon it."terminates during the night his pay- 231st COMMANDMENTment may be paid during that whole Not to Curse c Israelite mday. If it terminated any time duringthe d a y it may be paid during the We are forbidden to curse a nwhole night until sunrise. Israelite, employing the name of G-d, If one gave his garment to a tailor even i he or she is unable to hear ffor repair and the work is finished, the curse as it is written in Levitcus,so long as it is in the possession of Chapter 19, Verse 14, "Thou shaltthe tailor and he did not demand not curse the deaf." Since the Biblepayment, a n d there is accordingly a makes a particular reference to thedelay in payment then the com- deaf, the rabbis ask, whence d o wemandment is not transgressed. In know that it refers to any Ismelite?other words, one must demand pay- m e answer is t a the Bible further htment before there can be a transgres- says, "Among thy people thou shaltsion of the commandment. The ma- not curse," which means any one ofson that the Torah demands prompt thy people. The question then arisespayment is because the laborer may why is that the deaf are singled out?need it for hs immediate sustenance W e might think t a the deaf are i htand support. If h e does not demand l i e the deud who cannot hear, these-prompt payment it is an i n d i d o n fore the Bibk adds the injunction inthat he does not need it immediately. regard to the deaf, who might other-
    • wise b e classified among the dead. to receive stripes. One may not As to the matter of cursing, it employ a n y circumlocution of the seems that all people of all nations saying of G-ds name, as for instance, are concerned about cursing a n d the the Almighty, etc. One may not cursed one is generally disturbed. curse in any language. If one First of all we are not to do a n y harm curses himself, he is to receive with our mouths since most people stripes, as we read in Deuteronomy: are afraid of cursing. G-d gcrve us "Take heed a n d guard your own speech for prayer a n d for elevating soul very much." These laws pre-purposes a n d not for any thing that vail a t all times a n d at all places degrades. We read, "And He breath- a n d refer to male a n d female dike.ed into his nostrils the breath of life An Israelite who transgresses it a n da n d the man became a living soul." intentionally curses employing the Genesis, 2 Verse 7. The Targum name o G-d or any circumlocution, frenders it "a speaking spirit" namely breaks the commandment. If therea personality endowed with the fac- are witnesses a n d the persons warnulty of having a n d expressing his him that he will receive stripes forthoughts in speech. In other words, transgressing the law, a n d he breakswe have been given the power to the law, he is punished with stripes.influence or affect someone else with This is one of the three negativespeech. Just as the mouth can d o commandments where although thegood, so can it do evil. When one person while violating a command-curses it worries the cursed one. ment does not perform any act there-Another reason for the ban on curs- by, receives stripes. The other twoing is that this vrould do a w a y with are (2) the prohibition against - swearing with G-ds name falselystrife among people. The purpose of a n d (3) not to change or substituteour commandment is to increase anything for that which is holy orpeace. belongs to the Sanctuary. The Rambam (Maimonides) says 232nd COMMANDMENTthat the prohibition against cursingis not so much as to the way it Thou Shcdt Not Put A S u b i g tmlnaffects the cursed one but as to the Block Before the Blindway it affects the person who cursed. T h commandment does not mere-It has a b a d influence on the person ly include the physical aspect, name-who curses. It also leads to revenge ly not to put a stumbling blocka n d anger. Thus observing this before the blind but also the spiritualCommandment, will hallow a n d im- one as well. The Rabbis enlarge thisprove the one who wants to curse commandment to include any onea n d it will cure his body and mind who is blind on a certain subject a n dand spirit a n d prevent hs lower i seeks advice. Do not cause h i tonature from getting control o him.f stumble by rendering him such ad- The laws concerning this com- vice as suits your best interests a n dmandment are that it is forbidden to not hie. We may not give any wrongcurse even without mentioning Gds or b a d advice or help one to con-name, dthough there is n o physical tinue doing wrong. These are tres-punishment for same. O r Rabbis u passes against this commandment.hcrve laid down the principle that Very often people are asked adviceone may be ~ W t t5 r llcw 3z and the answer they will give, willhe may nm "free from be against their own personal inter-stripes buf it is forbidden." I one f ests, but it will be the honest one.auws employing Eds name, he i s W e m e warned against being sub-
    • jective in such cases and must render and cruelty that render the formula- the advice objectively, disregarding tion of such a precept necessary. any personal interest in the matter. Deaf.and blind are typical fig- Our verse concludes with the words, ures of c misfortune, inexperience, d "But thou shalt fear thy G-d, I am the and moral weakness. This verse is L--d." This is a warning against a warning against leading the young thinking that the advice may be se- and morally weak to sin, or provok- cret or later denied by you, and thus ing them to commit irretrievable mis- you may be safe. We are reminded takes." that G-d dules. "I the L--d search the "FEAR THY G-D," who is the heart, I try the reins, even to give avenger of the helpless; of the deaf every man according to his ways or absent man who cannot protect and according to the fruits of his himself from the reviling which he doings." (See the Book of Jeremiah, has not heard; of the blind man who Chapter 17, Verse 10). We must ad- cannot avoid the stumbling-block of vise a person a right as for instance, which he is not aware. Furthermore, if one says to another, sell your field the man who deliberately gives and buy a donkey with it thereby harmful advice may allege the fails him, having in mind that he him- noblest of intentions. But Scripture self will ultimately buy the field. Tho exhorts him to fear G-d whopurpose of this commandment is evi- searches the innermost recesses of dent, namely, that it is for the good the human heart a n d knows its secretof the world to advise people proper- thoughts.ly. "Equally so does the man who ad- So also our Rabbis have pointed ministers corporal punishment to aout that it is forbidden to sell any grown-up son: it may make that sondangerous weapons to a n idolator forgetful of filial duty, and in blind for he may use it for the hurt of the anger commit a n unpardonablepeople and so too wa may not sell of fence."weapons to w e d or dangerous char-acters. This come under the heading 233rd COMMANDMENTof "before a blind man thou shalt Ye Slwll Do No Utwight-not put a stumbling block." l Judgment a The detcnied laws concerning this The judge may not make a com-commandment "not to put a stumb- promise or arbitrate instead of hand-ling block before the blind," physical ing down the decision of the lawor mental, are to be found through- unless both parties are willing toout the Talmud. They pertain to all leave it to him to effect compromiseplaces and to all times, to male a n d or an arbitration. In money mattersfemale. Any one who gives his it is they, the litigants and not heneighbor wrong or bad advice or who can make such a decision. Thushelps another in the p e r b m a n c e of the Bible commands, "Ye r r h d do noa sin as for instance, he tempts a unrighteousness in judgment." Fur-Nwm-ite through a g h o wine (to f thermore we violate this cornman&break his oath),tmqaises this nega- ment if we delay justice. The judgetive commandment, but does not re- must be patient cmd painstaking soceive stripes, because this command- hat he make not a mistake in hisment generally involves only s p d - judgment. The judge shauld be asing but not doing something. ccrreful in deciding a introhring Dr. H r z in his Bible Comments et two cents as he wouM be if it i - nsays the following: "Alas for the mkedamilliond9~ars. Asamctttmprevalence o human call- f o hr our krrJB in regcnd to the f k c t
    • judge are different than those of the opinion concerning the law and he other nations. The nations have decided according to the wrong Municipal Courts or lower courts and opinion then his decision becomes higher or Supreme Courts. In the law but he must pay the cost o the f lower courts the judge decides upon thing to the proper owner. How- a x e s amounting to small sums and ever, he does not receive stripes. in the higher courts cases amounting The reason for this is that we never to very large sums. Accordingly in exact two penalties. In this case the the lower courts we have judges judge has to pcry for his mistakes who are not as able and as learned and there is not imposed upon him and as mature as those in the higher the additional penalty of stripes. courts. In Jewish law this is impos- One who trespasses this law and sible. The judge who decides the is unrighteous in judgment, namely, case of $100,000 is the same judge he does not decide the law properly, who would decide the case of $10, transgresses this negative command- because $10 to the poor may be as ment which scrys, "Thou shalt not do important as $100,000 to the rich. The unrighteousness in judgment." These judge because of the difficulty in laws refer to al places and all times l being able to decide the case legally and to males only for in our laws should try to get the libgants to only men are judges unless the liti- arbitrate. Concerning this the Bible gants are willing to accept a woman says in Zechariah, Chapter 18, Verse as judge. The reuson why a woman 16, "Truth and judgment o peace was not chosen originally to be a f shall ye judge in your acts." This is judge was beccruse the average the judgment that brings peace. We woman is apt to allow her emotions also read in regard to David-"And to get the better of her. David evacted justice and righteous- ness (charity) towards all his peo- 24 -C 3mO pb." The Rabbis ask in the Talmud The Judge Muit Not Honm Om of "Surejy where there is strict justice the Litigtmb there is no charity, and where there During the trial the judge must is charity, there is no justice! But not show to any one o the litigants f what is the kind o justice with which any honor even if the litigant be a f charity abides? We must say: Arbi- great and respected individual, as traition." Sanhedrin 6b. we read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, If the judge wrongly took the thing Verse 15, "Thou shalt not honor the in question f o one litigant and person o the mighty." rm f/ gave it to the other litigant, the ques- He is not to tell him to sit down1 tion of whether he must pay for his whilst the other one who is not crj mistaken d w i o n depends upon the great, stcmds. Both of them should following: Basically there may be be standing. However, i a judge f two different musons for the judges permits both litigants to be secded wrong decision. One, if he made a that is satisfactory. Furthermore, mistake land decided against the the judge is not to say to himself, d a law, &en his decision is null as we reQl in the Sifrah, "This man er and void, and the thing in question is rich and h a h m a prominent i rehvned to the other litigant (the family. How can I put him to shame s proper owner). However, if the by deciding against him? The ~ g ~ t W a r ~ ~ t h e n t f r s Rabbis sqy that where the judge is tftere the Schechbu, the Divine his law, but G-ds. Thedare the istt#ltthejudgedoesmtdictate
    • 236th Commandment Presence, rests. The reason for this case properly. Our Rabbis further- spirit of G-d rests among the judges more warned that no man shall ad of Israel. It is therefore interesting as the sole judge. G-d alone may act to note that in the Hebrew one of the as the sole judge. Would that our synonyms for the word judges is system of law in the courts of the D ~ P ~as we read on the third d a y K Nations might take this advice. of each week in Psalm 82, Verse 1, The Rabbis in the Talmud say "G-d standeth in the Congregation this commandment also has a per-of the Mighty. He judgeth in the sonal reference to each and everymidst of "judges one of us, namely that we are to Further details of this law are to judge every person on the scale ofbe found in the Talmud Sahedrin merit and refuse to condemn by ap-and Shevuous. It prevails a t all pearances and the we should alwaystimes and a t a4 places and refers to endeavor to put the best constructionmale judges. However if both liti- upon the deeds of our fellow-men.gants agree that a woman should b e Unfortunately most people alwaysthe judge, it is permitted. look for a bad motive behind another Any judge who purposely shows mans acts or speech.more honor to one litigant than the If a judge has many cases beforeother trespasses this negative com- him and among them there is themandment not to show any honor case of a n orphan or a widow, theirto the person of the mighty and also cases should take precedence, for itviolates the positive commandment is said in the Bible, "Judge the or-of our verse which says, "But in phan, take u p the case of the wid-righteousness shalt thou judge thy ow." A womans case is also to takeneighbor." precedence before a mans case be- The Rabbis say in the Talmud cause the abashment for a woman isthat the judge should not allow one greater than that for a man. Theside of the case to go into great case of a great scholar also takesdetail in explaining his side. and precedence. All this comes under thehurry the other side without giving general rule, "in righteousness shallhim a full hearing as well. ye judge." 235TH COMMANDMENTIn Righteousness Shalt Thou Judge 236th COhMANDMENT Thg Nsighbor Thou shalt not go up cmd down as a tulebearer among thy people. The Bible commands the judge tobe righteous in judgement, as we The purpose of this commandmentread in Leviticus, Chctpter 19, Verse is to keep us back from talebearing15, "But in righteousness shalt thou as it is written in Leviticus, Chapterjudge thy neighbor." 19, verse 16, "Thou shalt not go u p In this connection the R a b b i say and down as a talebeard, whichin the Talmud in Shevuous 30a that means one should not tattle exceptt e judge should not ailow one liti- h to prevent one from doing harm organt to go into more detail in ex- destroying or intriguing iSee Bookplainiig hi side than the other of Esther). Another meaning of tale-litigant. Both must receive a full bearing is peddier. In other wordshearing. one s h o d d not tattle about dealing Furthermore when the judge shows in scandal and malicious h e a ~ s a y ,respect to one of the litigants, then getting the secrets o people and re- fthe other becomes nervous and is tcrilig them wherever he goesprevented from presenting his whole IRashi). The purpose of this com-
    • 237th Commandment m d m e n t is that the Holy One, iemale and one who trangresses it Blessed be He, desires for the good is as i he breaks the law o the f f of the creatures whom He hath cre- King of Kings, Blessed be He. There ated to have peace prevail in their are no stripes connected with this midst, for tale-bearing leads to strife commandment because it is merely and contention. This commandment speech without a n accompanying is a warning against the socjal mal- act. Although there are no stripes ady alienating husband and wife sometimes the tale-bearer may be parents and children and friend and guilty of a death penality, e. g., friend. It is, to quote Maimonides, "A when he becomes a n informer. Our mischievous business even i the re- f Rabbis regard a n informer (mosur) port is true and told without malice". as the most abanded creature Dr. Hertz in his Bible Comments among all evil-doers of their kind." quotes Adam Clarke, the well-known An informer on his way to deliver Christian commentator on the Bible his message for the purpose of hav- who said, "A more despicable char- ing any other person receive the acter exists not; such a person is a death penalty, is to be prevented pest to society and should be exiled a t all costs even i he is to be f from the habitation of man". killed, .He who performs the ad is There are many detailed com- praiseworthy. While the (mosur) mandments and exhortations con- may be k l e by anybody to pre- ild cerning this matter of talebearing vent him from turning informer, yet which the Bible cautions against and his money is not to be destroyed. which our Rabbis in the Talmud The Bible and the Talmud have warn us and caution us that both the following thought - A man may be wicked but h s children may turn i nr5m (slander) and out to be righteous as we read in y ~ n (tale-bearing) are part- the Book of Job, "The wicked pre-ners. In other words, gossip or tale- pares his wealth but the righteous bearing may often do a s much harm (the child) clothes himself there-a s slander. Hence we pray three with." lob 27:17. times daily a t the close of the eight-een benedictions, 0 my G-d keep 237th CM N - ET my tongue from evil a n d my lips Thou S a l t Not Stand Idly By Thefrom speaking guile". Blood Of Thy Neighbor We a e to be very considerate of rthe feelinsg of others as for instance We are bidden not to keep our-as we read in Fhba Kamma that i f selves back from saving a life ina person hanged for a crime another Israel as we read in Leviticus,Chapperson should not say to him, "Hang ter 19, Verse 16, "Thou shalt notthe fish," so also should one be stand idly by the blood of thy neigh-careful not to praise one before his bor." Not only is it a crime to kl ilenemy for it is written in the Book but it is almost as wicked to refrainof Proverbs Chapter 27,. Verse 14, from interfering, if we feel we can"He that prcriseth his friend early in prevent murder.the morning . . . it shall be counted The Rabbis say in the Talmuda curse to him." Any person who Sanhedrin, 73b that when a personspraises his friend before an enemy, iife is in danger one may not stand to seek the bad in idly by seeing his neighbor drown- ing in the river or being attacked by wild animals or robbers, without try- ing to rescue him a this command- s
