Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013
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Input presentation at the OpenGLAM workshop at OpenKnowledge Conference in Geneva, 16 September 2013

Input presentation at the OpenGLAM workshop at OpenKnowledge Conference in Geneva, 16 September 2013

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Inputs OpenGLAM workshop at OKCon 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Are GLAMs Ready for Open Data and Crowdsourcing? Results of a pilot survey and their implications for the promotion of OpenGLAM in Switzerland Beat Estermann, 16 September 2013 – OKCon, Geneva ▶ Bern University of Applied Sciences, E-Government Institute Musée de l'Ariana (Genève), Wikimedia Commons, Gfuerst, CC-by-sa This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 2. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Pilot study among Swiss GLAMS: summary of results ▶ Implications for the promotion of OpenGLAM in Switzerland – theses ▶ OpenGLAM CH – proposed institutional setup Contents
  • 3. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Pilot Study among Swiss GLAMs Summary of Results
  • 4. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Where do Swiss GLAMs stand with regard to… 4 …Digitization? …Exchange of metadata in multilateral cooperation? …Open Data? …Crowdsourcing? …Linked Open Data? What are the perceived risks and opportunities? (drivers vs. hindering factors) What are the expected benefits? Who are the beneficiaries? Awareness Evaluation AdoptionTrialInterest Innovation Diffusion Model, Everett Rogers, 1962
  • 5. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ GLAMs in Switzerland: • ca. 600-700 independent GLAMs of national or regional significance • ca. 1000 independent GLAMs organized in three umbrella organizations ▶ Our sample: memory institutions of national significance in the German- speaking part of Switzerland • 197 organisations contacted (233 e-mail addresses) • 72 questionnaires completed (34% of the contacted organisations) ▶ Caveats: • The sample is rather small (results are not very precise with regard to the entire Swiss GLAM population, large confidence intervals apply) • Archives are over-represented in the sample (higher response rate); museums and «other institutions» are under-represented; libraries are about average. Pilot Study among Swiss GLAMs
  • 6. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Innovation Diffusion among Swiss GLAMs: The Overall Picture A critical mass has been reached. How about the laggards? Will we see a higher rate of adoption for Open Data than for Crowdsourcing? Some institutions are starting to think about Linked Data…
  • 7. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Between 1% and 7% of responding GLAMs make scans/photographs of their heritage objects «freely» available on the Internet. ▶ Over half of them make them available on the Internet, but with restrictions. 40% don’t make them available at all. ▶ Over 50% of the GLAMs which make their heritage objects available on the Internet do not understand that you cannot make works available for Wikipedia and simultaneously prevent their modification and/or their commercial use! Open Data / Open Content Readiness
  • 8. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Main target groups: • Research and education • Private individuals • Cultural institutions ▶ Main opportunities: • Better visibility and accessibility of holdings • Better visibility of the institutions • Better networking among GLAMs. ▶ Main risks: • Extra time effort and expenses (however: loss of revenue is hardly seen as a risk) • Loss of control: copyright, data protection, secrecy infringements Open Data: Target Groups, Opportunities vs. Risks
  • 9. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ For over 80% of responding GLAMs the opportunities outweigh the risks of Open Data. ▶ Over 50% think Open Data is an important issue; almost all of these believe that the opportunities outweigh the risks. Desirability and Importance of Open Data 0% 1% 6% 6% 7% 36% 25% 11% 6% 3% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% -10 to - 8 -8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10 Desirability of Open Data (in % of institutions, N=71) 1% 8% 7% 3% 21% 31% 8% 14% 6% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% very important important neither, nor unimportant no answer Importance / Desirability of Open Data (in % of institutions; N=71) risks prevail opportunities prevail
  • 10. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Most GLAMs wouldn’t readily agree to «freely» license their content – even in the absence of third party rights: they would like to prevent the commercial use at no charge as well as the modification of works. Education, Research, and a non-profit purpose are good arguments in favour of free licensing. Open Data / “Free” Licensing of Content 59% 76% 60% 29% 7% 69% 40% 21% 19% 23% 26% 9% 20% 34% 1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% For private use For education and research For charitable projects For charitable projects, such as Wikipedia, which also permit commercial use For users who are intending to commercially exploit them Only if the name of the institution remains attached to the data Only if the work will be re-used in unmodified form Conditions under which they would make memory objects freely accessible on the Internet (in % der Institutionen; N=70) "is partly the case" "is the case"
  • 11. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ 11% of responding GLAMs have staff members who contribute to Wikipedia as part of their professional activity. ▶ 10% of responding GLAMs say that online volunteering plays partly an important role for them. ▶ Interestingly, no correlation was found between the two variables. Crowdsourcing Readiness
