CRITICAL THINKING Bonnie Wetherbee 2010
<ul><li>For every problem under the sun, there is a solution or there is none. If there be one, think til you find it. If ...
A Brain Puzzle <ul><li>You're in a room with two doors. There's a guard at each door. One door is the exit, but behind the...
Ready for the answer? <ul><li>Ask either guard what door the other guard would say is the exit, then choose the opposite d...
WHAT  IS  CRITICAL THINKING? <ul><li>A set of skills? </li></ul><ul><li>A headache? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving? </l...
DEFINE IT IF YOU CAN! <ul><li>“ Critical Thinking  is not a skill set  especially as one of the group  knowledge , skill, ...
WHAT  IS  CRITICAL THINKING? <ul><li>A set of skills? </li></ul><ul><li>A headache? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving? </l...
Educational Mandate <ul><li>Yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay </li></ul><ul><l...
How do we teach it if we can´t agree on a definition? <ul><li>Use your head! </li></ul><ul><li>Think critically and find t...
CAN IT BE TAUGHT? <ul><li>NO . . AND YES! </li></ul><ul><li>To teach thinking skills outside of a context is to teach abou...
A SIMPLE PLAN <ul><li>SET THE CLIMATE for learning as well as for questioning </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li...
SET THE CLIMATE <ul><li>“ It really boils down to whether teachers are creating an environment that stimulates critical in...
QUESTIONING:  THE HEART OF CRITICAL THINKING <ul><li>Within the subject context, teach and practice Bloom´s Levels of Thin...
Lower levels  <ul><li>Remembering:   who  what  where when  why  how  *describe </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding :  *retell...
Higher order questioning <ul><li>Analyzing    Classify...according to... Outline/diagram... Compare/contrast with...?What ...
A Product? <ul><li>Creating </li></ul><ul><li>*  What would you predict/infer from...? </li></ul><ul><li>* What ideas can ...
Are you asking the right question? <ul><li>Every day, a cyclist crosses the border between Spain and France carrying a bag...
Possible answers <ul><li>Bicycles or bags!   </li></ul>
Point of View? <ul><li>There is a man on an island prison, he cannot swim. One day he escapes using nothing but himself. T...
An answer <ul><li>He escapes in the winter when the body of water surrounding the island is frozen. He simply walks away. ...
Do you have underlying assumptions? <ul><li>A boy was rushed to the hospital emergency room. The ER doctor saw the boy and...
An answer <ul><li>The doctor was his mother. </li></ul>
THE SIMPLE PLAN <ul><li>SET THE CLIMATE for learning as well as for questioning </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><...
REFLECT <ul><li>TIME TO  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THINK,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TALK,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANNOTA...
THEN. . . <ul><li>Question again </li></ul><ul><li>Think again </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect again </li></ul>
AND FROM HERE? <ul><li>&quot;...not merely logic, not merely problem-solving, not merely everyday reasoning, decision maki...
QUESTIONS?. . .  <ul><li>. . .   ALWAYS!!! </li></ul>
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Critical thinking