    • ment indicates, "Thou shalt not stand hatred. Therefore the Torah cautions idly by the blood of thy neighbor." us most strongly against it to which Of course the rescued person must Dr. Hertz in his Commentary has the pay for the mans trouble and any following to suy: "Nursing your expense he has incurred in the res- grievance against your fellowman. cue. Furthermore, in protecting an- M s o the hating in the world is ot f other persons life we are permitted quite unjustified, groundless hating to take the life of the assailant as for its own sake Psn nNfw. Thou we do in self-defense." The Sifrah shalt not hate thy brother in thine gives a further application to this hemt Our Rabbis taught that if verse, as follows,-"If thy fellow-man Scripture had merely said, "Thou is accused of a crime, and evidence shalt not hate thy brother," this pre- that would clear him of it, is in thy cept might be explained to mean possession, thou art not a liberty to t only that you must hot injure him, keep silent," as our verse says, nor insult him, nor vex him; and so "Thou shalt not stand idly by the the words "in thine heart" are added blood of thy neighbor." One is al- to forbid us even to feel hatred inso obliged to go out of his way to our heart without giving it outwardtestify in order to save IS fellow- expression. Causeless hatred ranksmans money. Of course the purpose with the three cardinal sins; Idolatry,of this commandment is to m e ones Immorality and Murder. The Sec-fellow-man. It is to protcet civiliza- ond Temple, although in its timetion by making it possible for one flourished and G-ds commandmentsto live in safety. The Holy One study of the Law and good worksBlessed be He, created this world so were obeyed, was destroyed be-that we may help one another a n d m s of causeless hatred (Achcri uethereby aid in the well-being of Gds Gaon). When it is fed by r c a ailcreatures. rivalry or religious bigotry, m s - ue This law prevails a t al places and l less hatred petrifies the heart anda t all time. It refers to male a n d becomes organized malice. Nonefemale, a n d one who trespasses it have suffered, and are still suffering,violates a negative commandment. from causeless hatred more than t e h Tewish Peode. 238TH COMMAND= The ~ a & d instances the Emperor Thou Shcrlt Not Hate Thy Hadrians conduct as typical of men swayed by such hatred. One day We are commanded most force- on Hadrims iournev in the E a t , afully not to hate in our heart as we Jew passed fhe imperial train andread in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse saluted the Emperor. H e a n was17, "Thou shalt not hate thy brother beside himself with rage. You, ain thy heart." The Torah wunta to Jew, dare to greet the Emperorl Youimpress us with the importoonce o f s h d pay for this with your lie. Inthis commandment because the the course of the same day, motherhatred is covered. Where the h b t d Jew pasYed him, ancl warned byis not covered one can see it cmd example, he did not greet Ha$riahunderstcmd, regret and repent. For You, a Jew; dare to pass the Em-that we have the commandment in pasor without a greeting,, he angrilythe next verse, "Thou shalt not take e x d a i t n d You ficme Meited -vengence nor b a any grudge but er life- To kis m&x&dmd c~ourtlem Bethou shalt love thy neighbor as they-seli." The hatred which is lodged inthe heart i the strongest o cdt s f
    • destroy them. So are all anti- rnost as difficult to administer re- Semites; so, d l slaves o cuuseiess f proof as it is to receive reproof. Re-hatred. " The Rabbis further under- proof must, o course be offered in fstood this commandment as prohibit- all kindness, otherwise it fails o its fing one from bearing a grudge be- purpose; and, i it entails putting a fcause he has not the courage to tell man to shame in public, it is mortalhis grievances to the offending party. sin. No matter how much learningI you register your complaints withf and good works the man who com-the offender there is a . possibility mits such a sin may possess, he hasthat he may remedy matters to your no .share in the world to come. Thissatisfaction, whereas if he is not con- is true in regard to matters betweenscious o your grievances he may f man and man. However, when onego on offending you indefinitely violates a commandment betweenwithout being conscious o so doing. f man and G-d, then the Bible says The purpose o this command- f "there is neither wisdom nor qnder-ment is evidenced namely that standing before the L-4." Our Rab-hatred in the heart is covered hatred bis add and say where "Chillul Ha-that causes great evil for it is as if shem,"-profanation of the name o fthere were a sword always lurking the L--d" is involved, we are notwithin a man against his neighbor. even obliged to show honor to theThis is one of the greatest of sins. Rabbi.Certainly no self-respecting intelli- Some interpret this verse and thegent person should allow himself to first part o the next verse, "Thou fbe guilty of violating thii cornmcmd- shalt not avenge, nor bear anyment and permitting an unwonted grudge against the children of thyhatred and prejudice to exist. people," to imply that one should not fail to point out even to ones 239TH COMMANDMENT enemy an idea which may benefit Thou Shult Surely Rebuke Thy him. In this way he may be elevated Neighbor and become his equal. The purpose of this commandment To rebuke an Israelite who does is to increase peace and good-willnot conduct himself in the proper among men. For, if one sins againstway, whether it be in matters con- another and he is reproved privatelycerning man to G-d, is the duty in- and gently, he is is liable to excusecumbent upon al o us a s we read l f himself and repent. In this wayin Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse 17, peace is enhanced and hatred is "Thou shult surely rebuke thy neigh- removed. If one does not rebukebor and not bear sin because of his neighbor the hatred remains inhim." The Sifrah raises the question his hecut, and does harm. as it isthat if one rebuked his fellow-man pointed out in regard to Absalomfow or five times and he did not and his brother Amnon. I Absalom fchunge tr repent, is he to confinue would have spoken to Amnon, Am-to rebuke him? The answer is t a ht m n may have gone through p d -the Bible not only suys rebuke once kmce and repented and his lifebut repeats it in order that we mcry thereby would have been d.do so m a y times until we succeed. Truth, in the long run, ieads t oThisof~mustbedoneatfirst pace, even though it implies c i i - rtcPri~ute1y g n l i arder fhat the and e t y n ism. Thmugh tbis criticism peaoe i softgndeF should not be put to bid. attained qs we read i the Boolc o n fThis f20niQl-t ier d y dif- Po b u m e g the Tor&, "And rmsricuitwcarrg0tltpPopery. RLaE ~ w c l l r s ~ w a y s o f ~ -
    • a n d her pcrths are paths of peace." Bible repeats the word "reprove" One should try to reproove another making it evident that we shall person even though he comes near surely rebuke our neighbor when he to b e hurt himself, unless he sees does wrong, it immediately a d d s the that the person is so wicked that words that w e "should not sin be- he will not take a n y reproof. On cause of him," in our way of re- buking him. the contrary, if he will be hurt, h e is not obliged to continue his reproov- The Rabbis exhort us to b e ing. Concerning this, our Sages have extremely careful. They s a y "it is said just as itis our bounden duty better for one to throw himself into to s a y somethmg which w e know a furnace of fire rather than to cause others will hearken to, so, we a r e to his neighbor to b e put to blush b e silent when w e know that our publicly." This is best illustrated in reproof will not b e heeded. HOW- the case of Tamar. Tamar did not ever, n o one should b e faint-hearted want to cause Judah to b e put to in regard to carrying out this com- shame publicly for she had con- mandment for "The Holy One Bless- ceived through him. If the pledge e d Be He guards all them that love which was given to her had not Him a n d the wicked will He destroy," been found she would have been Psalm 145, Verse 20. If one causes put to death b y fire. Nevertheless the sinner to repent from his sinful she did not want to say that Judah way there is no greater reward that was responsible for the cict but "the can b e given to such a person. Even one whose pledge this is." The a minor is obliged to reproove an temptation to violate this command-older person if he sees him going in ment whilst carrying it out is SOa path that is not correct. One who great, that the Bible tells us on thedoes not reproove his neighbor, one hand, "thou shalt surely reprovebreaks a positive commandment a n d him," a n d on the other hand b ehe is regarded as being in the camp careful not to sin, in the way you reprove him.of the wicked for failing to correct hisneighbor, for in the end he himself Of course all this refers to any sinbecomes wicked. committed betwen man a n d man be- cause the person aggrieved may 240th COMMANDMENT not publicly shame the one who You Should Not Put to Shmne hurts him. But when one sins be- an Israelite tween man a n d G-d then, w e may We a r e commanded to b e mos! publicly reprove him until he re- scrupulous a n d not put anyone to pents. This was the way of theshame publicly. For w e read in Prophets.Leviticus, Chapter 19, verse 17, 24lST COMMANDMENT"Thou shalt not hate thy brother in Thou Shalt N t Take Vengeance othy heart; thou shalt sumly rebukethy neighbor, a n d not bear sin be- I one did another harm in a n y fcause of him." In other words, way it is generally customary on thewhilst we a r e commanded to rebuke part of the aggrieved to get evenone, vre must make sure that in our with his neighbor. Because of thisrebuke w e do not bear sin in re- natural desire to get even w e haveproving h m in such a way s o as to our Commandment, Leviticus, Chap-insult a n d shame him publicly. ter 19, Verse 18, "Thou shah not takeSomeone has well said that shame is vengeance." If one takes vengeance,Gehenim pain, a n d honor or u1ot-y is h e is even (with his neighbor.) If heGun Eden pleasure. AIthouqh the dues not, he is even higher than his
    • neighbor. This is one of the sins in of hatred against his neighbor un- which most people find themselves til he does him harm or until h e guilty from time to time, namely to repays him for his evil, trespasses take revenge. The Sifrah points out this negative commandment and that if one came to his neighbor a n d promotes much evil in the world. asked him to lend him his scythe a n d Dr. Hertz points out that this com- he was refused a n d the next d a y the mandment forbids us to repay evil person who refused to lend the scy- with evil. If a man finds both a the comes to his neighbor a n d .says, friend a n d an enemy in distress, h e lend me your hatchet a n d the follow- should first assist his enemy, in ing answer is given to him: Just as order to subdue his evil inclination," you did not want to lend me your i.e., mans inborn passion for re- scythe, I will not lend you my hat- venge (Talmud). Josephs conduct chet. This would b e in violation oi to his brethren. a n d Davids to Saul, our commandment: "Thou shalt not a r e among the noblest instances of take vengeance." In other words, forgiveness to be found in literature. not only a r e we not to take venge- Samuel Ibn Nagrela, Spanish-Jewish ance but w e a r e to repay good for poet and vizier to the king of Gra- evil. When w e take vengeance, w e nada, was one d a y cursed in the a r e only stirring u p the evil in u s presence of the king, who com- a n d in our neighbor. When we re- manded Samuel to punish the of- pay him good for evil, then we prick fender b y cutting out his tongue. his conscience a n d there is every The Jewish vizier, however, treated chance for repentance a n d a better his enemy W y , whereupon the way of living for the future. To d o curses became blessings. When thegood rather than evil in the long king next noticed the offender, herun does much more for finer living was astonished that Samuel had notthan taking vengeance. Further- carried out his command. Samuelmore one should always take stock replied, I have torn out his angryof what is happening to him tongue, and given him instead awhether it b e on the side of good kind one.or evil. He should understand that The Jews hunted out of Spain init is ones sin that causes the harm 1492 were in turn cruelly expelleda n d not the man to d o evil unto him. from Portugal. Eighty yeccrs later,Therefore one should not try to take t h e descendants of the men who h a dvengeance of a n y human being. thus inhumanly treated their JewishDavid said in regard to Shimei, the fellowmen were defeated in Africa,son of Gerah who h e wanted to whither they h a d been led b y theircurse him. "Let him alone for it is king, Don Sebcstian. Those whonot Shimei Ben Gerah who is curs- were not slain were offered as slaves at Fez to the descendants ofing me but my s n " i. the Jewish exiles from Portugal. The It is found that one who carrim humbled Portugese nobles, the his-out this commandment not to take torian narrates* "were comfortedvengeance, will d o himself a grecrtdeal of good for it will remove when their p h r s proved to behatred from his heart cmd increase Jews, for they knew that they h a dpeace among men. humane hearts (M. Joseph). This l w pertains a a times cmd a t l lto all places crnd reiers to male and 2rana-c glfemale and o n e w h o trespasses it, Thou Shcdt Mot Beacc Aap Grudgemaking his h a t a permmat seat er Although as w e have seen in the
    • previous commandment, "Thou shdt declare, "He who has a forgiving not take vengeance," that we are not spirit is himself forgiven." to pay evil for evil in money matters. We are not to bear a grudge in our 243rd COMMANDMENT heart. As for instance a s is pointed To Love Ones Neighbor out in the Sifrah. One said, may I As OnessIf borrow your scythe and he did not lend it to him and the one who re- This commandment cannot at first fused to lend his neighbor his be understood and accepted. It scythe came to him the next day and does not seem true to iife. Our said, "May I borrow your hatchet?" Rabbis ST that our attitude toward He lets him have his hatchet but others should be the same we would says to him, "I am not like you. You want others to exhibit towards us. wouldnt lend me your scythe, but For instance, we should d w q s act I am lending you my hatchet." toward another mans possessions Therefore, the Bible says one should as if they were ours, as we read in not bear any grudge even though Leviticus Chapter 19, verse 18, "And he did not take vengeance. thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy- In my Bible Comments I have the self". Let the honor and property iollowing to say concerning this of thy fellowman be as dear to thee commandment: "This is understood as thine own. These three Hebrew by the Rabbis to prohrbit one from words lm5 naax1. "And thou bearing a grudge because he has shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," not the courage to tell his grievances were early recognized as the most to the offending party. If you register comprehensive rule of conduct, as your complaints with the offender containing the essence of religion there is a possibility that he may and applicable in every human re- remedy matters to your satisfaction. lation and towards al men. Even l whereas i he is not conscious of f the criminal condemned to die, say your grievances, he may go on of- the Rabbis, has a claim on our bro- fending you indefinitely without be- therly love, and we must spare him ing conscious o so doing. f unnecesscqy sufferinq." The detaiis of this commandment when Ellel was asked by heathen to state the Law on one foot * are as those of the previous a. In other words, if one says to another, (ina few words as possible), he put s I will not lend you the thing you our ~ ~ m d m e n t "love thy of need because you did not lend it to neighbor hy=If negatively me when 1 asked for it, this i veng- s "What is hateful unto thee do not do eance. I a man says, I will lend you f unto f e u o m -This i s the whole the thing although you refused to law; the rest &-on". Rabbi - lend it to me when I asked for it. AEva ~ S CsaidJ this i &e s this is bearing a grudge. general rule of the Torah upon which In The Testaments of the Twelve d t s depend- In P a t r i d , we r e d : "Love ye o m o h r words, if one loves his neigh- another from the heart; and if a man bor - , he not stad fram sin against thee, cast forth the poison him, he d not comznit adultery l of hate and speak peacealcly to him. with his wife, fl not &eaf If he confesses and mpenb, for@= i m, , o y he wilf remove him. But i he be shamel66~and fA persist in his wrongdoing, even so bDIYdnFl rmd Yp h. i forgive hrn from the heart, cad ltwve nei-; do hoo-m in the avenging to G-d. The Rabbis uriy way. Tbere a m a nudmr af
    • commandments that arise as a re- 244th COMMJWDMENT sult o this general principle of "Thou f Thou S h t Not Let Thy Cattle shalt love thy neighbor as thyself". Gender With A Diverse gind This commandment, if observed, We are not permitted to mate would be the g r d e s t mxu-15 of Pro- diverse cattle a s we read in Leviti- mating and preserving Peace 5 Fe cus, Chapter 19, Verse 19, "My stat- world. This 1s one of Judcasm s utes shan ye keep, thy cattle shalt greatest contributions to civilizcttion. thou not let gender with diverse Unfortunately, both our Christians kind." and our Jewish brethren do not real- "These statutes are the fixed laws ize or appreciate that this command- which G-d has instituted for the gov- ment stems from the Hebrew scrip- ernment o the physical universe. f tures and was not originally express- Man must not deviate from the ap ed in the New Testament. The Testa- pointed order of things nor go ment mentions it without giving cre- against the general laws of nature dit to our Holy Bible. Even such a as. espoused by Divine Wisdom. great thinker as John Stuart Mills What Gad has ordained to be kept expressed his surprise that, "Love apart, man should not seek to mix thy neighbor as thyself" came from together." the Pentateuch." Diverse mating is prohibited be- ~~t does this commandment cause it is impossible to improve refer to individuals but it is &Q used U O the Divine plan of creation. P" for international merit, as we find When we do interfere, a s for in- jud* the pious who said, "On stance, in the case o the mating of f Judgment Day, the Holy One, Blessed a horse and donkey, it i interesting s B~ H~ will call the ncrtions to account to note that the descendants con- for every of the tinue to live only for one single gen- merit, u ~ h o shalt love thy neighbor u eration. In other words the mules, the as thyself.- ~h~~ have been guilty result of this mating, are not en- in their d h g s with one another, dowed with transmission in repro- duction. The Rabbis point out that this com- mandment is the best insurance for Josephus suggested that the rears- safety & peace huse no one on for the prohibition of mixed hmd or =aferi- breeding is the fear that such un-ally or =tally by its obBBmance. natural union in the animal world On the contrary evemone w a be might lead to moral perversionh e m . ~h~~ scry that one should among human beings. He who tres-only speat of the good that he can ms mates animals and o diverse kind re- fsay of his neighbor; the way hewould want his neighbor to speak ceives stripes.of him. He should not be glad be- G-d made every species accord-cause of his shcmre as &e Rubbis ing to its kind. . . . "And Ed sawsay; "one who rejoices in another that it was good." In other words,ams dmgma or shame hca no to cause the gender of diverse kindsportion in the world to come." Now- would disturb the scheme and thee v e , one who +eioiw in mother harmony o creation and the na2u- fmans good, i hi promotion, i hisr n n d world order would be broken.adva-d, concerning him, G-d This luw also includes the prohi-saye; through the Prophet Esaiah,," I bition agcrirJsf mating n t only o dif- o fwdl w, I will h poud o you, f fenent fmes in the same speck a ssayath Gd" wild geese with domestic geese but
