Chapter 4 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to recognize safety and aircraft hazards and explain appropriate actions to take to avoid those hazards.
Objectives 1. Discuss personal protective equipment. 2. Recognize the importance of firefighter safety. 3. Explain hazards associated with aircraft rescue and fire fighting. (Continued)
Objectives 4. Describe hazards associated with aircraft cargo. 5. Discuss military aircraft hazards. 6. Discuss the occurrence of terrorist incidents at airports.
Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment Protective clothing Provides various types of protection Must fit properly Protective equipment Serves various functions Must be used properly
Personal Protective Clothing Wear full protective clothing ensemble and SCBA during operations Proximity suits — may be worn depending upon fire conditions
Station/Work Uniform Should be made of flame-resistant materials Identify ARFF Requirements stated in NFPA® 1975 (Continued)
Station/Work Uniform Intended for use under full protective clothing Not intended to be used by themselves as protective clothing
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing May respond in structural clothing Consists of various components Protects from all but extreme conditions (Continued)
Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing Limited in some applications Proximity suits — recommended for aircraft fire fighting by NFPA®1500 Has both positive characteristics and limited abilities Requirements stated in NFPA® 1971
Chemical Protective Clothing Aircraft accidents may contain hazardous materials Not all ARFF firefighters specialize in haz-mat operations Requirements stated in NFPA® 472
Proximity Fire Fighting Protective Clothing Referred to as proximity gear and proximity suits Aluminized outer shell One piece or multiple pieces (Continued)
Proximity Fire Fighting Protective Clothing Has unique characteristics Don’t confuse with fire entry suits Must wear SCBA with both proximity clothing and fire entry suits Requirements stated in NFPA® 1971
Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Respiratory protection standards require protection Respiratory protection program and fire departments Adopt Maintain (Continued)
Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Wear SCBA at ALL aircraft fires Follow manufacturer’s requirements Users must meet requirements for respiratory protection
Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS) Must wear a PASS device in hazardous atmospheres Standards are found in NFPA®1982 Alarm sounds when wearer is incapacitated (Continued)
Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS) May have other characteristics Increases chances of being found Can have problems Dead batteries Not being activated Courtesy of Doddy Photography.
Hearing Protection Required because of noise levels Standards — NFPA®1500 Should be available to firefighters Establish hearing awareness program
Eye Protection Many sources of eye injury for ARFF personnel Wear safety glasses combined with other means of eye protection (Continued)
Eye Protection Base on specific hazard Should meet eye protection requirements
Firefighter Safety Accidents — number ONE cause of injuries Practice safety at all times
Fire Station Safety Practice good housekeeping Keep floors and walking surfaces clean, dry, and clear of clutter Ensure exit areas are lighted and free of obstructions Store all hazardous materials properly (Continued)
Fire Station Safety Keep MSDSs for hazardous materials Use proper lifting and carrying techniques (Continued)
Fire Station Safety Follow and post tool and equipment safety rules Place portable heaters out of travel routes/away from combustibles Use only portable heaters that deactivate if knocked over
Emergency Response Be properly dressed and buckled prior to departing Do NOT attempt to don protective clothing enroute Secure loose items in cab (Continued)
Emergency Response Driver/operators Select and use safest routes Balance vehicle speed and caution
Scene Management Secure scene perimeter and limit entry Establish operating zones Hot zone Warm zone Cold zone Smaller incidents — cordoned area (Continued)
Personnel Accountability System of accountability must track all personnel Two-in/two-out policy All interior fire fighting operations Required by both OSHA and NFPA® Become familiar with aircraft
Personnel Decontamination Accident sites contain hazards Hazardous materials Biohazards Always need decontamination Courtesy of Brian Canady, DFWIA Department of Public Safety.
Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Aircraft incidents can be more stressful Hazardous conditions Large number of injuries/fatalities AHJ teams assist in debriefing Know when to ask for help
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) Peer-group or professional interaction immediately after incident Should begin as soon as fires extinguished at major fatality incidents Participation should NOT be optional (Continued)
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) Process should sometimes start before firefighters enter scene Defusing — done at end of shifts of major operations Participate in a full debriefing within 72 hours
Aircraft Fire Fighting Hazards Accidents should be treated as potential hazardous materials incidents Military incidents involve hazardous materials Enormous quantities of fuel (Continued)
Aircraft Fire Fighting Hazards Use proper PPE and decontaminate Other hazards in accidents Agricultural spraying Maintenance facilities Hazardous cargo
Hazardous Conditions at the Emergency Scene Wreckage of the aircraft Confined space hazards Heat stress Fuel hazards
Hazardous Aircraft Components and Materials Jet fuel Landing gear Energized electrical lines Hydraulic and pneumatic lines Oxygen systems (Continued)
Hazardous Aircraft Components and Materials Composite fibers Biohazards Pitot tubes Air bags
Engine Hazards Reciprocating engine hazards — can restart if propeller is moved (Continued)
Engine Hazards WARNING! Even if a propeller has stopped, do not move it under any conditions. Piston engines that have recently stopped can sometimes cycle, violently rotate, or restart if the propeller is moved. (Continued)
Helicopter Hazards Approach with caution Rotors present greatest hazard Pilot must signal safe for approach Never approach from rear (Continued)
Helicopter Hazards Approach and leave helicopter In a crouched position In view of pilot Carry all equipment and tools Horizontally Below the waist (Continued)
Helicopter Hazards Secure loose articles Locate suitable landing area (Continued)
Helicopter Hazards WARNING! Firefighters should wear eye protection, hearing protection, coat or jacket, bright colored or reflective clothes, and helmets ANY TIME they are around helicopters with running engines, regardless of circumstances.
Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS) Used in general aviation aircraft, ultra-lights, and experimental aircraft Designed to rapidly deploy a parachute that stabilizes aircraft Save lives but also present hazard to ARFF personnel (Continued)
Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS) Composed of several components Deflated parachutes can re-inflate in winds (Continued)
Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS) WARNING! Ballistic recovery parachutes can be fired vertically or horizontally and are not always readily visible on the aircraft or location from where they are fired. Do not use ordinary bolt cutters or side cutters to cut the activation housing.
Air Cargo Transport Transport of cargo Large companies Commercial flights Cargo Often harmless Also frequently classified as hazardous or dangerous (Continued)
Air Cargo Transport Any aircraft crash could be considered to involve dangerous goods Use proper procedures to protect from effects of dangerous goods
Air Cargo Transport — Laws and Regulations Highly regulated Air carriers inspect packages and documents “Undeclared” shipments of hazardous materials occur Courtesy of John Demyan, LVI Airport. (Continued)
Air Cargo Transport — Laws and Regulations Hazardous materials may be involved in any crash CFR Title 14 Part 139 requires training
Classification of Dangerous Goods Class 1 — Explosives Class 2 — Gases Class 3 — Flammable liquids Class 4 — Flammable solids Class 5 — Oxidizing substances (Continued)
Classification of Dangerous Goods Class 6 — Poisonous (toxic) and infectious substances Class 7 — Radioactive materials Class 8 — Corrosives Class 9 — Miscellaneous dangerous goods Courtesy of Doddy Photography.
Shipment of Dangerous Goods Usually placed in containers called unit load devices Devices are then loaded onto aircraft Certain dangerous goods must be accessible to crew (Continued)
Shipment of Dangerous Goods Undeclared dangerous cargo may be encountered in various forms
Product Identification May be difficult in air transport situations Several means of identifying dangerous goods Documentation varies with carrier (Continued)
Product Identification Shipper responsible for identification Federal law requires “pilot in command” be provided with shipping papers
Verification Multiple sources Errors can be critical Use at least three sources
Information Gathering Product must be researched to determine hazards Helps develop mitigation plan Consult at least three sources
Personal Protective Equipment Be familiar with PPE used AHJ ensures NFPA® 1500 compliance Select PPE based on several factors SOPs Nature of incident Resources available (Continued)
Personal Protective Equipment Personnel should NOT be assigned tasks for which they Do not have adequate training Do not have adequate PPE ARFF role may be limited in situations involving unknown materials
Dangerous Goods Operations First responsibility of units responding to dangerous goods incidents Isolate the scene Deny entry (Continued)
Dangerous Goods Operations Personnel should Secure the area Establish control zones Exclude nonessential personnel (Continued)
Dangerous Goods Operations ARFF personnel trained as technicians or specialists on hazmat operations should NOT be engaged in Rescues Body recoveries
Lavatory Waste Spills Waste tanks have a wide range of capacity Spills may occur in various areas Aircraft ramp Enroute to disposal
Agricultural Application Chemicals range from relatively innocuous fertilizers to highly toxic pesticides Applied with fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft (Continued)
Agricultural Application Usually have support vehicles Must be applied at low altitudes Often fly close to obstructions Crash sites difficult to reach No indication of what is being carried (Continued)
Agricultural Application Perform work upwind Wear proper protection Decontaminate victims, personnel, and equipment Contain runoff (Continued)
Agricultural Application Most likely a problem away from airports First responders likely volunteer structural firefighters Courtesy of Paul Pestel.
