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Chapter 04

Chapter 04






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    Chapter 04 Chapter 04 Presentation Transcript

    • TEEX
      Chapter 4 — Safety and Aircraft Hazards
    • Chapter 4 Lesson Goal
      After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to recognize safety and aircraft hazards and explain appropriate actions to take to avoid those hazards.
    • Objectives
      1. Discuss personal protective equipment.
      2. Recognize the importance of firefighter safety.
      3. Explain hazards associated with aircraft rescue and fire fighting.
    • Objectives
      4. Describe hazards associated with aircraft cargo.
      5. Discuss military aircraft hazards.
      6. Discuss the occurrence of terrorist incidents at airports.
    • Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment
      Protective clothing
      Provides various types of protection
      Must fit properly
      Protective equipment
      Serves various functions
      Must be used properly
    • Personal Protective Clothing
      Wear full protective clothing ensemble and SCBA during operations
      Proximity suits — may be worn depending upon fire conditions
    • Station/Work Uniform
      Should be made of flame-resistant materials
      Identify ARFF
      Requirements stated in NFPA® 1975
    • Station/Work Uniform
      Intended for use under full protective clothing
      Not intended to be used by themselves as protective clothing
    • Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
      May respond in structural clothing
      Consists of various components
      Protects from all but extreme conditions
    • Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
      Limited in some applications
      Proximity suits — recommended for aircraft fire fighting by NFPA®1500
      Has both positive characteristics and limited abilities
      Requirements stated in NFPA® 1971
    • Chemical Protective Clothing
      Aircraft accidents may contain hazardous materials
      Not all ARFF firefighters specialize in haz-mat operations
      Requirements stated in NFPA® 472
    • Proximity Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
      Referred to as proximity gear and proximity suits
      Aluminized outer shell
      One piece or multiple pieces
    • Proximity Fire Fighting Protective Clothing
      Has unique characteristics
      Don’t confuse with fire entry suits
      Must wear SCBA with both proximity clothing and fire entry suits
      Requirements stated in NFPA® 1971
    • Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
      Respiratory protection standards require protection
      Respiratory protection program and fire departments
    • Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
      Wear SCBA at ALL aircraft fires
      Follow manufacturer’s requirements
      Users must meet requirements for respiratory protection
    • Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS)
      Must wear a PASS device in hazardous atmospheres
      Standards are found in NFPA®1982
      Alarm sounds when wearer is incapacitated
    • Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS)
      May have other characteristics
      Increases chances of being found
      Can have problems
      Dead batteries
      Not being activated
      Courtesy of Doddy Photography.
    • Hearing Protection
      Required because of noise levels
      Standards — NFPA®1500
      Should be available to firefighters
      Establish hearing awareness program
    • Eye Protection
      Many sources of eye injury for ARFF personnel
      Wear safety glasses combined with other means of eye protection
    • Eye Protection
      Base on specific hazard
      Should meet eye protection requirements
    • Firefighter Safety
      Accidents — number ONE cause of injuries
      Practice safety at all times
    • Fire Station Safety
      Practice good housekeeping
      Keep floors and walking surfaces clean, dry, and clear of clutter
      Ensure exit areas are lighted and free of obstructions
      Store all hazardous materials properly
    • Fire Station Safety
      Keep MSDSs for hazardous materials
      Use proper lifting and carrying techniques
    • Fire Station Safety
      Follow and post tool and equipment safety rules
      Place portable heaters out of travel routes/away from combustibles
      Use only portable heaters that deactivate if knocked over
    • Emergency Response
      Be properly dressed and buckled prior to departing
      Do NOT attempt to don protective clothing enroute
      Secure loose items in cab
    • Emergency Response
      Select and use safest routes
      Balance vehicle speed and caution
    • Scene Management
      Secure scene perimeter and limit entry
      Establish operating zones
      Hot zone
      Warm zone
      Cold zone
      Smaller incidents — cordoned area
    • Scene Management
    • Personnel Accountability
      System of accountability must track all personnel
      Two-in/two-out policy
      All interior fire fighting operations
      Required by both OSHA and NFPA®
      Become familiar with aircraft
    • Personnel Decontamination
      Accident sites contain hazards
      Hazardous materials
      Always need decontamination
      Courtesy of Brian Canady, DFWIA Department of Public Safety.
    • Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
      Aircraft incidents can be more stressful
      Hazardous conditions
      Large number of injuries/fatalities
      AHJ teams assist in debriefing
      Know when to ask for help
    • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD)
      Peer-group or professional interaction immediately after incident
      Should begin as soon as fires extinguished at major fatality incidents
      Participation should NOT be optional
    • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD)
      Process should sometimes start before firefighters enter scene
      Defusing — done at end of shifts of major operations
      Participate in a full debriefing within 72 hours
    • Aircraft Fire Fighting Hazards
      Accidents should be treated as potential hazardous materials incidents
      Military incidents involve hazardous materials
      Enormous quantities of fuel
    • Aircraft Fire Fighting Hazards
      Use proper PPE and decontaminate
      Other hazards in accidents
      Agricultural spraying
      Maintenance facilities
      Hazardous cargo
    • Hazardous Conditions at the Emergency Scene
      Wreckage of the aircraft
      Confined space hazards
      Heat stress
      Fuel hazards
    • Hazardous Aircraft Components and Materials
      Jet fuel
      Landing gear
      Energized electrical lines
      Hydraulic and pneumatic lines
      Oxygen systems
    • Hazardous Aircraft Components and Materials
      Composite fibers
      Pitot tubes
      Air bags
    • Engine Hazards
      Reciprocating engine hazards — can restart if propeller is moved
    • Engine Hazards
      WARNING! Even if a propeller has stopped, do not move it under any conditions. Piston engines that have recently stopped can sometimes cycle, violently rotate, or restart if the propeller is moved.
    • Engine Hazards
      Jet engine hazards — pose serious threat to personnel
      View slides
    • Helicopter Hazards
      Approach with caution
      Rotors present greatest hazard
      Pilot must signal safe for approach
      Never approach from rear
    • Helicopter Hazards
      Approach and leave helicopter
      In a crouched position
      In view of pilot
      Carry all equipment and tools
      Below the waist
    • Helicopter Hazards
      Secure loose articles
      Locate suitable landing area
    • Helicopter Hazards
      WARNING! Firefighters should wear eye protection, hearing protection, coat or jacket, bright colored or reflective clothes, and helmets ANY TIME they are around helicopters with running engines, regardless of circumstances.
    • Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS)
      Used in general aviation aircraft, ultra-lights, and experimental aircraft
      Designed to rapidly deploy a parachute that stabilizes aircraft
      Save lives but also present hazard to ARFF personnel
    • Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS)
      Composed of several components
      Deflated parachutes can re-inflate in winds
    • Ballistic Recovery Systems (BRS)
      WARNING! Ballistic recovery parachutes can be fired vertically or horizontally and are not always readily visible on the aircraft or location from where they are fired. Do not use ordinary bolt cutters or side cutters to cut the activation housing.
    • Air Cargo Transport
      Transport of cargo
      Large companies
      Commercial flights
      Often harmless
      Also frequently classified as hazardous or dangerous
    • Air Cargo Transport
      Any aircraft crash could be considered to involve dangerous goods
      Use proper procedures to protect from effects of dangerous goods
    • Air Cargo Transport — Laws and Regulations
      Highly regulated
      Air carriers inspect packages and documents
      “Undeclared” shipments of hazardous materials occur
      Courtesy of John Demyan, LVI Airport.
    • Air Cargo Transport — Laws and Regulations
      Hazardous materials may be involved in any crash
      CFR Title 14 Part 139 requires training
    • Classification of Dangerous Goods
      Class 1 — Explosives
      Class 2 — Gases
      Class 3 — Flammable liquids
      Class 4 — Flammable solids
      Class 5 — Oxidizing substances
    • Classification of Dangerous Goods
      Class 6 — Poisonous (toxic) and infectious substances
      Class 7 — Radioactive materials
      Class 8 — Corrosives
      Class 9 — Miscellaneous dangerous goods
      Courtesy of Doddy Photography.
    • Shipment of Dangerous Goods
      Usually placed in containers called unit load devices
      Devices are then loaded onto aircraft
      Certain dangerous goods must be accessible to crew
    • Shipment of Dangerous Goods
      Undeclared dangerous cargo may be encountered in various forms
    • Product Identification
      May be difficult in air transport situations
      Several means of identifying dangerous goods
      Documentation varies with carrier
    • Product Identification
      Shipper responsible for identification
      Federal law requires “pilot in command” be provided with shipping papers
    • Verification
      Multiple sources
      Errors can be critical
      Use at least three sources
    • Information Gathering
      Product must be researched to determine hazards
      Helps develop mitigation plan
      Consult at least three sources
    • Personal Protective Equipment
      Be familiar with PPE used
      AHJ ensures NFPA® 1500 compliance
      Select PPE based on several factors
      Nature of incident
      Resources available
    • Personal Protective Equipment
      Personnel should NOT be assigned tasks for which they
      Do not have adequate training
      Do not have adequate PPE
      ARFF role may be limited in situations involving unknown materials
    • Dangerous Goods Operations
      First responsibility of units responding to dangerous goods incidents
      Isolate the scene
      Deny entry
    • Dangerous Goods Operations
      Personnel should
      Secure the area
      Establish control zones
      Exclude nonessential personnel
    • Dangerous Goods Operations
      ARFF personnel trained as technicians or specialists on hazmat operations should NOT be engaged in
      Body recoveries
    • Lavatory Waste Spills
      Waste tanks have a wide range of capacity
      Spills may occur in various areas
      Aircraft ramp
      Enroute to disposal
    • Agricultural Application
      Chemicals range from relatively innocuous fertilizers to highly toxic pesticides
      Applied with fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft
    • Agricultural Application
      Usually have support vehicles
      Must be applied at low altitudes
      Often fly close to obstructions
      Crash sites difficult to reach
      No indication of what is being carried
    • Agricultural Application
      Perform work upwind
      Wear proper protection
      Decontaminate victims, personnel, and equipment
      Contain runoff
    • Agricultural Application
      Most likely a problem away from airports
      First responders likely volunteer structural firefighters
      Courtesy of Paul Pestel.