    • two different species a s for instance, ever two neighbors may sow one a beast with a fowl. seed next to another for it is written This law pertains to all places and "In thine own field shalt thou not sow to all times. diverse seeds." We may eat or sell or have profit 245TH COMMANDMENT from the mixtures of seeds excepting The Law Concerning the Sowing o those of the vineyard. One who tres- f the Field With Two Kjnds of Seed passes this law, is to receive stripes. We are forbidden in Palestine to 246th COrJ9NIANDMENT sow together two kinds of seed as for instance wheat and barley a s it The Laws of ;)57y is written in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Uncircumcised or Forbidden Fruit Verse 19, "Thou shalt not sow thy "A fruit tree in its first three years field with two kinds of seed." This is to be regarded as a male infan1 law refers only to Palestine and to during its first eight days; i.e., as vegetables. This law too is based unconsecrated (Dillman), a n d un- upon the idea that "what G-d has circumcised. Its fruit stunted in it; ordained to b e kept apart, man must growth is unfit as a first fruit offer- not seek to mix together." Not only ing to G-d, and hence forbidden for sowing but weeding or covering human use." with earth these two seeds together, We are not to eat the fruit of a are included in this prohibition. It tree during its uncircumcised period, makes no difference whether one whether it be from its seed or from performs this with his hand or his a twig of a n old tree for it is writ- foot or with a n implement. However, ten in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verse one may eat the produce of a mixed 23, "Three years sha)l it be as for- sowing whether it be the result of the bidden mixing of vegetable seeds or the eaten." unto you; it shall not b e During the first three years grafting of trees. In regard to trees, the yield is very small a s well as un- it is not a question of sowing but of kafting one tree to another tree as healthy, detrimental both to the body in the case of a n orange and a lemon and the soul. It is only in the fourth which produces a grapefruit. HOW- year that there is quantity and q u d - ever, one may sow together the ity suitable for consumption. seeds of two trees, the prohibition is One who plants a tree as a fence only against grafting (with the ex- or for wood is free from the laws of ception of vines). n>iy Oralah (uncircumcised per- We read in the Mishnah that on iod) for it is written "And shall have the first day of Adar they used to planted al manner of trees for l proclaim concerning the Shkolim food." However, if before the fruit "collection of the half-shekel" for the came forth from the tree the owner rnaintainance of the Tabernacle and changed his mind and wanted to useTemple and also concerning the mix- the tree as a fruit tree rather thaning of seeds. This was the spring- for other purposes, then the treetime of the year when sowing was comes under the rules of Oralah anddone. the fruit may not be used during Each seed must be three hand- the first three years. So aLso onebreadths away from another in order who plants a tree in a pot evennot to violate the law of mixing o though it .is not p e r f o r a t 4 is ob- fseeds beccruse each seed nurtures liged to observe the laws o Oralah. fh u t one cmd a half handbreadths This law prevails a d tima a d tfrom its position in the ground. How- crt all places and refers to male and
    • t - 247th Commandment female and surprisingly so it also same legal status as the second refers to af lands and not only to f tithe, (See the Book of Deuteronomy, Palestine. Although the Bible speci- Chapter 24, Verse 22 to the end of fically states, "When ye shall have the Chapter). come into the LAND (Palestine) . . . Just as in the case o the second f However in view of the fact that from tithe, i one wants to redeem the fruit f the days of Moses rjim 3353 or exchange it for money to be spent we have this tradition, the lands out- in Jerusalem, he may do so but he side of Palestine are included. One must add a fifth which really who trespasses this law o Oralah f amounts to one fourth of the prin- is to be punished by stripes. ciple (as for instance, i the fruit is f 247th COMMANDMENT warth $100, he adds $25 to it which makes one fourth o the principle f The Planting of the Fourth Year and one fifth o the complete sum, f S a l Be Entirely Holy hl principle plus the redemption mon- A1 the fruits that appear on the 1 ey). tree in the fourth year of its plant- The fruit of the fourth year had to ing are to be sanctified in the fol- be carried to Jerusalem, to be con- lowing way: They are to be eaten sumed there. The idea behind this by their owners in Jerusalem just law was that the rural dwellers a s was the second tithe. This is their should have an opportunity to be- sanctification for it is said in Leviti- come urbanized, civilized and satur- cus, Chapter 19, Verse 23 and 24, ated with the fear of G-d, through "And ye shall come into the land and their contact with the noble char- shall have planted all manner of acters who resided in the Holy City fruits for food." . . . "And in the ~f G-d. This gave them a chance to fourth year the fruit shall be holy for learn and be at the feet o the great f giving praise unto the Lord." "This scholars in Jerusalem, for in the Holy praise is expressed or is evidenced City wisdom and scholarship flour- by having the fruit consumed in shed Jerusalem." This fruit is designated The reason that we wait for the by our sages a s ?)I37 VDf "the fourth year to bring the fruits to planting of the fourth year." This Jerusalem is that until then the mop planting is enjoyed by the owners is very small and o poor quality f cmd not by the priests, for it i writ- s and unfit for eating. just like the fish tsn, "The holy things belong to him," whose scales have not yet appeared namely the owner. As a rule, all and are harmful to the body, so too the holy foods are given to the is with fruit in the first three years priests with the exception of those of its planting. This commmdment o the thanksgiving offering, the f is similar to Bikurim, to the first peace offering, the Pascal lamb and fruits. the tithes of the cattle, the second In regard to fruit for the fourth tithe and the planting o the fourth f year which is to be consumed in Year. Jerusalem, there is no an3W The purpose of this command- "forgetfulness", nHD "comer o f ment is that man is to be stirred to the field, 910 "single grcrpes" praise G-d when he is about to en- nlSS1y "giecmings of the vine- joy the choioest fruits of his trees so yard". The term "gleaning" referring thcrt in turn the blessings of the Holy to the vineyard, means the same as One, Blessed be He, may be show- Peah (the corner of the field). Neither ered upon him. Tnrmah (the two percent) nor theI The h i t of the fourth year had the Tithes are taken from this fruit. AllI
    • I40 248th Co13mncmM of it are to be brought up to Jerus- be considered as a Ben Soruh Mo- d e m beginning with the 15th day d. At first the Ben Sorah Morah o Shevat. f is to receive stripes. I he does not f This commandment prevailed at repent then he receives the death the time of the Temple and o course f penalty as we read, "And they chas- refers only to Palestine. It is incum- tised m~m - 1 hidhim" whichbent upon male and female and is is symonymous with stripes.not obligatory outside of Palestine. This law prevails only in PalestineIn regard to this matter, Syria is not and only the Sanhedrin made upincluded in Palestine. of at least 23 judges decides this The blessing for -the redeplption case and refers only to males ando the fruit is, "Blessed Art Thou Oh f not females crs females are not ac-L-dour E d who has sanctified us customed to eat so voluptuously aswith His kindness and has com- males or drink so glutanously. Thatmanded us concerning the duty of is why the Bible says Ben Sorah,re-redeeming the fruit of the fourth bellious SON and not rebelliousyear". daughter. The law in regard to the Ben Sorah is nimilor to that of all 2 I T H COMMANDMENT people who are put to death by cap Ye S h d Not Eat Wt The Blood ;h ital punishment. One may Or too The following negative precepts are included under the h e a b g ofmuch in the days of his youth for our comandment: (1) We are not tothis leads to stubbornness and rebel- ent of cm when it is in theliousness and then in turn to murder throes of death, (See Talmud b-as Our Rabbis say in the Thud hedrin 63a); it is brutal and savage-Sm*n c hie "One not eat * like, (2) We are not to eat o the fas to spill blood". This comes under Holy Sacrifices until &e blood isthe hmding Our is sprinkled upQn the altar. (3) We"Ye shall eat with the are not to bring the mourning meal One i not a Ben s a to the relatives of those who receivestubborn, rebellious^ incorridie capital punishment by the court.and gluttonous1 riotous liver (4) When the Sanhedrin judged adrunkard until he steals fKnn murderer to death, they were tofather buys meat and wine with &stain from food on the day whenthe money and eats them outside someone was executed by virtue ofhis W r s home i then of their decision, (See Sanhedrin lob).bad ~mEJle. He must eaf partly (5) We may not eat in the morningmoked meat i PWQfiom n before saying our prayers,show ravenousness and drink be- Tclimud %M&OS 10b).yond the usual amount ordinary The purpose o this aoxmmmdment fpeople consume. All this- leads to is to show that most o our sins fmurder. Both parents m s be will- ut come from too much eating or taoing to have the law hpaBed upan much drinking or as we read i nhim for it is writfen in but-y, Bible, "when Jee;hurun b r d ) wax-Chapter 21, ~8158 "Andthqshall 19, ed f r ~ t it kicked,* { h u t . 32, versesay unto the elders of ihe City, Thisour son is siubbrn d xekdbug.HeHeIf either one ISQrMindardcwrf,~aon~rrot
    • ther poverty nor riches give unto into the house it is a sign of bad me . . . lest 1 come to deny Thee and luck. All of this is in violation of say, "Who is the L-d, or lest I our commandment. It is interestingbecome poor and s t d and trespass to observe the psychology of people. against the name d my G-D". (Book They will not observe their faith butof Proverbs, Chapter 30, Verses 8 they are very meticulous in observ-and 9). Thus the Rabbis strongly ing superstitions. Knocking wood,prohibit the partaking of any food for instance a n illustration. In Ger-without offering a prayer therefor. man, the word for superstition isThe s n of Sodom a n d Gemorah is i "aberglauben", which mean moreattributed by Job to excessive well- than believing. Would that peoplebeing a n d to a n abundance of lux- kept their "glauben", faith, and noturies. See Job, Chapter 21, verses their "aberglauben".7 to 17 and Chapter 28, verses 4 to The purpose of this commandment9). So also did Ezekiel say in Chap- is to keep the holy people who haveter 16, verse 49, "Behold, abundance been given the Torah of truth awayof food, and prosperous security from such folly and madness as sup-were hers crnd her daughters (de- erstition. Superstitions lead peoplependencies) of the poor and needy to cults away from the Holy Torah.she did not strengthen. This commcrndment prevails a t all times and a t all places and refers 249th C O W to male and female and one who Ye Shall Not Use Any EPChtments transgresses it having been warned 0rOnrens against doing so in the presence of We a r e not to follow omens as witnesses, receives stripes. it is said in Leviticus, Chapter 19, 20 COIuBmNDMENT 5mVerse 26, "Neither shall ye use en- Ye Shall Not Practice Magicchantments." The Rabbis in the Sifriand in the Talmud, Sanhedrin 65b, This commandment warns US say that i a piece of bread fell against the practice of magic as we f from ones mouth or cane fell down read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, Verseor a serpent passed on ones right 26, "Neither shall ye pmctice div-or a fox passed cm ones left, crnd inations", and it petitions us notas a result of any of the omens one only against magic but against say-restrains doing the thing he had in ing, "this hour is a lucky or an un-mirid, this is a violation of our c a n - lucky one; or this day is a propitiousmandent, "Thou shalt not foilow af- or unpropitious one." The word forter enchantments ar omens". The divination may a s be t r d d e d loJew is to be free f o the weight as "Observing times or season". This rmof superstition. It is interesting to is interpreted by the Rabbis to refernote that large muses of people to the habit of some people to re-who regard Ihemmhes a intellec- frain f o beginning a business jour- s rmu, & p h i i ~ ~ ~ p b i o and r c a i d ney on the 13th or holding ba al awhen it C O k rehgmri, act most from doing anything on a certain ~s u w t i 4 y o h m . unm they day o the month which is consider- f~ W V B & h m b Ll j0-Y b . I *Y & sd unhtclky, (See Talmud 2kmbd-witlaotturerh&leeaitnnaybea rin 65b). Our c32mmn-t is &crrs~dbcrdluch,orifthyamdriv- a gmhibition crgcriast human effortsi n g Q l P d 1 ~ b l a d c ~ s h o ~ a ~ l ~cs ~ u s t o b e l i e p e t h a t t h e wkii h~front o tha f ~~~ h y believe mugiciuns h e supern& pow=that ig an8 that %heyme p e h w mir- orclw* w w o Corn is atl folly. f
    • T h commandment is understood b y permitted however, to use a scissors some as forbiddig conjuring or the or a machine or depilatory or a n use of illusions which by deception electric machine, but one is not al- of the vision seem to perform ac- lowed to destroy the corners of the tions which are contrary to nature, head with a razor or any similar as for instance, one will throw u p a means. This law pertains to all places coin into the air and then remove it and all times and is pertinent to from a drawer that has been closed. males and not to females. However, All this is the result of sleight of they many not shave any males. hand tricks and optical illusions. Forty hairs are the least amount The purpose of this commandment that must remain upon the corners is as we said above, to keep man of the head in order that this com- away from wrong thinking and to mandment may not be broken. If restrain him from ascribing the m u - one shaved off bothhis sideburns, ses of things to any agency other and if he is warned by two wit- than the Gdhead. nesses, he receives stripes twice. This prohibtion prevails a t al times l 252nd COMMANDMENT and places, and refers to males and ~h~~ shdt ~~t M~ ~h~ Corners females and one who trespasses it, of Thy Beard including both the diviner as well as the one who follows him, is to The Bhle Commands us in Levit- receive stripes. of course, both icus, Chapter 19, Verse 27, "Thou transgressors are to be warned a- Shalt Not Mar or Destroy the Corn- s&. vlolding this low. l-he wm- ers of Thy Beard. There are five ing is to be made in the presence corners of the beard, one, a t each of a t least two witnesses. end of the jaw, (upper and lower), making four and the chin ( b e a d ) 251st COMMANDMENT making the fifth. The chin (beard) Ye Shall ~ o cut ~ t ~ he o is ~the spot where the lower jaws ~ d Corners of Your H a s ed join together. In regard to each one, there is a punishment of stripes if It is forbidden for a n Israelite to one destroys the hair or it shave or to equalize the sideburns with a razor, (even if they were re- of his head with his ears a n d fore- moved at one time and he was head, as we read in Leviticus. C h a p warned against his adions). ter 19, Verse 27, "Ye shall not cut ~ ~ i ~points out that d the i ~ ~ i ~ around the corners of Your heads." co-andment s p e d not merely of The reason for this injunction is that the bead, but of the of the it is a custom connected with heath-: b e d which include the five dif- en worship and is "forbidden, as ferent places just mention&. It does unbecoming the dignity of G-ds pea- not say, "Thou shalt not destroy thy and incom-1~ with loyalty to b-d", but "the corners of the a G-d of holiness". It i to do s bemd referring to each one of the with vestige of idolatrous p e five tice. Also in conformity with thk ~ h purpose of this co-anhent ,prohihition c gt c- the f o m o idol- f i a , hwe before, to kmp we a m forbid*n to shave dfdl t e hair from our heads- Both the h , back from a n idolatrous practice. It is interesting to note that thebarber a n d the one who is shaved. R~~~ Catholic priesb are prohibit-tmnsgress this commandment e d from wearing a becrrd. T i toohs This cummandment refers only to is a relic of the m n s r o idolatry, iity fthe corners of the heud. Ons is namely to destroy h e m e r s of the