Special Hazards Associated With Military Aircraft Chaff Flares Pyrotechnics Courtesy of LCPL Andrew Williams (USMC), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC). (Continued)
Special Hazards Associated With Military Aircraft Jet assisted take-off (JATO) systems Increased fuel capacity Composite wings and body
Emergency Ejection Systems Accidentally activating ejection seats and canopies may be extremely dangerous Personnel must know how to safely secure or avoid NEVER jettison indoors
Ejection Seats Rocket- or gas-powered Fired in different manners Crew members fire seats Opening a hatch could cause seat to fire (Continued)
Ejection Seats Civilian ARFF personnel should not attempt to disarm system Military personnel must be contacted to disarm systems (Continued)
Ejection Seats WARNING! Safetying an ejection system is a hazardous operation. Rescue personnel should not attempt to safety an ejection system if they do not have the proper training and equipment necessary for the specific model of aircraft.
Canopies Canopy — encloses the cockpit Designed to protect the pilot and crew Three main types Clamshell Sliding Hinged (Continued)
Canopies Clamshell and sliding — most common Sliding — easier to operate during rescues Actuated in various ways (Continued)
Canopies Some are disintegrated with explosives built into the shell or along frame Most have an external means of jettisoning Should be jettisoned only if absolutely necessary
Propellant Actuating Devices Canopy removers Initiators Rotary actuators Thrusters Explosive squibs Seat catapults Courtesy of SSgt Bennie J. Davis III (USAF), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC).
Other Emergency Systems Emergency power unit (EPU) Fire protection/detection systems Emergency doors/hatches
Military Weapons and Weapon Systems Carry a broad range of weapons and explosives Unless external may not know if weapons are on board Primary effort in a fire Quick knockdown of fire Cooling of munitions (Continued)
Military Weapons and Weapon Systems In a fire, weapon or explosive may detonate within 45 seconds to 4 or 5 minutes (Continued)
Military Weapons and Weapon Systems WARNING! Do not attempt to fight a fire in which a weapon is involved if it is not possible to extinguish the fire quickly. Because of the likelihood of detonation, all firefighters should withdraw at least 2,000 feet (600 m). If a rescue is in progress, continue to apply water in copious amounts until rescue is complete.
Types of Weapons on Military Aircraft High explosive (HE) Ammunition Rockets and missiles Gravity bombs Nuclear weapons Courtesy of SrA Sean Sides (USAF), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC).
Terrorist Incidents Airports are prime targets for terrorist acts involving CBRNE weapons of mass destruction Need to be trained and prepared to respond
Indications of Terrorist Incident Explosions that disperse liquids, mists, vapors, or gas Explosions that only destroy a package or bomb device Unscheduled and unusual dissemination of aerosol sprays (Continued)
Indications of Terrorist Incident Abandoned spray devices or unexplained odors Mass casualties without obvious cause or trauma (Continued)
Indications of Terrorist Incident Definite pattern of casualties and common symptoms Civilian panic in a high-profile target area
Signs and Symptoms of Agents Nuclear and biological agents — appear hours to days after incident Chemical agents — rapid onset of symptoms in minutes or hours; easily observed indicators
Types of Chemical Agents Blister agents Blood agents Choking agents Nerve agents
ARFF Responsibilities Provide detailed report on conditions Follow procedures outlined in local emergency response plans
Summary To be able to perform their jobs safely, airport firefighters should be trained in the types and uses of personal protective equipment. (Continued)
Summary Firefighters should be thoroughly familiar with firefighter safety while at the fire station, responding to, and at the scene of an emergency. (Continued)
Summary ARFF personnel should be well versed in the general hazards associated with ARFF and the specific hazards aircraft pose to the airport firefighters. (Continued)
Summary ARFF personnel should have working knowledge of military aircraft hazards. Finally, airport firefighters should be able to identify and respond to terrorist incidents.
Review Questions 1. When does wicking occur? 2. Who should be allowed into the hot zone? 3. When should critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) begin? 4. How might the instability of wreckage affect normally ordinary tasks? (Continued)
Review Questions 5. When is it acceptable to approach a helicopter from the rear? 6. What is the purpose of a ballistic recovery system (BRS)? 7. What are unit load devices? (Continued)
Review Questions 8. What is the first responsibility of units responding to dangerous goods incidents? 9. How do flares work on military aircraft as countermeasures to heat seeking missiles? 10. What are explosive squibs?