  • 12. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Main areas of application: • Classification tasks / completion of metadata • Ca. 50% of GLAMs perceive a need to improve their metadata. • Main areas for improvement: completeness, availability, digitziation • Transcription and correction tasks ▶ Main drawbacks: • Considerable time / effort needed for preparation and follow-up • No guarantee concerning long-term data maintenance • Unforeseeable results • Difficulties in estimating the time-effort • Low level of planning security Crowdsourcing: Opportunities vs. Risks
  • 13. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ For over 90% of the responding GLAMs the risks of Crowdsourcing are at least as great as the opportunities. For half of them the risks clearly prevail. ▶ Among GLAMs which think that Crowdsourcing is an important issue, the risk perception is equally high. ▶ Crowdsourcing is seen as almost as important as Open Data! Desirability and Importance of Crowdsourcing 4% 15% 19% 11% 43% 3% 3% 1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% -10 to - 8 -8 to -6 -6 to -4 -4 to -2 -2 to 0 0 to 2 2 to 4 4 to 6 6 to 8 8 to 10 Desirability of Crowdsourcing (in % of institutions; N=69) 10% 25% 14% 29% 16% 3% 1% 1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% very important important neither, nor unimportant no answer Importance / Desirability of Crowdsourcing (in % of institutions; N=69) risks prevail opportunities prevail
  • 14. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Implications for the Promotion of OpenGLAM in Switzerland Theses
  • 15. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ In the short term and on a large scale, it is worthwhile to pursue approaches that do not require a high level of mutual engagement between GLAMs and the community • simply releasing content is easier than engaging in more complex cooperation!) • some level of standardization (metadata, content quality, APIs) may be needed to keep transaction costs low. ▶ GLAMs are most likely to adopt Open Data / Open Content policies, … • if it’s for education and research • if it’s for a non-profit cause • if it’s useful (well documenting the use is important!) Wikipedia/Wikimedia as well as research and educational institutions are attractive partners. Short-term strategy
  • 16. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Information campaigns at the address of GLAMs should focus on: • information about the “free” licensing requirement for Wikipedia and Open Data • positive accounts of how other institutions handle the relative loss of control • demonstrating how the provenance of the data / content is documented • examples of how a useful content contribution can be made without much extra effort (often, removing the non-commercial claim in copyright licenses or clearly declaring public domain works as such would already be of great help!) Role models and example cases among their peer group could be instrumental to get some of these messages across! Short-term information campaigns
  • 17. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Real cooperation is costly. It is important to demonstrate and document its usefulness and to foster learning processes that benefit the entire GLAM sector. For that we need pilot cooperation projects! ▶ Communication efforts with regard to cooperation between the Free Knowledge / Open Data / Open Content movement and GLAMs should focus on: • Putting collections and cross-organizational themes at the center of attention (and not the institutions) • Telling GLAMs how released contents have been used and what types of content would be particularly useful • Telling stories of mutually beneficial relationships between GLAMs and the communities Cooperation / communication in the longer-term
  • 18. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ We should examine how digitization efforts of GLAMs that haven't been digitizing their heritage objects yet can be supported – in exchange for “free” licensing of content. ▶ We should examine to what extent crowdsourcing approaches can be used to respond to GLAMs' needs and expectations in terms of metadata improvement and correction/transcription tasks. ▶ Metadata is important for GLAMs: The potential of Wikidata with regard to GLAM metadata should be better explored. Digitization and metadata improvement
  • 19. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences OpenGLAM CH Proposed Institutional Setup
  • 20. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Mission: Promote and facilitate the adoption of the OpenGLAM principles in Switzerland ▶ Institutional attachment: working group of the “opendata.ch” association; international linkage with the OpenGLAM initiative of the Open Knowledge Foundation ▶ With the participation of Wikimedia CH and Digitale Allmend / Creative Commons Switzerland ▶ Swiss GLAMs as well as research and educational institutions are invited to join ▶ Proposed timeline: ▶ October/November 2013: official constitution ▶ By the end of 2013: development of an activity plan for 2014 Swiss OpenGLAM Working Group
  • 21. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Network of organizations/institutions that endorse the OpenGLAM principles ▶ Basic level of participation: • express adhesion / support • stay informed • signal readiness for active cooperation with the Free Knowledge / Open Data / Open Content movement ▶ Advanced level of participation: • engage in pilot projects (cooperation projects / Open Data projects) • engage in mutual learning processes (documentation, evaluation, hackathons, conferences) • be recognized as an innovator in the area of OpenGLAM ▶ Types of organizations asked to join the network: • GLAMs, NGOs, research institutions • educational institutions, service providers, funding institutions Swiss OpenGLAM Network
  • 22. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Full study report: • English: http://tinyurl.com/SwissGLAMsurvey • Deutsch: http://tinyurl.com/GLAMStudie ▶ Contact details: • Beat Estermann E-mail: beat.estermann@bfh.ch Phone: +41 31 848 34 38 ▶ Affiliations: • Research Associate, E-Government Institute, Bern University of Applied Sciences Member of opendata.ch (Swiss Chapter of the Open Knowledge Foundation) Member of Digitale Allmend (Swiss Chapter of CreativeCommons) Member of Wikimedia CH Thank you for your attention!