    • 254th Commandment 143 beard. This commandment refers 254th COMMANDMENT only to removing the corners of the ETERENCE THE S~~NCITJARY beard with a razor. There are two we bidden in L ~ chap ~ factors, one, the tool, a razor may ter 19,Verse 30, -ye shall keep my not be used, and two. the cutting. - S&baths and reverence my Sandu- the hair may not be destroyed. Thus I the L--$.there is no objection to shaving off ~h, late D ~H~~~~in his cornmen- .the hair by means of a depilatory tary makes the followingpowder, clipper or electric machine. u ~ h parenthetical insertion of this eHowever, one may remove the mus- injunction may be intended to im-tache with a because it press upon the Israelite that rever-regarded as a corner the beard. ence for Sabbath and Sanduary will to there are us keep him from the heathenish ritesthe pious who will not employ a immoralities mentioned in therazor on any part of the body. preceding verse and those follow- This law prevails at all times and ing..in all places and refers only to males The say this teaches usand not to females. that the sacred places must be held 253rd COMMANDMENT in reverence even today though TATTOOING they are in ruinous state. The com- mandment concerning the observ- We are forbidden to tattoo Our ance of the Sabbath and reverence flesh as it is written in Chapter 19, for the holy places are placed next Verse 28c "Nor imprint any marks to each other, to teach us two things, upon you, I am the L--d". This re- first, that just as the Sabbath fers to the use of ink Or powders Or be observed at all times so must the dyes for the purpose of imprinting ~~l~ places be reverenced at all &Y marks upon our flesh which we times, and now call tattooing. The imprint must ly inferredsecond, the it be wrong- that lest Holy places be both convex and The should be revered, even at the ex- marks must be on the skin and sunk- pense of the breaking of the Sab- en into the flesh. bath, therefore it is written here, The PurPSe of the tattooing as "And ye shall keep my Sabbaths, a rule i to show that s ~ m b o l i c a l l ~ s and (then and accordingly) rever- the llerson who is tattooed is a de- ence my I the l--d.,, votee to somebody or some institu- tion. This clashes with the teachings Furthermore, the purpose of this o the Torah, namely, that mans ser- commandment is not merely to re- f vitude is only to G d and not to the sped a building or walls, per se. symbol represented by the tattoo. but G-d who is represented by the Some of the Rabbis hold that thFs Holy Temple. Whilst it is true thatprohibition refers only to fime who G-d, one of whose attributes is bjpatattoo themselves with the name of Omnipresence, and who therefore issome idol. Thus it is evident that not limited to space, yet the S m d u -this prohibition Eke the two previ- ary is a specid environment throughous ones was to do crway with any which we are reminded to practiceform of idolatry or servitude or war- all that is noble and good. It is d oship to any being other thccn m. customary when leaving the Sanct- refers to any uw and today the Synagogue or This ~ o m m u d m e n tPcrrt o fie b. f & If preV& af d the Holy Ark not to do so with ones ltimes and at dam, and refers back turned to them. Nee* toboth to mule and female. say, it is highly revolting to spit u p
    • on the floor of a house of worship. mandment and when he does same- The Talmud in Yevomos 6 a and b, thiig the pactioner a s k e d him to do, discusses the whole question of rev- he receives stripes. erence for our houses of worship. This commandment refers to male 258th COlvlMANDMENT and females and prevails a al times t l FAMlllAB SgIBITS although the Temple is destroyed to- We read in Leviticus, Chapter 19, dcry (because of our sins). Never- Verse 31, "Turn ye not to familiar theless it is incumbent upon each of spirits." This practice is described us to reverence the Holy place, not by Maimonidies as taking a bone of to sit even in the Court of the Tem- a fowl and putting it in the mouth, ple, or to show any signs of levity and speaking glibly, using certain therein. The Rabbis furthermore incenses and falling into a fit. make the point that just as we are "The wizard professes to know, to keep the Sabbath forever, so are through the spirit attendant upon we to reverence the Sanctuary for him, or residing within him, what is aU time. He who trespasses this law hidden from the ordinury person." violates a postive commandment. The same laws for the worship of the familiar spirit prevails, as those who 25 C 5m O ~ ~ pretend to speak through the dead. Do Not Become hnvolwed With 6 - We are bidden in Leviticus, Chap- 257th COMWWDMENT ter 19, Verse 31, "Turn ye not unto Honoring d t Sages h the ghosts." According to the Rab- and the Elders bis, this is a command against ex- We red in Leviticus, Chapter 19, ecuting movements by means of Verse 32, "Thou shalt rise before which practitioners pretend t a they the hoary head and honor the iace ht are in communication with the spirits of the old man." The Targum An- of the dead. We mcry not become kelos and the Rabbis in the Talmud contaminated by l e and defiled by distinguish between the hoary head issuperstitious beliefs. and the old man. They say that An is one that seems to "the elder" 13; means ilfpt iTtmake the dead speak from h i arm- ilmn "He who has attained wis-pit, a necromancer. The Talmud dom." Officially the word ?Stdeals with this whole subject in "old man" refers to m e SO years ofSanhedrin, Chapter 12, Mishnah 7. age and the hoary hsad 70 years ofThis practice of seeking the spirits age. The "old mun" referred to here,of the dead is akin to idolatry. This the Rabbis in the Talmud (Eddush-law against ghosts prevails at aft in 32b), understand t mean oneotimes and at all places, and refers who though young in years, is nev-to male and female and he who ertheless a sch01ar of the Tarah. Hepructiced it wittingly a t r having who has spent his time m the study febeen warned by witnesses, agclinst arnd knowledge of the w d o G-d is fit, is to be stoned. If there are no much dder than one whose yewrrwitnesses, then he k visited with are mu& mare nmmu8, but w bexcision. If he did this ~~, has wasted his the. Thus the &I ,-then he is to bring the stcmdcml d e n t a m d h e w h o ~ k ~ i noffering for the paor and the rich, thenamely a sheep. w- tbe red &MS. The practi~ler t be &on&. Tha is oone who asLd the to ingundfhgpetform, v - i a newfive cons- but not thcd
    • prowess. We read in the Book of scholar. Furthermore if it is a ques- Jeremiah, Chapter 9, verse 22 and tion of whom to honor, ones father 23, "Thus with the Lord, Let not or ones rabbi, the rabbi takes prece- the wise man glory in Hs wisdom, i dence unless ones father is a rabbi neither let the mighty man glory in (even i he is not as great as his f his might, let not the rich man glory teacher). The reason for this is in his riches, but let him that glori- that the father gives the child his fieth glory in this, that he under- physical and his worldly needs standeth and knoweth Me, that I am whilst the teacher gives him, the Lord who exerciseth loving k i d - Hail a51fl "the future world." ness, judgment and righteousness in One is not to sit in his rabbis the eurth; for in these I delight, saith seat nor decide questions before the Lord." him within a radius o 12 miles. This f You will note that the "hoary al refers of course to his outstand- l head" is not forgotten. He is given ing or special rabbi from whom he recognition and respect bemuse learned most of his wisdom. One through his longevity he proves that should also be careful even when he lived moderately and he did not ones rabbi is wrong as to how to indulge in enervating and devitaliz- address him. ing physical pleasure to a n exces- This law prevails at al times and l sive degree. refers to males and females and one The root of this commandment is who trespasses it breaks a positive to indicate that the purpose of the commandment and his punishment creation of man is that he should is great. This law represents one o f seek the wisdom of living by the the important principles in religion. Torah. It is the foundation of respect for Even before a simple old man one wisdom and law. is to rise. However, i we h o w that f the old man is an inveterate sinner, 258thCOMWlANDEaWT o course this commandment does f fkmmkg W e i g h and not prevail in such a case. One is lbhmlr- to rise also before the wife of a We may not cheat in our measure, scholar. liquid or in dry,.nor in our weights, The "honor" due the learned and for it is written in Leviticus, Chapter the pipus, as defined by the Rabbis, 19, Verse 35: "Ye shall not do anyimplies not usurping their places unrighteousness in judgment in and not ading contKny to their meteyard, weight, or in measure".counsel. The crrtastroph~cdivision The first is the measure of length,of Israel into two kingdoms which the second of weight, and the thirdwas t e cause of all our later trw- h of capacity. Although in regard tobles and calurnities, rwne about be- al matters of robbery, one must lcause King Rehoboam forsook the steal a pruta (a very small amount)c o d of the eiders a d adopted to be guilty, in regard to mwsures,the advice r e d d by the temper- the Torah makes us guilty of robberyormenealand hedsfmng youth. Xee if we cheat the very gmullest amountthe First Bmk o Kings, Chcrpter 12. f possible. Thus, the Bible s a p that~ @ 8 % c S 1 rCr 14. we may do no unright8oumes even The h gf this c x s w a d m e a t witbin the law because less than a pruta is no money a i not regard- rd ed as o any d u e . The Bible &us f indicates that one wbo such on aclt, IKI matter how infinifesiElLdi
    • the amount is, is a cheat. The grav- taken for the larger one. In regard ity of this, our commandment, "Thou to measuring fields with cord or shalt not do any unrighteousness in rope, he should not use the one that judgment", is tremendous. In other he employs in the winter for the words, the man who weighs any- summer because in the summertime, thing is in the category of a judge, the rope or the cord shrinks. One and therefore, if he falsifies in any should be most careful in regard way his measure or hi weight, it is to measurements. He should em- as a perversion of justice a n d he is ploy the elements of geometry in called "unrighteous", despicable, order to make sure that the meas- cursed and abominable. G-d ab- urements of the fields are actually hors unrighteousness, namely dis- right. We must give the same kind honesty in business, as we read: of measure to Gentile a s to Jew. "For all that do such things are a n Further details of this command- abo&ation unto the L--d", Deut. ment are found in the Talmud Baba Chapter 25, Verse 16. We read in Basra, Choshen Mishpot, Chapter 23. the "Ethics Of The Fathersu, Chap- This law prevails a t all times and ter 5, Mishna 11: "The sword comes a t all places and refers to male and into the world for the delay of jus- female. One who trespasses the law tice and for the perversion of jus- breaks a negative commandment. tice". In other words the violation SO SO if one breaks this law in of our commandment is regarded as dealing with a Gentile, he violates conducive to disintegration of na- a negative commandment and m~lst tional ties cpld to ultimate ruin. return whatever he cheated. Not the ~ a b b isay: - ~ one ~ who ~ h only in regard to weights and meas- breaks our commandment causes ures is One cautioned, but One is the tive things to come to pass. He also forbidden to give any false ac- defiles the earth, profanes the name counting for it is ..He of G-d. removes the Divine presence reckon with know he does his buyer (even are do- you though from Israel, causes Israel to fall by ing secretly).11 the law re- the wayside, or to be exiled from peats that one who is guifty of their land." breaking our Commandment is as a n The punishment for transgressing abomination of the L--d. this commandment is greater than that for incest and immoral relation- 259th COMMANDMENf ships, for one is against man a n d Just Weights and M-es the other, as a rule, is against G-d. cmd Scaies One who is found violating the law, of course, must pcry for whatever One is to be scrupdously care- cheating he has done. Our rabbis ful about his weights he puts upon also point out that if a coin was em- his scales, for we read in Leviticus, ployed as a weight and it became Chapter 19, verse 36, "Just balances rubbed, it may no longer be used, shall ye have." This is &o.true in because thereby h e will no longer regard to dry a n d liquid measures give full weight. The weights should as the verse goes on to say: "Ab e of glass or of stone because they just ephah a n d a just hin shull yedo not wear out. One is not to make have." The ephah was a dry meas-or to leave around false weights, ure cqd the hin n liquid measure.because if h e does not use them, The ephuh was the standard dryothers might. One is not to make measrue, a httle larger than a k h w-weights very close to each other in el. The bin was the meuswe forsize fr fhg lesser one might be mis- o liquids (about 1% gals.). T i vem hs
    • 260th Commandment 147is understood by the Rabbis to mear, The reason for the heavy penalties that one should not have one meas- a n d the severities concerning the ure for himself a n d another for oth- violation of this Commandment is ers, namely, to buy with or,e a n d to that a man cannot do teshuvah orsell with another, as we read, "Just penance in the matter because hebalances a n d just weights shall ye does not know, in the rush of busi-have." Metaphorically speaking, ness, whom he deceived, a n d there-this law is a n indication that one fore cannot make the proper resti-should not demand much for himself tution.a n d little for others. He should notexaggerate ones own virtues a n d at 260th COMMANDMENTthe same time exaggerate someone Concerning the Cursing o felses vices as the verse indicates. Ones Father or Mother"Just balances shall ye have." We read in Leviticus, Chapter 20, In regard to scales there a r e many verse 9, "For whatsoever man there fine tricks b y which the buyer can b e b e who curses his father or his moth-deceived. Although the Torah has er, shall surely b e put to death."said before that one may not cheat, This Commandment concerning theour commandment goes into detail cursing of ones father or mother h a sregarding this matter of weights, been stated heretofore in the Bookmeasures a n d scales, a n d takes u p of Exodus, Chapter 21, verse 17. Theeach one separately s o as to indi- repetition is due to the fact that wecate the importance of being metic- d o not punish without a warningulously honest in our business re- a n d therefore the Commandmentlationships. This law is just as per- has to b e repeated so as to includetinent today as it was when it was a warninq as well as an announce-revealed a t Sinai. The Bible says ment of the punishment. The pun-that God will exact punishment from ishment, of course, must b e metedanyone who causes his measures or out b y the court after a trial hasscales to be false in any way. The been held by the judges. In otherpuropse of this Commandment is to words the parents themselves a r elead us into honest dealings a n d not to take the law in their ownkeep us distant from theft, deception hands. It is said that in Rome, "aand cheating. Our Rabbis have father was allowed to put to deathlaid down the law that no one should a grown-up son, even for no curs-make any weights o tin or lead or f ing whatsoever."any similar metal that allows rust This law against insulting onesto gather upon it a d thereby cms- patents prevails even after they a r eing short weight, but the weights dead because this is a n insult to theshould b e made of stone a n d glass soul. The punishment for cursingand similar materials that do not is stoning. If one curses his parentslend themselves to deception, without using the name of G-d he The Jewish court is to ctapolnt in- receives stirpes the same way as ifspectors to visit shopkeepers in or- he had cursed m y other human be-der to safeguard the buyer that ing. A child is also to be punishedhe receives the proper amount of not only for cursing his parents butgoods or liquids he buys. He who for any disrespect shown to them.f l i i s with his weights or meas- asfe This law prevails a t a 1 times, in all 1ures should receive physical punish- places, refers to male and female asment a r imprisonment. This law well. O course before one may be fpmr & a c$E fimes and a d places t t l stoned there must be at l a t two esand r d x s to males mid females. witnesses und the son or daughter
    • 148 2- 6 Cemrrlmnfmmtmust be warned against breaking Dr. Hertz in his Bible Commentsthis Commandment and be told of said, "h later times, these Hebrewthe rigorous punishment involved. words, 2 nprn "Chukas Ha- 13 goy" gave the name to the import- 261st C m ant principle in accordance with Concerning the Punishment which Jewish life was jealously by Burning guarded against adopting the reli- There are some -punishments gious custom of surrounding na- which involve burning, as we read tions."in We read further, "And ye shall Chapter 20 Verse 14 be Holy unto me . . . that ye should "If a man take his wife, also hermother, it is wickedness they shall be The mbis say thatbe burnt with fire, both he and they; when Israel observes the Torah, andthat there be no wickedness among will be called His, as we read, "that me severity of the punish- ye should be Mine". Otherwise Is- raeI will be forced to pay allegiancement is to serve as a deterrentagainst incestuous relationships. to its oppressors. As the Sifrah The of this by p"i"ts out* "3 ye be separated fromburning was as follows: The guilty the Heathen nations then ye belongones were in dung up to to Me, but if not, ye belong to Nebu-their knees and a muffler of a heavy c h h e z z e r and his c o l i e a ~ e s . "material placed within a muffler of The P u v e of this axrmandmenta was -ped around is that we are not to imitate thetheir necks and the two witnesses, ways of the nations as for instance,(who saw the pronoun& to witness the gladiators in combat,the warning concerning this kind of attend a bd-fight, at the COS~ of thedeath) would pull the opposite ends animals blood. We are to keepuntil the mouth of the guilty ones distant from all things t a wl low- h t ilwould open and then, there er our morale or weaken our reli-be poured into their mouths liquid gious l o ~ d t i m -lead and tin. This, of course, would This a m m d e n t at allburn the intestines. times, a t ali p a e , refers to male lcs and fern& and one who trans-- - Capital punishment was c-edout only in Palestine. I the court f es it should receive sfrips and onewas derelict, it violated a positive who i m p u f o i h e ~ b s e m a n a s ~ ncommandment and their punishment of this omb bentwas great. milation, his life and"soul will be elevatad and heightened and "his 26hd seed &all inherit the l a n d . nouShcrltNothrPitcrls TMr 2 a d C P We are bidden not to walk in the ofth.Pxhisways o the seven nations for it is fsaid in Leviticus, Chcrpter 20, V e m r- " ooams nsar,o is p r23, "And y e hull rrot walk in ,the wmted, t Ed must be in $ood ocustoms of the nations which I c mcasting before you; for they did allthese ( a b o e l e ) things, andthemfore I abhorred thean." This i swhai %=darly d e d "ChukasH-. .1".