    • Special Hazards Associated With Military Aircraft
      Courtesy of LCPL Andrew Williams (USMC), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC).
    • Special Hazards Associated With Military Aircraft
      Jet assisted take-off (JATO) systems
      Increased fuel capacity
      Composite wings and body
    • Emergency Ejection Systems
      Accidentally activating ejection seats and canopies may be extremely dangerous
      Personnel must know how to safely secure or avoid
      NEVER jettison indoors
    • Ejection Seats
      Rocket- or gas-powered
      Fired in different manners
      Crew members fire seats
      Opening a hatch could cause seat to fire
    • Ejection Seats
      Civilian ARFF personnel should not attempt to disarm system
      Military personnel must be contacted to disarm systems
    • Ejection Seats
      WARNING! Safetying an ejection system is a hazardous operation. Rescue personnel should not attempt to safety an ejection system if they do not have the proper training and equipment necessary for the specific model of aircraft.
    • Canopies
      Canopy — encloses the cockpit
      Designed to protect the pilot and crew
      Three main types
    • Canopies
      Clamshell and sliding — most common
      Sliding — easier to operate during rescues
      Actuated in various ways
    • Canopies
      Some are disintegrated with explosives built into the shell or along frame
      Most have an external means of jettisoning
      Should be jettisoned only if absolutely necessary
    • Propellant Actuating Devices
      Canopy removers
      Rotary actuators
      Explosive squibs
      Seat catapults
      Courtesy of SSgt Bennie J. Davis III (USAF), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC).
    • Other Emergency Systems
      Emergency power unit (EPU)
      Fire protection/detection systems
      Emergency doors/hatches
    • Military Weapons and Weapon Systems
      Carry a broad range of weapons and explosives
      Unless external may not know if weapons are on board
      Primary effort in a fire
      Quick knockdown of fire
      Cooling of munitions
    • Military Weapons and Weapon Systems
      In a fire, weapon or explosive may detonate within 45 seconds to 4 or 5 minutes
    • Military Weapons and Weapon Systems
      WARNING! Do not attempt to fight a fire in which a weapon is involved if it is not possible to extinguish the fire quickly. Because of the likelihood of detonation, all firefighters should withdraw at least 2,000 feet (600 m). If a rescue is in progress, continue to apply water in copious amounts until rescue is complete.
    • Types of Weapons on Military Aircraft
      High explosive (HE)
      Rockets and missiles
      Gravity bombs
      Nuclear weapons
      Courtesy of SrA Sean Sides (USAF), Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC).
    • Terrorist Incidents
      Airports are prime targets for terrorist acts involving CBRNE weapons of mass destruction
      Need to be trained and prepared to respond
    • Indications of Terrorist Incident
      Explosions that disperse liquids, mists, vapors, or gas
      Explosions that only destroy a package or bomb device
      Unscheduled and unusual dissemination of aerosol sprays
    • Indications of Terrorist Incident
      Abandoned spray devices or unexplained odors
      Mass casualties without obvious cause or trauma
    • Indications of Terrorist Incident
      Definite pattern of casualties and common symptoms
      Civilian panic in a high-profile target area
    • Signs and Symptoms of Agents
      Nuclear and biological agents — appear hours to days after incident
      Chemical agents — rapid onset of symptoms in minutes or hours; easily observed indicators
    • Types of Chemical Agents
      Blister agents
      Blood agents
      Choking agents
      Nerve agents
    • ARFF Responsibilities
      Provide detailed report on conditions
      Follow procedures outlined in local emergency response plans
    • Summary
      To be able to perform their jobs safely, airport firefighters should be trained in the types and uses of personal protective equipment.
    • Summary
      Firefighters should be thoroughly familiar with firefighter safety while at the fire station, responding to, and at the scene of an emergency.
    • Summary
      ARFF personnel should be well versed in the general hazards associated with ARFF and the specific hazards aircraft pose to the airport firefighters.
    • Summary
      ARFF personnel should have working knowledge of military aircraft hazards. Finally, airport firefighters should be able to identify and respond to terrorist incidents.
    • Review Questions
      1. When does wicking occur?
      2. Who should be allowed into the hot zone?
      3. When should critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) begin?
      4. How might the instability of wreckage affect normally ordinary tasks?
    • Review Questions
      5. When is it acceptable to approach a helicopter from the rear?
      6. What is the purpose of a ballistic recovery system (BRS)?
      7. What are unit load devices?
    • Review Questions
      8. What is the first responsibility of units responding to dangerous goods incidents?
      9. How do flares work on military aircraft as countermeasures to heat seeking missiles?
      10. What are explosive squibs?