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Critical thinking

  1. 1. CRITICAL THINKING Bonnie Wetherbee 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>For every problem under the sun, there is a solution or there is none. If there be one, think til you find it. If there be none, then never mind it.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Brain Puzzle <ul><li>You're in a room with two doors. There's a guard at each door. One door is the exit, but behind the other door is something that will kill you. You're told that one guard always tells the truth and the other guard always lies. You don't know which guard is which. You are allowed to ask one question to either of the guards to determine which door is the exit. What question should you ask? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ready for the answer? <ul><li>Ask either guard what door the other guard would say is the exit, then choose the opposite door. If you ask the guard who always tells the truth, he knows the other guard would lie, so he'll point you to the door leading to death. If you ask the guard who always lies, he knows the other guard would truthfully show you the exit, so he'll lie and point you to the door leading to death. </li></ul><ul><li>IS THIS CRITICAL THINKING? </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? <ul><li>A set of skills? </li></ul><ul><li>A headache? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving? </li></ul><ul><li>A desirable trait? </li></ul><ul><li>A way to think? </li></ul><ul><li>A way to live? </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinable? </li></ul><ul><li>An educational mandate? </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEFINE IT IF YOU CAN! <ul><li>“ Critical Thinking is not a skill set especially as one of the group knowledge , skill, attitude¨... ” (Bailin,Case, Coombs, and Daniels) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>“ ... Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning” (Glaser 1941, cited in Fisher 2001; 6) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Not a mental process such things as classifying, inferring, observing, evaluating, synthesizing and hypothesizing. (Kirby and Kuykendall (1991) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>“ the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication (Scriven & Paul, 2006), </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING? <ul><li>A set of skills? </li></ul><ul><li>A headache? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving? </li></ul><ul><li>A desirable trait? </li></ul><ul><li>A way to think? </li></ul><ul><li>A way to live? </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinable? </li></ul><ul><li>An educational mandate? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Educational Mandate <ul><li>Yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay </li></ul><ul><li>The United States, The European Commonwealth, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>As educators we are being asked to teach it...Whatever it is! </li></ul>
  9. 9. How do we teach it if we can´t agree on a definition? <ul><li>Use your head! </li></ul><ul><li>Think critically and find truth wherever you can. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CAN IT BE TAUGHT? <ul><li>NO . . AND YES! </li></ul><ul><li>To teach thinking skills outside of a context is to teach about thinking… </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage questioning, model open-mindedness, challenge ideas and exhibit curiosity based on context is to set the stage for good thinking. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A SIMPLE PLAN <ul><li>SET THE CLIMATE for learning as well as for questioning </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECT </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECT..... </li></ul>
  12. 12. SET THE CLIMATE <ul><li>“ It really boils down to whether teachers are creating an environment that stimulates critical inquiry.” McMillen (1986) MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual & emotional safety </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Time for response & reflection </li></ul>
  13. 13. QUESTIONING: THE HEART OF CRITICAL THINKING <ul><li>Within the subject context, teach and practice Bloom´s Levels of Thinking and Questions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lower levels <ul><li>Remembering: who what where when why how *describe </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding : *retell </li></ul><ul><li>Applying : How is...an example of...? How is...related to...? Why is...significant? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Higher order questioning <ul><li>Analyzing Classify...according to... Outline/diagram... Compare/contrast with...?What evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating * What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Product? <ul><li>Creating </li></ul><ul><li>* What would you predict/infer from...? </li></ul><ul><li>* What ideas can you add to...? </li></ul><ul><li>* How would you create/design a new...? </li></ul><ul><li>* What might happen if you combined...? </li></ul><ul><li>* What solutions would you suggest for...? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Are you asking the right question? <ul><li>Every day, a cyclist crosses the border between Spain and France carrying a bag. No matter how much custom officials investigate him, they do not know what he is smuggling. Do you? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Possible answers <ul><li>Bicycles or bags! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Point of View? <ul><li>There is a man on an island prison, he cannot swim. One day he escapes using nothing but himself. There is no bridge. How does he do it? </li></ul>
  20. 20. An answer <ul><li>He escapes in the winter when the body of water surrounding the island is frozen. He simply walks away. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Do you have underlying assumptions? <ul><li>A boy was rushed to the hospital emergency room. The ER doctor saw the boy and said, &quot;I cannot operate on this boy. He is my son.&quot; But the doctor was not the boy's father. How could that be? </li></ul>
  22. 22. An answer <ul><li>The doctor was his mother. </li></ul>
  23. 23. THE SIMPLE PLAN <ul><li>SET THE CLIMATE for learning as well as for questioning </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECT </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>REFLECT..... </li></ul>
  24. 24. REFLECT <ul><li>TIME TO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THINK, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TALK, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANNOTATATE, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRITE </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. THEN. . . <ul><li>Question again </li></ul><ul><li>Think again </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect again </li></ul>
  26. 26. AND FROM HERE? <ul><li>&quot;...not merely logic, not merely problem-solving, not merely everyday reasoning, decision makirig, probabilistic reasoning, it must also include to feel deep, to empathize and to care&quot; (McCarthy, 1996; 231). </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEBATE CONTINUES! </li></ul>
  27. 27. QUESTIONS?. . . <ul><li>. . . ALWAYS!!! </li></ul>

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