    • 281th - Isfirel. But since the priests were A further reason for this com- cloeely and constantly associated mandment bidding the priests to be with the ritual of the Sanctucrry, spe- distant from a dead body is because cial laws were instituted for them the dead body is regarded as the 149 and a higher standard was de- highest form of impurity. The body mded." itself which presents as a rule de- All priests may not come in con- sire for the gratification o passion f tact with a dead body, however, an and the incliicrtion for evil is there- exception is made in regard to ones fore regarded worse than that of the near relatives, then all but the High dead body o the animal. For the f Priest may come in contact with the body of a human being can and dead person a we read in Leviticus, does more harm than the most fero- s Chapter 21, Verses 1, 2, 3 and 4. cious animal in keeping the soul "The L--d said unto Moses - k back from good and urging it to do unto the Priests, the sons of Aaron h a m . This is why the dead body and say unto them, there shull none of a human being is d e d be defiled for the dead among his i l ~ 1 r ) in l 3 ~ l 9% people. But for his kin that is n m "grandfather of unclecmliness." unto him (his wife), that is for his The reason that the Bible permits mother, and for his father, and for the Priest to busy himself with the his son, and daughter, and for seven near relatives is because they brother, and his sister, a virgin that are of the same flesh and "the wcrys is nigh unto him which bath had of the Torah are ways of pleasant- no ;h- for her may he b e de- ness and her paths are P * of filed." peace and contentment" (Book of Every i d ~ l & ~ ureligion fin& its Proverbs). Therefore our religion s origin in the veneration of a dead does not want to give the Priest any p r s o n Pagan d other cults have mental suffering that would bar him a corpse as the center of their wor- from being in the presence of his ship. Thus a grave is f r e q ~ a t l y near and dear ones in death.I found as h e shrine for he worship "Contact with the dead defdes1 ping md nmbevery h o w and, for the time being, renders aI of wo+p i rrn -ex y d . Judaism, . of a m e - priest unfit to perform his duties. The a living religion law only held good when the dead1/ sen= rmd worship d y fie firing person was one of h s sever near i it b relatives. In the case of a n unat- , - G&: Jud-, we h -1 i no doubthd terms. prohibited its tendeddeadbodyeveryone, leven a n .hd186s ofa Z M nt) h m mming into antact with, but also from being himself =+ priest or a m t e , rim.U ~ C busy J withi, four cubits of or in the house The larvts of this m m a n d m e n t ofadeadpstgon. Ifthe are that the tir3 "the Priest" be- -the 6 - &,- 1 hg mae ritually unclean i he came in f contact with the dead by become lbhlsd and xae for a time -touching it pm or M y or dismxdisodhom~~oadmbb l ( ~ l , * ~ ~ i t tering 4 Tabenzcrde a b@b. by being in &b sqme "tent" with if. b ~ ~ w h o i s t h e ~ r n r a n shoddmneedUheksso~1ofdeath OdPrirwb to frightam hizn & o &&, thedore t heiaanfbcomein %with h ~ t Fualik dead. The Priests m s defile themselves ut
    • unto the seven near relatives meh- the person is buried and the other is tioned in the Torah, namely, father, for 12 months after death. Before mother, son, daughter, sister, broth- the burial, the mourner is called an er or wife. We read in Leviticus, 11iN during which time he may not Chapter 21, Verse 3, "For her may eat meat or drink wine. He is not he defile himself." It would appear obliged to carry out any of the com- superficially that this is an optional mandments whatsoever. He does matter. However, the Rabbis in the not put on Tefilin or say his prayers Sifra, the Tannitic Commentary of or make a blessing for bread or say the Book o Leviticus added the the Grace after meals, etc. As soon f word 1 D "It is a command," as the body is interred and the earth nY and not a n optional matter. Here is placed upon the bier, from that again we see that without the TaI- moment on, one is an f 3 ~ "a , mud, we do not understand the Bi- mourner," and mourning begins. We ble. As a matter of fact, if a Priest do not practice any laws of mourn- would not want to defile himself un- ing for a child under 30 days of age to one o his dead relatives, he because if an infant is not past 30 f would be forced to do so. Maimo- days, we are not certain whether he nides points out that from this Bib- or she is going to live. lical law, we derive the command- There are first, the seven days of ment concerning mourning, namely, Shiva, and the thirty days of intense that every Israelite is obliged to be mourning, and the twelve months in mourning for his seven near rela- of mourning for a paent, E d forbid. tives. On Holidcrys, the laws of Shi- For the other relatives, thirty days va are suspended because the joy suffice for the period of mourning. of all Israel annuls the command- The garments are supposed fo be ment for the mourning of the indi- rent immediateiy after the death vidual. Rosh Hashonah and Yom when the mourner grieves most. For Kippur are considered the same as a parent, the rending is done on the Passover, Pentecost and Taber- left side, near the heart, for the other nacles, in regard to mourning. relatives, on the right side. Although The purpose of the commandment there is no mourning of Shiva dur- concerning mourning is to impress ing Chol Hamoed (the intermediate upon the individual the lessons of days of a Holiday), however there is life. Man is moved by practices more il$,!qIp "rending" of the garment. than by abstractions. The cere- The rent in the garment for relatives monies leave their indelible imprint other than father or mother may beand have tremendous value for finer sewn up completely, for those ofspiritual living. All the ceremonies father and mother may only b eduring the period of mourning cause seamed. On Holy and joyous daysus to search our ways and improve of the Jewish calendar, it is forbid-our moral and religious living. It den to deliver rr eulogy. It is cus-has been our experience that men tomary for the members o the fam- fand women during the period of ily other than those who sit Shivamourning do retum to the Syna- to participate with them us much asgogue, increase their interests in they cxm to indicate to the bereavedcommunal efforts-and add to their their sympathy which dways pro-charitable contributions, & in d, motes family welfare, peace andelevating themselves to better a d ktve.holier living. Tfre M%3 of the aefilernent * There are two different periods in of the Priest to his near relatives per-regard to mourning. One, is before tains, at dl times and places to
    • 266th Commandment 151males, in the Priesthood. The fe- Law,are to be found in the Treatisemales may i they want to defile f in the Talmud called Tvul Yom.themselves. So too the laws of This law prevailed in regard to themourning for all Israel pertain to all demeanor of the male priests, dur-times, to male and females. ThePriest who does not want to defile ing Temple times. They were warn-himself to his near relatives or the ed to avoid defilement. O course fIsraelite who does not want to this does not refer to a female inmourn for these relatives, transgress the priestly family for she does nota positive Commandment. minister. A priest who trespassed 265th COMMANDMENT this commandment was punishedCancemiug Sunset cmd the Ritual with excision from heaven.Bath Conneded with the Defilement of the D a ed 266th COMMANDMENT A Harlot Should Not Become the I a priest has become ritually de- f wife of a Priestfiled, even although he may have No 132 or priest may take ataken his ritual bath already, he harlot for a wife for it is written inmay not busy himself with the holy Leviticus, Chapter 21, Verses 14, andofferings. He must wait, until the 15, "A harlot shall he not take. Andsun has set, a s we read in Leviticus, he shall not profane his seed amongChapter 21, Verse 6, "They shall not people for I am the L--d who sanc-profane" and in Chapter 22, Verse tify him." In other words, he is not7 "And the sun sets, and he shall to impair the pure descent of thebe clean." In other .words, in re-gard to n9mp although the priest Priestly family by a n improper mar- riage. The expression, "Take" inmay be ritually clean by virtue of the Bible refers to marriage. HOW-the ritual bath, he is not regarded ever, i a Priest were to marry a fas clean as far as performing his harlot and did not have mamiageTemple duties a r e concerned untd relationship with her, he could notthe sun sets. The " 1313 "the of- be punished for the transgressionfering" atones. The priest is the of this marriage. The purpose ofone who brings the 1313 "the this commandment is to indicatekorbon,"-"the offering." In that that since the Priest was chosen toway the priest brings Israel 7313 be busy in the ministration and ser-"close" to G d , for the word for "of- vice of G-d, at all times, thereforefering" t > ~ ? also means "being it is proper that he is obliged to bebrought near." The question may holier and purer than the rest ofbe asked, if the person took the rit- the people, even in regard to hisual bath, why should he have to marriage. For this is a n essentialwait until the sun sets? G d knows part of a mans life. The reason forthe time. The answer is, that the the prohibition against marrying abath alone does not remove the ritu- harlot is that he may become cor-d impurities entirely. . rupted. It is also r e g a r d d as a This commandment not only re- blemish upon his name for the mul-fers to the priest who became un- titude will look down upon him. Aclean by coming in contact with a ,Ulr or "a hariot" refers (1)dead body but also i he suffered f to d Gentile slave women. (2) toan emission, or leprosy. Then in any Jewish daughter who was in in-addition to the ritual bath, there tercourse with a man forbidden un-sunset must follow the purification. to her. (3) to a woman who con- F d e r details concerning this tracts a permitted marriage with a
    • 45n 1;cr 7 3 is O ~ S ever, may continue in his ministra- born through a forbidden priestly tions. marriage). Therefore, if she be- This Iaw requires that the priest comes a widow, then a li13 "a has to b e at least nine years and priest" may not marry her. The fe- one day and that the female must n a l e involved must be a least three be at least three years and one day t years crnd one day, and the male old. must be at least nine years old and A child born of a forbidden priest- one day. ly marriage takes on the status of Further details (and there are any ordinary Israelite and may mar- many) concerning this command- ry a divorced woman and may de- ment, are to be found in the Td- file himself with the dead a is writ-s mud Yevomas and Kiddushin. This ten in Leviticus, Chapter 21, Verse 1, commandment refers to male priests "And the G-d said unto Moses; at d times and at all pluces. I a speak unto the pdesb, &e sons o f f fi13 or a "priest" trespcrssed this Aaron and say unto them. Therecommandment and married a harlot s a l none defile himself for the dead hland lived with her as husband and among his people." In other wofls, wife, he is to receive stripes. it refers to those performing the sa- 267th COBlMANDMeJT cred h c t i o n s and not to such asThe lcrw the > & M had become unfit.of A P r o f 4 Woman to A Priest Our sages point out also that the No T1 i3 commandment is given to the sons "priest" may marry a of Aaron and not to the daughters.defiled woman as it is written in Le- In other words, a daughter of aviticus, Chapter 21, Verse 12, "A Priest may marry a 77R "a de-profaned woman shall he not take." filed person," but their seed is re- .A profaned woman is one born gorded as defiled and unfit for the from a forbidden Priestly marriage, priesthood. as for instance, if a High Priest mar- The daughter of a n Israelite, who ried a widow, or a divorcee who married any priest, their child is in m d a profane woman, may this category. However, the daugh- marry a fi13 a priest." In such ter of any Priest may marry a pro- ccrses we go after the father as we faned priest. (one born from a priest- read in the Bible in the Book of Num-ly marriage which was against the bers, Chapter 1, Verse 18, "Their law). pedigrees shall be a t r their fnmi- fe The purpose of this commandment Iies by the house of tlreir f t e s " ahr. is that the priests, who are to spend Hawever, when the "kidushin 1Wlf3 their whole lives in the ministration "the monriuge" contra3 is invalid of holy matters, are in every one lie in the case a intermarxiage, f of their acts, to symbolize the acme then the pedigree follcrws that of ihe o holiness. They me not to pos- rnothc~. in other words, if a Jew- fsess any physical o spiritual bkm- ish girl intenwmied, even if the h w r isk The law of this ~ u m a n d m m t bcrnd hud not become a Jew, heris t a the priest who breaks this a d is a few o Jewess. On the ht rlaw a n d marries a profaned woman other h d , ib a Jewishracrn t m m i dis to be punisbed. Tfris law does a nun-jmvbh girl and &e has nathat go into sffed, however, unless become a few- then the child kthe couple h a already had mar- not a Jew. To ~mcqSWe h wriage i n t m w ; &en both he andrPhe are to rewive strips. Me how- tstmmated* cmd ns h is
    • (by reason of the marriage) then a Priest. One who has receivedthe standing or pedigree of the child "Chalitzah" may not mamy a In3dwuys goes affer the father. Where If a woman is married under falsethere is ~*Witp"kidushinl marriage, pretenses, then the marriage is an- ?lb3;1 lm ?*3?lit ;13*3Y 191 nulled without a "get" and the wo-which is legal, as for instance in man is allowed to marry a Priest.the case of a lTDD a n illhitimate This law concerning the priestsmale (one born of a n incestuous prevails at all places and at allmarriage), i he marries a Jewish f times and he who trespasses it andgirl then the child follows the Slb8 marries a divorcee AND had inter-"the unfit one", namely the father. c o w with her, should be punishedIf the mother was a n illegitimate with stripes. The High Priest may child, ntrm the child would fol- even be guilty of receiving stripeslow her status. But in the case of four times, if he mmied 1. a woman who was a widow who then 2. be- ni91y m n ??ii p i 39~173 13 j 9 ~ came a divorcee and then 3. be-as in the case of intermarriage then cume profaned and then 4. becamethe child is always like the mother. The other details of this law are a hro a l t Apparently the Torahto be found in the Talmud Kiddu- plays no favorites.shin and Yevamos. This lcrw is to 269th C O ~ M E N Tprevail at all times and at al places l The Chmmxtion o &e Priest fand a priest who trespassed thislaw and married a profaned woman The seed of Aaron, namely theand had intercourse with her re- jir3the Priest is to be conse-ceived stripes. crated for al the holy things that l he is to handle and for the offering 268th -X )C of the sacrifice. So also, he is to CoaaemingAMvosceo be given the honor of having prior- and APricwt ity in regard to any holy service. No In3 may marry a Divorcee Even i he refuses the honor, he is fa s it is written in Leviticus, Chapter not to be listened to, bemuse in hon-21, Vense 7, Neither a h d they t k ae oring the fin, G-d is honored,a woman put cway from her hus- since he was chosen by Him for Hs iband, "divord In additbn, it service.should be noted that whilst an Is- This commandment may be foundr e i e may many a divorcee+he alt in Leviticus, Chapter 21, Verse 8,may not made us his wife, his own "And thou shalt consecrate him fordivorcee who beanme a widow by all matters of sanctification. TheClnother * h Rabbis say in the Talmud in Gittin TELe g3uqxm of this oomman-t 5% that when he (the priest) is inl3lFWhm ones, d y .that *i s ~ t o ~ ~ e s l m compcmy with his equals In-1~ t h e where &ere is no Rabbi or d m l a rF.ciesi w b is wholly t i e d i d ta greater than he) he should be thetheL-d9ttallinnowqyerrterin@ first oae cded up to tfie Ptuding of the~~undsbould~holzored withttrepri* oflecaciingin* sapinsofthegraoecrfBerth6fmsals. tirne rsiace tfLe line Dfapiirabt8;ery ~ t H e ~ ~ j s ~
    • up first ta the reading of the Bibli- though he may b e an ignorant per- cal portion in order to eliminate son. Further details of this com- quarrels a the reading of the Torah. mandment are explained in many t If he also were poor, he was to re- places in the Talmud. ceive priority from the tithe given This commandment prevails at all to the needy, in Temple times. This times and refers to males and fe- commandment includes even the males for this is a command upon priest who may have a physical all to show honor to the seed of blemish, which would make him un- Aaron. One who trespasses this fit for the senrice in the Temple. commandment breaks a positive However. the whole seed of Aaron is commandment. regarded a sanctified. s 270th C O ~ M E N T The purpose of this Mitzvah is ap ~h~ ~ i prieeth ~ fie ~d mrent. namelv that if one wants to honor >Gd,H& ministers should be The High Priest may not come into honored in the same way as we do the tent wherein there is a dead for instance in regard to a President body even though it be one o his f or a King or an Emperor. When we seven near relatives, for it is written honor their ministers, we are honor- in Leviticus, Chapter 21, Verse 11, ing them and the heads of the gov- "Neither shall he go unto any dead emment, they represent. body, nor defile himself for his father, The laws of this commandment are nor for his mother". that the 733 is called up to the The High Wiest is so religiously Torah first, after that the Levite then and spiritually exalted that it causes the Israelite. If there is no him to b e divested entirely from the then the chain is broken either natural emotionalism of man. He is a Levite or an Israelite may be called on the highest level. The High Priest first. If there is a 133 but no Levite like a leader does not belong to hi present, fie 133 is called for the f d y but to the whole people- All reading of the Tor&, and has a the Jews are spiritually brothers ad double portion. The r-on for not sisters of the High Priest. The soy- calling up to the Torah, in such a ing goes, "The bigger the man re- case one 733 after another, i 9Q"lhi.m as Your father; if he * Yo* s that it might not be said that it was equal, r e g d him as your brother; learned that the first 133 was the lower the man, regard him as unfit, and the second had to Your Even On the fyst day be called in his place. The second of mourning he may offer sacrifice^ as we scrid, he does bo- 1 3 may not be called up, be- long to his family- he belongs to 3 cause this may cause his neighbor cholic hael. It i; ctlso striking to to be put to shame publicly- ever, if the priests were known to be note that one who ]dlled mot&r City cidentally, and escnpes to the until ac-sinners then no honor is to be given of Retuge, heto them as the Rabbis have so well the High dies, the ddput it, that "an illegitimde child who of fie High he llWYleaPe theis a precedes an ignOmnt ~ i t of Refuge (for nobody win thin^: ypriest". However, as has been said of takiag vengq) bemvse atpreviously since there is no fine dis- that time mourns *eM i o n m to the knowledge and me mt bs10n98wisdom of one person a over Israelrmd s to his om fdY.against another, humility demandsthat the be c d e d first, even Phis prohibition pnzvded a & i n
    • Temple times. It also pertained to The purpose of this commandment every place where the High Priest is as we have said before, namely found himself. It is most likely that that the High Priest must always be he had permanent quarters in the in a state o purity. This command- f Temple precincts, see Sam. I, Verse ment pertains only at Temple times. 2, et al. At all times he had to live Even if the High Priest were outside in the Holy City. If for any reasons of Palestine for some special reas- o exigency of the moment, he went son, the same rules prevailed. If he f outside of Palestine, he had to carry trespassed this lcrw, he was to re- out this law concerning the d e a d ceive stripes. If he trespassed it purposely, even for .his father or mother, he received THE 272nd COMMANDMENT stripes. The High Priest M y Many Only a A Virgin 271st COMMANDMENT We read in Leviticus, Chapter 21, The High Priest S h d Not Defile Verses 13 and 14, "He (the High Himself Unto Hhr Father or His Friest) shall take a wife in her vir- Mother ginity. A widow or a divorced wo- The Bible commands that the High man or dishonored or a harlot, these priest is not to defile himself unto shall he not take; he shall take a any of his relatives, and the more virgin of his own people to wife". so not to any other dead that in The purpose of this commandment any way involves, ritual defilement, is that the High Priests mind should as for instance, touching or curry- be as pure as possible for "as a ing a dead body whether it be of man thinks so is he" drawn to action. man or of beast, for it is said in Levi- Therefore the High Priest i to cling s ticus, Chapter 21, Verse 11, "Neither unto a woman who has had no defile himself for his father, or for thoughts concerning another man his mother". Certainly, if not for his Her children must emanate from to- father and mother he is not to be de- tal purity. I her thoughts are given ffiled, surely, he is not to defile him- over to another, then the child whoself with any other dead person. after h s birth will have to take the iHowever, according to the Rabbis High Priests place will not be tflethere is one exception. He must de- result of the purest union. The ques-file himself for the unattended body tion mcry be asked, cannot a virginof "a friendless man", a 8iYD nt) have unchaste thoughts? The an-"Mess Mitzvah". The reason for this swer is that thoughts alone unac-being that since the High Priest be- compmied by deeds do not leavelongs to the people, he is the peoples such a strong impression upon us.friend (where there is no one else to The High-Priest is supposed tobe of service at the moment). marry a inyJ who is a vir- %e previous commandment indi- gin. In the Orient, g r s develop ilcated that the High P i s was not to much more rapidly than they do in retgo into the tent where there wca; a the Occident. Therefore, before thedead body. This communrhnent goes passions are too strongly aroused,futtheraondddaresthathemaynot the High-Priest m s m r y a young ut arddkb lf with a dead body even girl so that thattheir o f f e g shall beif it be in the field, with the excep- the result o the highest physical, fJW in nr)M=1 $etas. - *-t o mbd above numdy t?m mental and moral purity. the friend- T h P ? W a r ~ c r i n , a n s w e l l a s t h e High-Priest is induded in this corn-
    • mandment. The War ChapIain de- present, the former husband, thelivered the proclamation as we read present wife, instead of two dominat-in Deuteronomy, Chapter 20, Verses ing thoughts.2-4. "Thcrt the Priest shall approach The lcrws of this commcmdment re-and speak unto the people: "Ye ap fer not only to a widow after mar-proach this day unto battle against riage but also to a widow after heryour enemies, let not your hearts engagement. The High-Priest whof i t fear not and do not tremble, an, trespassed this commandment a n dneither be ye terrified because of married a widow and lived with herthem, for the L--d your G-d, is He in marriage relationship receivedthat goeth with you, to fight for you two sets of stripes, (1) because theagainst your enemies to save you." High-Priest married a widow andetc. (2) because the Blble says, "He I the High-Priest broke t i com- f hs shall not profane his seed. In othermandment, he violated a positivecommandment and had to be di- words a child born of such a mar-vorced. riage will become a defiled priest, therefore, his seed becomes defiled. 273rd COMMAIUDblENT However, i he merely married a f The Law Concerning a Widow widow but had not lived with her, and the High Priest he did not receive stripes. Only the High-Priest may not mar- 274th CObdMlSNDMENTry a widow. Any other person in- The High Priest Muy Not Have cluding a n ordmary priest, may do Conjugal Reldonabip so. It is written in Leviticus, Chapter With A Widow 21, Verse 14, "A widow or divorced The High Priest may not have ma- woman or a harlot, these shall he i t d relationship with a widow even not take but he shall take a virgin if he has married her,for it is writ- of h s own people to wife". 15, "Nei- ten in Leviticus, Chapter 21 verse 15, i ther shall he profane his seed among "And he shall not profane his seed his people for I the L-d do santctify amcmg his people". If the High- hi". The question may be raised Priest married a widow and livedwhy does the Blbb report the addi- with her he received two sets oftional prohibitions agaimt the mar stripes, one because he v o a e the iltdriage to a profaned woman and har- commandment, "A widow shall helot, since these prohibitions have al- not take", (verse 14) and d,ready been mentioned in regard to beorruse he vi&d the c o m m d -the ordinary priests. The cmswer is ment, "He s h d not psofane histhat if the High Priest married a wo- d A. beccrme defiled oa- widowman who is a widow but had been ly when she had mcnried a H i ea divorcee who had been p f d M & A widow was cmd i p e. s -a n d who had a harlot, he re-ceives the punishment of stripes foreach violation although it may bethe same woman involved. The rearson far the wmmandraentis t a in marrying a widow, she moy htFxssess fafeign hughts. T e Tat- hmudsqysthatwhenarnaumarriesawidowhonethree
    • or mental or spiritual or moral im- fers only to the priest. Any priestpurities. This commandment pre- who violated this commandment andvailed only in Temple Times and i f served while he possessed a blemish,violated the High-Priest was pun- if it was one of those which madeished with stripes. both the animal and himself unfit, whether he trespassed wittingly or 275th COMMANDMENT unwittingly, his services become un- A Priest Who Has A Physical fit. I he broke the law with intent, f Blemish Shd Not Serve he received stripes (if he was warned We read in the Book o Leviticus, f in advance concerning this punish-Chapter 21, Verse 17, "Spealr unto ment). If he possessed one of theAcmn saying whosoever he be of 90 additional blemishes which referthy seed.. . .that hafh any bbmish, to man and not to the crnimal, he re-let him not approach to offer the ceived stripes but his services dobread of his G-d.First of all, a m - not become void. I he served while fmon sense should direct this, even he possessed a blemish which madeif one be ignorant of the Divine be- h i unfit only because of appear-hest. Would we bring our gifts to ance, he does not receive stripes.the President, through one who is H s service is allowed to pass, but ideformed? The expression, "the he committed a sin.bread o h s G d refers to the Holy f i 276TE COMMANDMENTfood. A Priest With A Pcrssing (Curable) The purpose of this commmdment Blemish S h d Not Serve in theis that the 7 3 the Priest, should 3 Templebe pleasing and inspiring to those It is written in the Book o Leviti- fwho see him. cus, Chapter 21, Verse 21, "Any man There are three types of blemishes, of the seed o Aaron, the priest, that f(1) Blemishes which make the 133 hath a blemish shall not come nighor Priest unfit for senrice, and the to offer the offering of the L--d, madeanimal unfit for an offering. (2) by fire; he hath a blemish; he shallThere are blemishes that make the not come nigh to offer the bread, of 1 3 unfit for service, but not his G-d." As a rule where the word 3the a i a unfit for a n offering. (33 nml 53 ?ALL" is used in the Bible,There are blemishes that do not it is to include something more thanmuke a liI3 unfit for service nor is expressed on the surface. In thisthe unimd unfit for an offering but instance it (the 53 ) includes notboth become unfit because of only a permanent blemish but also a "crppcmnce~," nNm passing physical (curable) blemish The blemishes upon the priest must which a priest may possess.be visible in order to m&e him un- The purpose of this commandmentfit for service. Any invisible B i c b e s ~ is a s we expressed it above, namelyor blemish does not make him unfit that when we send gifts before afor the B b e says as we read in Sovereign we would not send them ilverse, "Oaiy the visible blemish," through a physically blemished per-as for instance a man has a broken son.foot or broken hmd or crooked back m 9 1 I mo r d w a r f o r h e t h a t h a t h k e y e ! Thsmeet Wbo a skmlkhoverspreadorascaborscurvyd Should Not Babx hato the Temple90 ta"rth, The priest who possessed a &pi- Thhs c d b l e d was not to enter thevdai Temple where the Menorah, Table
    • and the Golden Altar were placed, selves bring to the altar on their namely between the porch and the own behalf, must not be sacrificed Altar a s we read in Leviticus, C h a p or eaten by them when they are rit- ter 21, Verse 23, "Only he shall not tually unclean, (Rashf). go in unto the veil, nor come nigh t~ntothe Altar, because he hath a nep u m s e of this commandment is as we hcnre previously blemish, that he profane not MY holy to pcry the highest respect places; for I am the L--d who sanct- to the Temple and to cause all those ify them." who serve therein to be in the high- This is to indlcate that the physi- est physical and spiritual state of cally blemished priest is not only purity. when a person is rituallycommanded not to enter the forbid- pure, he is mentally and spirituallyden place but to be distant from it alert. fie reverse true if he or (so that he will not falter and enter she becomes ritually unclean.into the forbidden area). The purpose o this commandment f The laws this commandmentis to indicate the great honor, rev- are that the priest must Ieanse him-erence and respect that was given self his im~uity by meansand attached to the holy Temple. the ritual bath and the setting The law of this ccmmandment is the Sun. Without a ritual bath, onethat those priests who were forbid- can never be in a state of ritualden to offer the service were also purity. The priest who trespassedforbidden to enter into the Temple this commandment was guilty of ex-proper. cision and received stripes. 278th COMMANDMENT 279th C O An Unclean Priest S h d Not Serve A Priest W h o Is Uncleun May Not An unclean priest shall not serve Eclt Holy Food a s we read in Leviticus. Chapter A priest may not eat "terumahV, 22, Verse 2, "Speak unto Aaron and "holy food" which has become ritu- to his sons,that they sewrate them- ally unclean, for it is written in Levi- selves from the holy things of the ticus, Chapter 22, verse 4. "What children of Israel, which they ha]- man soever of the seed o Aaron f low unto Me, and that they pro- who is a leper, or hath a running is- fane not My holy name: I am the sue, he shall not eat of the holy L--d. things." The purpose of this com- In the previous corn~mdments mandment is to raise in the mind of we have been discussing the bodily every human being that which is defects that chqualified the priests holy. One becomes elevated by his from officiating in the ~ ~ C regard for holy things. The laws are U Y and in the Temple. Now we shall as follows,--The priest who is ritu- discuss his physical purity. ally unclean who eats "terumah The Holy food was to be eaten by premeditatedly is guilty of death bythe priests as well as by the other the hand of Heaven, because he vio-members of their families, only, if lated the Biblical injwdion "Andthey were r i d y clean. they shall keep my charge", (verse I the priest trespassed this com- 9). And if he was warned against fmandmmt he was guilty of excision. violating the commandment, he re-The expression, "holy things" is a ceives stripes because he vioIatedcomprehensiw one for all the offer- our comcmdment, "What man so-ings presented on the altar. Even ever of the d of Aaron who isthe offerings whit31 the priests them- a leper . . . . he s h d not wxt of tbe
    • 281st Commandment 159 holy things," (verse 4). However, and the Canmitish slaves which the if he ate holy food that became un- Israelites possessed were permitted clean he does not receive any stripes to eat of the "Terumah," and they beccruse it was not holy. Parenthet- were allowed to give of it to their ically, may I scry that when the Bible cmirnal and beasts, but not to menand the Rabbis speak of sunset as and women outside of the Priest-being the time when the priests may hood. A Priests wife, although sheeat the "terumah" it means when separated herself from him but wasone can see three medium stars in not divorced, was permitted to eatthe sky, (which is about twenty min- of the "Terumah" as we read in ourutes after the setting of the sun). Verse, "A tenant of a priest or aSo too, is it in regard to the termina- hired servant was not to eat of thetion of the Sababth. The Sabbath is holy thing."over, (or it is regarded as night) Any defiled priest or priestess waswhen 3 medium sized stars appear, forbidden to eat the "Terumah."-which is usually about 24 minutesafter sundown. An uncircumcized priest was also The laity shall not give any "teru- forbidden to eat of the "Terumah.m a h to those priests who are knownto be lax in reference to ritual clean- All these laws refer to mule andliness. These laws prevail only in female. One who trespassed thisthe Holy Land, when and if the ma- law premeditatedly, was guilty ofjority of Ismel settles there, and re- excision since it is written in versefers only to the Priestly family, male 9 of our Chapter "And die therefor", meaning death by the hand ofand female. heaven and if he was warned, he received stripes for violating by an 280th COMMANDMENT act, a negative commandment, for A Commoner Mcrg Not Eat it is written in our verse, "No com- of the Holy Food mon man shall eat of the holy thing." - A layman, namely, one who is not 281st COMMANDMENT a priest, may not eat of the holy The Tenant of a Riest Nor His food, for it is written in hviticus, Hired Servant S h d Eat TerumahChapter 22 Verse 10, "There shallno stranger eat of the holy thing." We read in Leviticus, Chapter 22The holy thing refers here to "Teru- verse 10, "A tenant of a priest normah" the 2% of the produce given his hired servant shall not eat ofto the Priests from the Israelites. The the holy food." They are regardedword irrrlm also includes the "Bi- as non-priests; they are of the laity.kurim," "the first fruits." The Bible Whilst on the other hand the Canan-ascribes to Bekkurim the wosds, itish slaves who were purchased by 7 9 nna~wi Although "Teru- 1 a Priest were regarded as part ofmah" is not regarded as the high- the family and were allowed to eatest stage of sanctity. because it was of the sacrificial food. (See Versecrliow& to be eaten in all o Pales- f 11.)tine (not merely in Jerusalem), nev- A "tenant" refers to one who dweltertheless a zxln-Mest was not per- with the priest or who was his guestm t e to a t thereof. itd and as the Rabbis point out in the The purpoge of this c o b m e r n t Talmud, Yevamos, 7, that this is ais to indicate the lofty position in reference to d l Israelites who werewhich sanctity wrts regarded in is- in the service of a priest as hiredrael. The wives and &e chilr3nm men either fr a short or long period o
    • of time; or the Hebrew slave who the daughters of a priest may eat. refused his freedom in the 7th year We read in Leviticus, Chapter 22, and remained in his service. Verse 12, "If the Priests daughter A "hired servant" was distinct b e married unto a stranger, she may from a non-Jewish slave. The non- not eat of the offerings of the holy Jewish slave was considered as a things." Because on marrying a lay- member of the household. He was man she no longer belonged to the part of his family and therefore was Priestly family. In this verse we have allowed to share in the sacrificial the word irDt7n and the word portion. The Torah does not mention C*ttr7? the first is a reference that the priests wife may eat of the to the fruits from the ground and portion, because husband and wife the second refers to the peace offer- were deemed a s one person. (See ings, part of which were given to also Chapter 21, Verse 2.) the Priest. However, if the daughter of a priest after marrying one of 282nd C- O the laity, a Levite or an Israelite, An UncircumciEed Man (namely one who is a stranger from May Not Eat Tevumcrh the Priesthood) which is a legal A priest who was uncircumcized, marriage, returned to her fatherswhether it was premeditated or be- house after her husbands death she cause o the fact that his brothers is allowed to eat of the f irElVldied because o circumcision or be- but not of the sacrificial offerings fcause of any other reason, since he because the Bible saps, "If theis uncircumcized he is forbidden to daughter of a priest married a lay-eat of the Terumah. man, she may not eat of ,"the of- This law a s pertains to all other ferings",- lo E?r9t?,t The dm&-holy foods, a s for instance, to the ter of a priest not only may not eatsacrificial offerings. This law IS de- of the h d y food i she m d e s a frived from the Bible by comparisons lcryman. So, also if she has any il-of texts, in regard to Terumah. l e d relationship w i h would hc The purpose of this commandmen? cause her to be defiled f o the rmis to show that an uncircumcized priest-hood, she mcry not eat of thepriest is regarded as a Icryman. T ~ PTenunall. If after she had any ine-covenant of circumcision is one of gal relationship or illegal marriagethe fundamental distinctions of the and returns to her futhers h o w ,Jews. The purpose o keeping the then she may never eat o the Teru- f flaity crway from the Terumah, as mah or of the breast o t ff b f dwell as the unclean from holy things because she became a defiled p i s - retis similar, n m e l y to add respect fur ess.holiness. This co-&ant prevails in an I one violated this Conimandment placuxs where ffre giving of thcJ Bili- fpremeditatedly and was warned, he d T d is practiced. If it wasreceived stripes. t m plvameditcd*, r a d &r wanring, then the Pries-tess reeivasd 283rd sbipea A ~ d W o m a m a f t h 6 ~FdyMspIUotSutdthe~fd A defiled woman o the priedy ffamily may nut eat of the holy food, A a s t e m a e a h -namely o T, f e& so a s she may bidden fo eat *&. "Tmi" lo xTs€msnot eat of the thigh and the shoulder thathTibor&eTd#mb i d e d the peace offefhgs,which dh@troe-tfrrt-*m*
    • t t i Priests) xere no: set aside. The to have three accounts, Pas, Mas, word, "tevel", is a combination of accounts and the Lords (or the tithe) two words, 3 and ~1 account jointly. which means, "It is not good",name- I any amount, no matter how f ly it is not good b r society when the small, is mixed with tevel", (a mix- owner fails to set aside his tithes ture of holy and profane food), it for the public weal, for it is Mitten is al forbidden to b e eaten. This is l in Leviticus, Chapter 22, Verse 15, one o the few exceptions in the To- f "And they shall not profane the holy rah where the smallest amount of things of the children o Israel which f foreign matter can make the food they brought unto the L - 4 , "And unfit. The other two are in regardHe ocruses them to b e a ~ iniquity the to forbidden wine, and chometz on of trespass when they eat their Passover. There are three provisionsholy things; for I am the L-d who which make the food mandatory forgmdify them". In "tevel" there is Terumah, (the 2% to the Priest).apparently a mixture of holy with (I) The produce must belong tothe common or profane food. someone, rather than being public I one trespassed this law and ate f propem. "tevel" Itnowindy he is guilty of ex- (2) The produce must come fromcision from heaven, and receives the ground, not like wild mush-stripes if he ate of the tevel after rooms, etc.having been warned. The same is (3) The food must be sown and t u i regard to the Levite who fails re n planted for human beings and notto give IW~ m1-m for animals."the tithe that he is supposed togive from the tithe" that he receives The laws concerning "tevel" referfrom the Israelite. If the Levite eats to all of the people,-Israelites, Le-therefrom purposely he is also guilty vites and Priests, male and female.of excision and receives stripes i f The Levites and the Priests must givehe was warned about same. even from their own produce which The purpose of this commandment they raised. One is forbidden tois as we hcrve said previously, name- ecct "Tevel" of the fruits of Palestine,ly that we must always show our in any place, (even outside of Pal-respect for the holy things. We may estine).not eat food from our harvest u t l ni The lcrws of Terumah (the 2%the holy part is removed. This is given to the Priest) refer only to thea u~onderhl leaon for al o us. We l f five species of grctin, from wine andmay not enjoy our income$ until we from oil when Palestine is the Home-firstsspaffltethefithehKMthepub- l a d o the Jewish people. Grapes fl i c d a n d t h e p c r o r . Itwouldbe and olives, for the purpose of mak-well fordof us t keep two- o ing wine and o l When one f d s i.crte bank ~ c c ~ u n t s , far the tithed one to give tithes of the wine or the oil,inoomd d the other for the re- he receives gtripes. Wtwtever comes from the undem animal i d e a n as for instance, s milk from a pig, excepting ,~O=Y. f f o ~ e does n came from the blood y & of the bee but from t e sap af the h fowtm. hthecuseofmillr,i4mmss froln&ebldoftheanimol, Thenut- foaewemaynotdriefrxdkfn,ma zmn-kder a&naL
    • 162 286th Commandment 28!5th C O M I w W D ~ for instance the bread and the 0;:. A Blemished Animal Is All had to be completely perfect Not to Be Sanctified and clear of any defect for it is Anything that has a blemish is written in Numbem, Chapter 28. not to be brought or set aside as a Verse 311 "They shall be unto You sacrifice for the altar., as we read without blemish, they and their in Leviticus, Chapter 22, Verse 19, drink offerings". In other words, "Whdsoever hath a blemish, that everything connected with the sac- ye not bring; for it shall not must be in perfect order. be acceptable for you". In other The purpose of this Mitzvah h a al- words, not only is it forbidden to of- ready been revealed before. namely fer a blemished animal for sami- to stimulate and awaken the mind fice, but to sanctify it is also forbid- of man toward the worsfip of G-d. den. For to sanctify it is an integral Man is best taught by his own ac- part of the offering. G-d does not tion as our modern educators point look to the quantity or to the cod out that self-ctivi* is the best of fie but to the sp*it in means of learning. Therefore whilst which it is offer&, s m s the Talmud. the individual is bringing his offer- The great Christian preacher, Henry ing perfed in form, a heightend W& Bescher, used to say, " G d feeling buoys him up by virtue both does not like defective devotion, of his offering and all its attendant When a man gets old and becomes ceremonies. As for instance We See religious he is a n1 5y3 t3 thcit a beautiful home stimulates the *la blemished offering.11The Zohm mind of m a . Beauty, mmehess. -, meriting upon the verse, magnificence and P@rf@diontall IT^^^ stcmd before the old have their influences upon the mind, man". says "before YOU get old. whilst ugliness, disfigurement and stand up". Become religious before, want of symmetrv hwe an adverse you get the signs of the hoary head, influence upon the mind. the limping fmt the shorter &a- There are two kinds of blemishes, dow. Or as King Solomon puts it the incurable one, and the passing in the of Ecclesiastes, "Remem- one. In regard to the priest, either her your Credor i your youth1. one makes him unfit to bring an of- n We are not to come to G-d spiritu- fering. I regard to the animal,the n ally crippled. permanent blemish makes it unfit This prevails at fm sacrifice. If it possesses a m- times, at aII pIaces. It refers to males "4 blemish* when i l unbcd gets ~ ~ cmd femdm he who trespasses well, it mcry be brought offer- it even te* guilty of b d m g ing. Fowls hare no laws mncem- a negcrfive commandment. ing blemishes bscause fhe word a W perfect is not used in con- 286th CubMAmMENT nection with fowls. However if a Every Ofking Hotd To Be Perfect limb is missing, a fowl may not be Every offering hcd t be a perfect 4 o a 0ffeMg.m of its Lind; as we read in h- e8 Further details eonceming this lawviticus, Chapter 22, Verses 20 ctnd are explained in the 8th Chpter of21, "Whatsover hath a blemish, that ihe Talmud, ldeq&mss Thls law&ail ye n t bring. . . it o be per- pevded oaly at the time o the ffect". This law mbrs at only to Temple cnd one wh@tre itsacrifice but a s to those things nnd qxhkkd t?m blood or offer&$ lowhich acmmpany ths d f i c e , us of the mmb o the cmhnai w W t i f
    • wcrs blemished, upon the altar tres- In other words, to exchanae them passed two commandments, (1) the cannot make the new animal, the positive commandment, the one we first-born o the tenth. However, the f are dealing with, namely that an exchanged first-born or the tithed animal must be perfect w h e n may b e blemished. brought for an offering and second, These laws are to be found in the i one trespasses a negative com- Mishnah Temura and in the Talmud f mandment involving an action, he Zevachim. This law pertains to all receives stripes. places and ti?les and refers to fe- males as well a s males. However, 287th COMMANDMENT the punishment o stripes is not to f Not to Cause a Blemish to Be Made be inflicted except when the Holy In Holy Things Temple is in existence for it ig- only We may not make any kind of then that there are offerings for the blemish or fracture whatsoever in altar. an animal that is set aside a s a n 288th COMMANDMENT offering for the altar, for it is written in Leviticus, Chapter 22, Verse 21, Not To Sprinkle the Blood of "And whosoever bringeth a sacrifice A Blemished Animal of peace-offerings unto the L--d in We are not to sprinkle the blood fulfilment o a vow clearly uttered, o a blemished animal upon the al- f f or for c freewill offering, o the herd tar for it is said in Leviticus, C h a p f or of the flock; it shall be perfed to ter 22, Verse 22, "Blind or broken be accepted; there shall be no biem- or maimed or having a wen orish therein." The Rabbis translate scabed or scurvy, ye shall not offerthe words 8-89 HS a s these unto the L A . " And we have . 88 5CS "Loh yhahye," it by tradition that this is a negativewhich means "one should not commandment calling upon us tocause." a (holy thing) to b e blem- refrain us from sprinkling the bloodished. (Sifra) In other words, not o a blemished animal. For under fonly is the animal not to have any the commandment, "Ye shall notblemish but one may not make or offer these unto the L--d", the actcause one. The reason for this is of the sprinkling o the blod, is in- fthat we should not show disrespect cluded.for the things sanctified to the L--d. Of course this law does not pre-There should be a certain feeling of vail today because we do not haveawe and honor paid to the holy the TempleTemple, to its ministers and its of-ferings. 289th COMMANDMENT The laws of the commandment Not To Slaughterare that one who trespassed it vio- A Blemished Animallates a positive commcrndment andis to w e i v e stripes, and if he ex- We are not to slaughter a blem-changed it for a perfect one he is ished animal as a sacrifice for it isforbidden to blemish it. How- written, "Blind or broken or maimed,ever, in the case of the first-born etc". Under the heading of thecmd the t n h of ones £lock,(bemuse commandment, "Ye shall not offer etthe first and the tenth by being these", the act of slaughtering is in-the first-born, or the tenth, makes cluded. Here too this lcrw does notit holy in ibseIf) no exchunge can prevail because the Temple is nottake the place of the first or the tenth. in existence.
    • 2901hCO-NEM the animal belonging to him, (the Not To Smoke the, Eaabdb Jew), he may take it but he must o a Blemished llnimd f seU it, but not to his minor child, We are n ~ to smoke the entrails t because what belongs to his minorof a blemished animal as a sacrifice child belongs to hi. It is not onlyas we read in Leviticus, Chapter 22, forbidden to operate but even toVerse 22, "Nor make a n offering give man or animal medicine forupon the altar unto the L-4." Un- that purpose. However, a womander the heading "nor make a n of- may take medicine for that purposefering by fire," this commandment because the commandment is notn3t to smoke the entrails, is included. incumbent upon her but upon theOf course t i lcrw does not pre- hs man or the husband "to be h i t -vail today because of the destruc- ful and multiply."tion of the Temple. This law prevails ai all times and -- . a al places. t l One who tresFXlsses this com- We May Not fincFsculcrte mandment violates a negative com- None of G-ds creatures mcq be mandment and because of the actemasculated, neither man,nor beask involved, receives stripes. To re-nor fowl, for it is said in Leviticus, capitulate, castration of man or ani- -Chapter 22, Verse 24, "That which mal, is punished by stripes. It ishath its stones bruised, . . . . ye shall forbidden with a wmcnr but notnot offer unto the L--d; neither shall punishable by stripes. Indirect cas-ye do thus in your land." This is a tration of a woman ots for instanceforbidden practise in Israel. by taking medicine is permissable. This commandment is a prohibi- 252;adtion against the pagan practise of NotToOffer~ASacdicecastration or of emasculation. The intention of thii command- A a ~ o f t h s ~ a s ment is to indicate that the Holy Whic)r b B W e d One, blessed be He, creuted Hs i We are not to bring a blemished world with purpose and perfection, animal from the Gentiles for it isnot making man with. a defect. written in Leviticus, Chctpter 22,Therefore man may not disturb the Verse 25, "Neither from the hundintent and the scheme of G-ds cre- of a foreigner shall ye offer any ofation. Furthermore, G-d blessed this . . . because there is a blemishmankind that if should be fruitful in them; they shori not be acceptedand multiply. A violation of tbis for you". The Cenfiies are permittedcommandment will prevent human to bring a sacrifice. The Rabbisgrowth in tbe world and will bring p i n t out fkd in view o the f cf aton world desolation. Ti is also an that the Gentile Is not commandedindication that man is dissatisfied to bring any &a, we mi@with W s creation. thintthatanghindwdbeper- The Icfws o the mmmandm~nt misscrbXe, Zhet-efonet -cna verse ds fare as fofk,ws: Thaf one anay not cl-thcrta mustLlf)ustdl a Gentile to castrate an animalWo-g to him tthe 1st~).Haw-ever, if a Gentile did so o his own faccord,bmapMeitfromhis)sandand ecrt it, ff a 3- W d in-~ y t o t h e G e a t S a e ~ ~
    • offerings which were brought unto means something "that is near",the L - 4 . . . " The repetition of something that is part of us whichthe word . V N "whosoever," in- is the true indication of a sacrifice.cludes any person, be he Jew or We do not know whether a n ani-non-Jew. mal is well-born unless it reaches its The purpose of this commandment eighth day. As a matter of fad a nis to show that the glory and the animal less than eight days old isrespect for G d and the Temple not desirable for food nor is it tradedmust be maintained. We are not or given for a present. Certainlyto bring any defective gifts. it should not be brought for an of- The laws of this commandment fering to the L--d. An animal bornare similar to those relating to the through a Caesarian operation isofferings of the Jewish people, name- not fit for a n offering. An animally that anyone of the 173 blemishes born after the mother was slaugh-disqualifies a n animal for offering. tered (found in the mothers body)In other words what the perfect gift may not be offered, as the Bible saysrepresents must be maintained, it shall be seven days under thewhether it be offered by Jew or non- dam (the mother) but from the 8thJew. day it may be accepted for offering. These laws prevailed for the It is not perfect according to thePriests at the time when Israel lived scheme of creation, and thereforein the Holy Land and in Temple is regarded as blemished or unfittimes. All the Priests who trespassed for sacrifice.this commandment and brought a I one sacrificed a n animal before fdefective offering even though it it was eight days old, h e trespassedbelonged to a non-Jew, received a positive commandment.stripes. 294th coI4MANDm 2Mrd C O B d M l W D ~ The Law o the Animal fAn Animal Offering is Acceptuble And Its YoungOnlyAftarthe8thDotpofItsBitth We a r e not permitted to kill a n Every sucrificial offering had to be animal and its young on one day,a least 8 days old as we read in Le- t as we read in Leviticus, Chapter 22,viticus, Chapter 22, Verse 27, "When Verse 28, "And whether it be cowa bullock or sheep, or a goat is or ewe, ye shall not slaughter itbrought forth . . . from the 8th day and its young both in one day," forand henceforth it may be accepted the pain of animals under such cir-for ctn offering." cumstances appears to be very First a all, let me note the fact f great, There is no difference in thisthat the t h e e animals (bullock, case between the pain of man andsheep or goat) are the only ones the pain of other living beings, sincecwaptcrble for aocrifice o the 10 f the love and tenderness of the mo-animcds o which we are permitted f ther for her young ones, is not w*to eat. See Book of buteronomy, d u d by reamning, but by feeling.Chapter 14, V m e s 4 and 5. These This W exists not only in man tyare domesticated. They are within but in most living beings.reaofr and dQ not d t a t e hunt- Although clfter the flood, we wereirya. In bri8$ing a dom6?sticated permitted to d u q h t e r anim& formkud+ one f d t W he was giving fod, yet we are cammoI1.aled to c19se m i d cruelty, in every way possible, word ThiP, oommandm& &msses the quality of 113ercy cmd prevents hand-
    • heartedness, which is a n evil char- remember that the glory of G-d is, acteristic, in man. as it were, entrusted to his care; In Temple times when sacrifices and that every Israelite holds the were brought, the seller o animals f honor of his Faith and of his entire would have to indicate that he was People in his hands. A single Jews selling the mother and her off-spring. offence can bring shame on the However, the buyer does not have whole House of Israel." To which to ask this question. I add, -The name of the Jew tar- If one sacrificed a mother and two nished anywhere reflects upon the of her off-spring together, he was Jew everywhere. This has been the to receive two- sets o stripes. f fate of Israel in all the ages; and This law prevails in all places, nothing, it seems, will ever break the at al times, refers to males and fe- l world of its habit o! putting down males and he who sacrifices a mo- the crimes, vices, or failings o a f ther and her off-spring or the off- Jew, no matter how estranged from spring and its mother in one dcry his peoples Faith he may be, and is to receive stripes. We speak of of fathering them upon the entire the mother and not the father, be- Jewish race. The Rabbis, in a strik- cause the animal off-spring gener- ing apologue, picture a boat at sea, ally clings to the mother and not full of men. One o them begins to f to the father. However, if we are bore a hole in the bottom of the sure of the father, then of course boat and, on being remonstrated we may not slaughter the father with, insists that he is only boring and his off-spring on the same day. under his own seat. Yes, say his comrades, but when the sea rushes 295th COMhUWDMENT in, we shall all be drowned with We Should Flestrab Ourselves you. So it is with Israel. Its weal or its woe is in the hands o every f From Profcming W s Name one of its children. Every individ- We are bidden in Leviticus, Chap- ual must be on his guard against ter 22, Verse 32, "And ye shall not "Chilul Hashem" of profaning G d s ~ r o f a n emy Holy Name." This is name. " ~ h i l u l H&hem." T h i s negative Maimonides divides his com- commandment is followed by a pos- itive one, to hallow the name of mandment into three parts. The G d by ones life and if need be by first twohominem". general, therefers parts are tid hr is "ad The first his death. This is "Kiddush Ha- to the person who is prevailed upon shem." This verse is termed "Is- raels Bible in little" (Jellinek). In in times of trouble or persecution Dr. Hertzs "Bible Comments" upon onetransgress a commandment or to who in normal times, is our commandment, "Ye shall not to transgress the fobwing asked three profane My Holy Name", we read commandments, "not to worship the following: idols, not to commit moral incest, "Be ye exceedingly guarded in not to commit murder". He is your actions, say the Rabbis, so obliged to give up & life if need that ye do nothing that tarnishes the be and not to transgrass. If he does honor of Judaism or of the Jew. Es- not h s sin is very great but he is i pecially do they warn against any not punished with stripes. The pun- misdeed towards a non-Jew as an ishment may be excision, a heaven- unpardonable sin, because it gives ly ptmbbeni, but n4t one inflicted a false impression of the moral bymc~~,becausehisshcamepaf--fs of Judcrism. The Jew s h d d face. We never inflict physical m-
    • ishment unless the person commit- Verse 5, "And ye shall live by them",ted the wrong purposefully, willing- meaning the commandments. I for f ly, in the presence of w i t n e , ~ ,and instance, a person is dangerously was warned not to break the com- sick on the Sabbath we are to trans- mandment lest he be punished. gress the Sabbath in order that he The second aspect of this com- may live. However, even at the cost mandment is that when one breaks of ones life, we are not to murder, the law and derives no pleasure commit incest, or become idolatrous. or use therefrom, he does it simply Today, thank G-d, the Jew is not "to taunt" the G-d. called upon to die for the sanctifi- cation of the Divine Name but he A- beautiful story is told about is at least to live for it.,Rabbi Israel Salanter who on Tisha In the last commandment we dis- BAv said to one who was eating, cussed Chillel Hashem, namely that "A Guten appetit". They asked the one is "not to profane G-ds name".Rabbi, "Why did you tell the man This is only a negative command-to enjoy his food while he was trans- ment. "Far more is required of thegressing the commandment?" The Israelite. He is bidden so to live a sRabbi answered, "If he broke the to shed lustre on the Divine Name,commandment for his own pleas- by his deeds and influence. Rabbiure, it was only a nominal sin name- Simon ben Shetach one day com-ly, not to eat on Tisha BAv. It is missioned his servants to buy anot of the same magnitude as the camel for him from an Arab. Whenone who brealrs the commandment they brought the animal to him, theyspitefully, - "to taunt" the Ld" -. gleefully announced that they hadIn this story we must be struck with found a precious stone in its collar.the great love of our rabbis for Is- Did the seller know of this gem?mel, even when it sins. asked the Rabbi? On being answer- The third aspect is where the in- ed in the negative, he called outdividual per se is involved, because angrily, Do you think I would takeof his high standing. Take for in- advantage of the letter o the law fstance, one who is known for his by which the gem together with thecharity and good deeds, but does camel is mine? Return the gem tosomething which appears to be the Arab immediately. When thewrong to the people although it is heathen received it, he exclaimed:legally correct. It may be correct, Blessed be the G-d o Simon ben fbut it is not right. Such a man Shetach! Blessed be the G-d of 1s-would be gdty of transgressing rael! (Hertz.) This is hallowing G-dsour commandment, namely, of p o - name.funing G-ds nurne. This commandment prevails at d l times and all places. The sin for 296th CCOMMANDMENT transgressing this commandment is The Commandment t Scmctify o very great. Neither repentance nor the Name of G d the Day of Atonement, nor suffer- ing can atone for it. Only death it- We are commanded to sanctify self is the atonement as we find itthe name of G-d as it is written in discussed in the last chapter o the fLeviticus, Chapter 22, Verse 32, "But Treatise Yoma.I s h d be hallowed among the chil-dren of Israel." a m colMwwDm The highest form of hallowing G-d The Commandment to Rest on theis through martyrdom. First Day of Passover We read in Leviticus, Chapter 18, We are bidden to rest on the first
    • 168 298th cfxmmn-t day of Passover as it is written, in 2m C- ! hO Leviticus, Chapter 23, Verse 7, "In Not To Do Any Senrile Work the first day we shall have a holy the First Day of a Festival convocation." Whenever the expres- sion ml? HT?C "holy convoca- We , not to do - any work on the first day of the Passover Festi- tion," is found in the Bible, it val which is the 15th day of N~~ means to sanctify G-d. This im- plies first of all that no servile as it is written in Leviti-, aapte 23, Ve, 7, in the dcry ye work be On such a hme a holy convocation; ye shall day, except as it refers to the pre- do no manner of semile work. we paration of food, as we r w d in Lev- hme already been commanded in iticus, Chapter 12, Verse 16, "And Exodus, Chapter 12, verse 16, con- in the first day there shall be unto cerning the holidcry. YOU a Holy Convocation and i the n 7th day a Holy Convocation (Festi- manner of work shall be done and vai). No manner o work shall be f in the first day there be unto done in them, save t a which every ht you a holy convocation; in the sev- enth day there shall be a holy con- man must that may be vocation. No m-er of work shall done by you." One exception, how- there be done save which ev- ever, the Bible makes in regard to the Festivals, namely that pre-g evdone by you." However, inmCfY be mm must that our food for mm beast is wmmandment we do not say This stresses the main difference be- nx?n 33 tween the Sabbath and Festival. "no manner o work shall be done" f We ore not however, to cook on one day of the Holiday but nn2y nm:a 53 for the next. "no manner o f SERVILE work" If a man does no servile work on which means that m ga dm k - the Festivals but does not rest, he ing are permitted, and are not re- tmnsgresses o u r commandment gmded as servile work. In regwdwhich is a positive one, calling for to tt S a b b d t h d the h? ofa holy festival and a that it im- ll Atonement we read in V e m 3,plies. "Ye s h d do NO manner of work The p u p s e of this co-amiment 0